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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439227/requirement-of-nf-kappa-b-activation-in-different-mice-brain-areas-during-long-term-memory-consolidation-in-two-contextual-one-trial-tasks-with-opposing-valences
#1
Angeles Salles, Maria Del C Krawczyk, Mariano Blake, Arturo Romano, Mariano M Boccia, Ramiro Freudenthal
NF-kappa B is a transcription factor whose activation has been shown to be necessary for long-term memory consolidation in several species. NF-kappa B is activated and translocates to the nucleus of cells in a specific temporal window during consolidation. Our work focuses on a one trial learning tasks associated to the inhibitory avoidance (IA) setting. Mice were trained either receiving or not a footshock when entering a dark compartment (aversive vs. appetitive learning). Regardless of training condition (appetitive or aversive), latencies to step-through during testing were significantly different to those measured during training...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439099/optogenetic-silencing-of-a-corticotropin-releasing-factor-pathway-from-the-central-amygdala-to-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-disrupts-sustained-fear
#2
A Asok, A Draper, A F Hoffman, J Schulkin, C R Lupica, J B Rosen
The lateral central nucleus of the amygdala (CeAL) and the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTDL) coordinate the expression of shorter- and longer-lasting fears, respectively. Less is known about how these structures communicate with each other during fear acquisition. One pathway, from the CeAL to the BNSTDL, is thought to communicate via corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), but studies have yet to examine its function in fear learning and memory. Thus, we developed an adeno-associated viral-based strategy to selectively target CRF neurons with the optogenetic silencer archaerhodopsin tp009 (CRF-ArchT) to examine the role of CeAL CRF neurons and projections to the BNSTDL during the acquisition of contextual fear...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434860/direct-brain-stimulation-modulates-encoding-states-and-memory-performance-in-humans
#3
Youssef Ezzyat, James E Kragel, John F Burke, Deborah F Levy, Anastasia Lyalenko, Paul Wanda, Logan O'Sullivan, Katherine B Hurley, Stanislav Busygin, Isaac Pedisich, Michael R Sperling, Gregory A Worrell, Michal T Kucewicz, Kathryn A Davis, Timothy H Lucas, Cory S Inman, Bradley C Lega, Barbara C Jobst, Sameer A Sheth, Kareem Zaghloul, Michael J Jutras, Joel M Stein, Sandhitsu R Das, Richard Gorniak, Daniel S Rizzuto, Michael J Kahana
People often forget information because they fail to effectively encode it. Here, we test the hypothesis that targeted electrical stimulation can modulate neural encoding states and subsequent memory outcomes. Using recordings from neurosurgical epilepsy patients with intracranially implanted electrodes, we trained multivariate classifiers to discriminate spectral activity during learning that predicted remembering from forgetting, then decoded neural activity in later sessions in which we applied stimulation during learning...
April 13, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431294/exploring-the-experience-of-episodic-past-future-and-counterfactual-thinking-in-younger-and-older-adults-a-study-of-a-colombian-sample
#4
Felipe De Brigard, Diana Carolina Rodriguez, Patricia Montañés
Although extant evidence suggests that many neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying episodic past, future, and counterfactual thinking overlap, recent results have uncovered differences among these three processes. However, the extent to which there may be age-related differences in the phenomenological characteristics associated with episodic past, future and counterfactual thinking remains unclear. This study used adapted versions of the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire and the Autobiographical Interview in younger and older adults to investigate the subjective experience of episodic past, future and counterfactual thinking...
