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multiple trace theory

Aurèle Vuillemin, Fabian Horn, Mashal Alawi, Cynthia Henny, Dirk Wagner, Sean A Crowe, Jens Kallmeyer
Extracellular DNA is ubiquitous in soil and sediment and constitutes a dominant fraction of environmental DNA in aquatic systems. In theory, extracellular DNA is composed of genomic elements persisting at different degrees of preservation produced by processes occurring on land, in the water column and sediment. Extracellular DNA can be taken up as a nutrient source, excreted or degraded by microorganisms, or adsorbed onto mineral matrices, thus potentially preserving information from past environments. To test whether extracellular DNA records lacustrine conditions, we sequentially extracted extracellular and intracellular DNA from anoxic sediments of ferruginous Lake Towuti, Indonesia...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hartmut Fitz, Franklin Chang
Nativist theories have argued that language involves syntactic principles which are unlearnable from the input children receive. A paradigm case of these innate principles is the structure dependence of auxiliary inversion in complex polar questions (Chomsky, 1968, 1975, 1980). Computational approaches have focused on the properties of the input in explaining how children acquire these questions. In contrast, we argue that messages are structured in a way that supports structure dependence in syntax. We demonstrate this approach within a connectionist model of sentence production (Chang, 2009) which learned to generate a range of complex polar questions from a structured message without positive exemplars in the input...
September 2017: Cognition
Bridget N Queenan, Tomás J Ryan, Michael S Gazzaniga, Charles R Gallistel
The search for memory is one of the oldest quests in written human history. For at least two millennia, we have tried to understand how we learn and remember. We have gradually converged on the brain and looked inside it to find the basis of knowledge, the trace of memory. The search for memory has been conducted on multiple levels, from the organ to the cell to the synapse, and has been distributed across disciplines with less chronological or intellectual overlap than one might hope. Frequently, the study of the mind and its memories has been severely restricted by technological or philosophical limitations...
May 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Jacobus J Boomsma, Richard Gawne
More than a century ago, William Morton Wheeler proposed that social insect colonies can be regarded as superorganisms when they have morphologically differentiated reproductive and nursing castes that are analogous to the metazoan germ-line and soma. Following the rise of sociobiology in the 1970s, Wheeler's insights were largely neglected, and we were left with multiple new superorganism concepts that are mutually inconsistent and uninformative on how superorganismality originated. These difficulties can be traced to the broadened sociobiological concept of eusociality, which denies that physical queen-worker caste differentiation is a universal hallmark of superorganismal colonies...
May 15, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Francesca Merlin, Livio Riboli-Sasco
The current debate over extending inheritance and its evolutionary impact has focused on adding new categories of non-genetic factors to the classical transmission of DNA, and on trying to redefine inheritance. Transmitted factors have been mainly characterized by their directions of transmission (vertical, horizontal, or both) and the way they store variations. In this paper, we leave aside the issue of defining inheritance. We rather try to build an evolutionary conceptual framework that allows for tracing most, if not all forms of transmission and makes sense of their different tempos and modes...
June 2017: Acta Biotheoretica
Kevin C Rose, Rose A Graves, Winslow D Hansen, Brian J Harvey, Jiangxiao Qiu, Stephen A Wood, Carly Ziter, Monica G Turner
Macrosystems ecology is an effort to understand ecological processes and interactions at the broadest spatial scales and has potential to help solve globally important social and ecological challenges. It is important to understand the intellectual legacies underpinning macrosystems ecology: How the subdiscipline fits within, builds upon, differs from and extends previous theories. We trace the rise of macrosystems ecology with respect to preceding theories and present a new hypothesis that integrates the multiple components of macrosystems theory...