April 17, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430606/ketamine-administered-pregnant-rats-impair-learning-and-memory-in-offspring-via-the-creb-pathway
#5
Xinran Li, Cen Guo, Yanan Li, Lina Li, Yuxin Wang, Yiming Zhang, Yue Li, Yu Chen, Wenhan Liu, Li Gao
Ketamine has been reported to impair the capacity for learning and memory. This study examined whether these capacities were also altered in the offspring and investigated the role of the CREB signaling pathway in pregnant rats, subjected to ketamine-induced anesthesia. On the 14th day of gestation (P14), female rats were anesthetized for 3 h via intravenous ketamine injection (200 mg/Kg). Morris water maze task, contextual and cued fear conditioning, and olfactory tasks were executed between the 25th to 30th day after birth (B25-30) on rat pups, and rats were sacrificed on B30...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421026/keeping-the-spirits-up-the-effect-of-teachers-and-parents-emotional-support-on-children-s-working-memory-performance
#6
Loren Vandenbroucke, Jantine Spilt, Karine Verschueren, Dieter Baeyens
Working memory, used to temporarily store and mentally manipulate information, is important for children's learning. It is therefore valuable to understand which (contextual) factors promote or hinder working memory performance. Recent research shows positive associations between positive parent-child and teacher-student interactions and working memory performance and development. However, no study has yet experimentally investigated how parents and teachers affect working memory performance. Based on attachment theory, the current study investigated the role of parent and teacher emotional support in promoting working memory performance by buffering the negative effect of social stress...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419448/understanding-the-transfer-deficit-contextual-mismatch-proactive-interference-and-working-memory-affect-toddlers-video-based-transfer
#7
Koeun Choi, Heather L Kirkorian, Tiffany A Pempek
Researchers tested the impact of contextual mismatch, proactive interference, and working memory (WM) on toddlers' transfer across contexts. Forty-two toddlers (27-34 months) completed four object-retrieval trials, requiring memory updating on Trials 2-4. Participants watched hiding events on a tablet computer. Search performance was tested using another tablet (match) or a felt board (mismatch). WM was assessed. On earlier search trials, WM predicted transfer in both conditions, and toddlers in the match condition outperformed those in the mismatch condition; however, the benefit of contextual match and WM decreased over trials...
April 17, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417664/low-dose-systemic-scopolamine-disrupts-context-conditioning-in-rats
#8
Laura Luyten, Shauni Nuyts, Tom Beckers
Cholinergic neurotransmission plays a key role in learning and memory. Prior research with rats indicated that a low dose of pre-training scopolamine (0.1 mg/kg), a cholinergic receptor antagonist, did not affect cued fear conditioning, but did block renewal when injected before extinguishing a conditioned tone, opening up opportunities to pharmacologically improve exposure therapy for anxiety patients. Before translating these findings to the clinic, it is important to carefully examine how scopolamine affects contextual fear memories...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416633/intrusions-in-episodic-memory-reconsolidation-or-interference
#9
Angela Klingmüller, Jeremy B Caplan, Tobias Sommer
It would be profoundly important if reconsolidation research in animals and other memory domains generalized to human episodic memory. A 3-d-list-discrimination procedure, based on free recall of objects, with a contextual reminder cue (the testing room), has been thought to demonstrate reconsolidation of human episodic memory (as noted in a previous study). Our goal was to replicate the central result, a high intrusion rate during recall of the target list, and evaluate the reconsolidation account relative to an alternative account, based on state-dependent learning and interference...
May 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411324/determinants-of-social-competence-in-pediatric-brain-tumor-survivors-who-participated-in-an-intervention-study
#10
Maru Barrera, Eshetu G Atenafu, Fiona Schulte, Ute Bartels, Lillian Sung, Laura Janzen, Joanna Chung, Danielle Cataudella, Kelly Hancock, Amani Saleh, Douglas Strother, Dina McConnell, Andrea Downie, Juliette Hukin, Shayna Zelcer
PURPOSE: This prospective study describes disease/treatment, personal characteristics, and social/family contextual variables as risk and resilience factors that predict social competence in pediatric brain tumor survivors (PBTS). METHODS: Ninety-one PBTS (51% male, mean age 11.21 years, off-treatment, attending a regular classroom >50% of the time) participated. PBTS and their primary caregivers (proxy) completed the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) to assess social competence at baseline, 2, and 8 months follow-up...