December 28, 2016: Ecology Letters
Roberto Mazzoli, Enrica Pessione
Gut microbiota provides the host with multiple functions (e.g., by contributing to food digestion, vitamin supplementation, and defense against pathogenic strains) and interacts with the host organism through both direct contact (e.g., through surface antigens) and soluble molecules, which are produced by the microbial metabolism. The existence of the so-called gut-brain axis of bi-directional communication between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system (CNS) also supports a communication pathway between the gut microbiota and neural circuits of the host, including the CNS...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Edward Matthews, Caroline E H Dessent
Even in relatively simple molecules, the sites of protonation or deprotonation formed upon electrospray ionization can be controversial. This situation means that it is important to develop new approaches for identifying "protomers" and "deprotomers". In this study, we demonstrate that routine, low-resolution UV laser photodissociation spectroscopy can be applied to identify the gaseous protomers of nicotinamide formed upon electrospray. Nicotinamide is an important biological molecule that possesses multiple protonation sites associated with its pyridine and amide groups...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Xian Teng, Sen Pei, Flaviano Morone, Hernán A Makse
Identifying the most influential spreaders that maximize information flow is a central question in network theory. Recently, a scalable method called "Collective Influence (CI)" has been put forward through collective influence maximization. In contrast to heuristic methods evaluating nodes' significance separately, CI method inspects the collective influence of multiple spreaders. Despite that CI applies to the influence maximization problem in percolation model, it is still important to examine its efficacy in realistic information spreading...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kevin Colizza, Keira E Mahoney, Alexander V Yevdokimov, James L Smith, Jimmie C Oxley
Efforts to analyze trace levels of cyclic peroxides by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry gave evidence that acetonitrile suppressed ion formation. Further investigations extended this discovery to ketones, linear peroxides, esters, and possibly many other types of compounds, including triazole and menadione. Direct ionization suppression caused by acetonitrile was observed for multiple adduct types in both electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. The addition of only 2% acetonitrile significantly decreased the sensitivity of analyte response...
November 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Priscila G Brust-Renck, Valerie F Reyna, Evan A Wilhelms, Christopher R Wolfe, Colin L Widmer, Elizabeth M Cedillos-Whynott, A Kate Morant
We used Sharable Knowledge Objects (SKOs) to create an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) grounded in Fuzzy-Trace Theory to teach women about obesity prevention: GistFit, getting the gist of healthy eating and exercise. The theory predicts that reliance on gist mental representations (as opposed to verbatim) is more effective in reducing health risks and improving decision making. Technical information was translated into decision-relevant gist representations and gist principles (i.e., healthy values). The SKO was hypothesized to facilitate extracting these gist representations and principles by engaging women in dialogue, "understanding" their responses, and replying appropriately to prompt additional engagement...
August 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Biljana Gjoneska, Simona Markovska-Simoska, Hiie Hinrikus, Nada Pop-Jordanova, Jordan Pop-Jordanov
INTRODUCTION: Covering a handful of decades but spanning across two centuries, mobile phones announced the dawn of the technological revolution, standing at the forefront as its' most prominent symbol. Over the course of their sovereign dominance, human generations born with the birth of the mobile phone reached the age of maturity, while scientific community started reaching for experience-based perceptivity. AIM: The following review serves as a short-cut across a half-decade old research gap, and a clear-cut analysis on the cutting-edge knowledge of the EMF induced EEG changes...
2015: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
Beatriz R Mendoza, Silvestre Rodríguez, Rafael Pérez-Jiménez, Alejandro Ayala, Oswaldo González
In general, the use of angle-diversity receivers makes it possible to reduce the impact of ambient light noise, path loss and multipath distortion, in part by exploiting the fact that they often receive the desired signal from different directions. Angle-diversity detection can be performed using a composite receiver with multiple detector elements looking in different directions. These are called non-imaging angle-diversity receivers. In this paper, a comparison of three non-imaging angle-diversity receivers as input sensors of nodes for an indoor infrared (IR) wireless sensor network is presented...
2016: Sensors
Desislava Hristova, Alex Rutherford, Jose Anson, Miguel Luengo-Oroz, Cecilia Mascolo
The digital exhaust left by flows of physical and digital commodities provides a rich measure of the nature, strength and significance of relationships between countries in the global network. With this work, we examine how these traces and the network structure can reveal the socioeconomic profile of different countries. We take into account multiple international networks of physical and digital flows, including the previously unexplored international postal network. By measuring the position of each country in the Trade, Postal, Migration, International Flights, IP and Digital Communications networks, we are able to build proxies for a number of crucial socioeconomic indicators such as GDP per capita and the Human Development Index ranking along with twelve other indicators used as benchmarks of national well-being by the United Nations and other international organisations...
2016: PloS One
A Coulon, D R Larson
Recent live-cell microscopy techniques now allow the visualization in multiple colors of RNAs as they are transcribed on genes of interest. Following the number of nascent RNAs over time at a single locus reveals complex fluctuations originating from the underlying transcriptional kinetics. We present here a technique based on concepts from signal theory-called fluctuation analysis-to analyze and interpret multicolor transcriptional time traces and extract the temporal signatures of the underlying mechanisms...
2016: Methods in Enzymology
Charles R Legéndy
It is generally assumed at the time of this writing that memories are stored in the form of synaptic weights. However, it is now also clear that the synapses are not permanent; in fact, synaptic patterns undergo significant change in a matter of hours. This means that to implement the long survival of distant memories (for several decades in humans), the brain must possess a molecular backup mechanism in some form, complete with provisions for the storage and retrieval of information. It is found below that the memory-supporting molecules need not contain a detailed description of mental entities, as had been envisioned in the 'memory molecule papers' from 50 years ago, they only need to contain unique identifiers of various entities, and that this can be achieved using relatively small molecules, using a random code ('ID molecules')...
August 1, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Yat-Ming So, Yang Li, Ka-Chun Au-Yeung, Guo-Cang Wang, Kang-Long Wong, Herman H Y Sung, Polly L Arnold, Ian D Williams, Zhenyang Lin, Wa-Hung Leung
The reactivity of the cerium(IV) oxo complex [(LOEt)2Ce(IV)(═O)(H2O)]·MeC(O)NH2 (1; LOEt(-) = [CoCp{P(O)(OEt)2}3](-), where Cp = η(5)-C5H5) toward electrophiles and Brønsted acids has been investigated. The treatment of 1 with acetic anhydride afforded the diacetate complex [Ce(IV)(LOEt)2(O2CMe)2] (2). The reaction of 1 with B(C6F5)3 yielded [Ce(IV)(LOEt)2(Me2CONH2)2][B(C6F5)3(OH)]2 (3), in which the [B(C6F5)3(OH)](-) anions are H-bonded to the O-bound acetamide ligands. The treatment of 1 with HCl and HNO3 afforded [Ce(IV)(LOEt)2Cl2] and [Ce(IV)(LOEt)2(NO3)2], respectively...
May 19, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Mark D Fricker, Julian Moger, George R Littlejohn, Michael J Deeks
Cell theory has officially reached 350 years of age as the first use of the word 'cell' in a biological context can be traced to a description of plant material by Robert Hooke in his historic publication 'Micrographia: or some physiological definitions of minute bodies'. The 2015 Royal Microscopical Society Botanical Microscopy meeting was a celebration of the streams of investigation initiated by Hooke to understand at the subcellular scale how plant cell function and form arises. Much of the work presented, and Honorary Fellowships awarded, reflected the advanced application of bioimaging informatics to extract quantitative data from micrographs that reveal dynamic molecular processes driving cell growth and physiology...
August 2016: Journal of Microscopy
Atsuko Kobayashi, Harry N Golash, Joseph L Kirschvink
An outstanding biophysical puzzle is focused on the apparent ability of weak, extremely low-frequency oscillating magnetic fields to enhance cryopreservation of many biological tissues. A recent theory holds that these weak magnetic fields could be inhibiting ice-crystal nucleation on the nanocrystals of biological magnetite (Fe3O4, an inverse cubic spinel) that are present in many plant and animal tissues by causing them to oscillate. In this theory, magnetically-induced mechanical oscillations disrupt the ability of water molecules to nucleate on the surface of the magnetite nanocrystals...
June 2016: Cryobiology
Xu Wang, Xiaonan Wang, Wuzhou Yu, Zaixiu Jiang, Dongxing Mao
When barriers are placed in parallel on opposite sides of a source, their performance deteriorates markedly. However, barriers made from materials of inhomogeneous impedance eliminate this drawback by altering the behavior of sound as it undergoes multiple reflections between the barriers. In this paper, a theoretical approach is carried out to estimate the performance of the proposed barriers. By combining the ray-tracing method and sound diffraction theory, the existence of different ray paths between the proposed barriers is revealed...
March 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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