April 14, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411272/disconnection-of-the-perirhinal-and-postrhinal-cortices-impairs-recognition-of-objects-in-context-but-not-contextual-fear-conditioning
#11
Victoria R Heimer-McGinn, D L Poeta, K Aghi, M Udawatta, R D Burwell
The perirhinal cortex (PER) is known to process object information, whereas the rodent postrhinal cortex (POR), homolog to the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) in primates, is thought to process spatial information. A number of studies, however, provide evidence that both areas are involved in processing contextual information. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the rat POR relies on object information received from the PER to form complex representations of context. Using three fear conditioning paradigms (signaled, unsignaled, and renewal) and two context-guided object recognition tasks (with 3-dimensional and 2-dimensional objects), we examined the effects of crossed excitotoxic lesions to the POR and the contralateral PER...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411153/antagonism-of-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-disrupts-the-context-preexposure-facilitation-effect
#12
P A Robinson-Drummer, N A Heroux, M E Stanton
Cholinergic function plays a role in a variant of context fear conditioning known as the context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE; Robinson-Drummer, Dokovna, Heroux, & Stanton, 2016). In the CPFE, acquisition of a context representation, the context-shock association, and expression of context fear occur across successive phases, usually 24hr apart. Systemic administration of scopolamine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, prior to each phase (context preexposure, immediate-shock training, and testing) disrupts the CPFE in juvenile rats (Robinson-Drummer et al...
April 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400264/the-influence-of-low-level-stimulus-features-on-the-representation-of-contexts-items-and-their-mnemonic-associations
#13
Derek J Huffman, Craig E L Stark
Since the earliest attempts to characterize the "receptive fields" of neurons, a central aim of many neuroscience experiments is to elucidate the information that is represented in various regions of the brain. Recent studies suggest that, in the service of memory, information is represented in the medial temporal lobe in a conjunctive or associative form with the contextual aspects of the experience being the primary factor or highest level of the conjunctive hierarchy. A critical question is whether the information that has been observed in these studies reflects notions such as a cognitive representation of context or whether the information reflects the low-level sensory differences between stimuli...
April 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400163/stress-before-extinction-learning-enhances-and-generalizes-extinction-memory-in-a-predictive-learning-task
#14
Shira Meir Drexler, Tanja C Hamacher-Dang, Oliver T Wolf
In extinction learning, the individual learns that a previously acquired association (e.g. between a threat and its predictor) is no longer valid. This learning is the principle underlying many cognitive-behavioral psychotherapeutic treatments, e.g. 'exposure therapy'. However, extinction is often highly-context dependent, leading to renewal (relapse of extinguished conditioned response following context change). We have previously shown that post-extinction stress leads to a more context-dependent extinction memory in a predictive learning task...
April 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394160/free-recall-test-experience-potentiates-strategy-driven-effects-of-value-on-memory
#15
Michael S Cohen, Jesse Rissman, Mariam Hovhannisyan, Alan D Castel, Barbara J Knowlton
People tend to show better memory for information that is deemed valuable or important. By one mechanism, individuals selectively engage deeper, semantic encoding strategies for high value items (Cohen, Rissman, Suthana, Castel, & Knowlton, 2014). By another mechanism, information paired with value or reward is automatically strengthened in memory via dopaminergic projections from midbrain to hippocampus (Shohamy & Adcock, 2010). We hypothesized that the latter mechanism would primarily enhance recollection-based memory, while the former mechanism would strengthen both recollection and familiarity...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392321/pharmacological-modulation-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-subtype-5-and-7-impairs-extinction-of-social-fear-in-a-time-point-dependent-manner
#16
David A Slattery, Inga D Neumann, Peter J Flor, Iulia Zoicas
Pharmacological modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) and 7 (mGluR7) was shown to attenuate the acquisition and to facilitate the extinction of cued and contextual, non-social, fear. Using the allosteric mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) and the allosteric mGluR7 agonist N,N'-dibenzyhydryl-ethane-1,2-diamine dihydrochloride (AMN082), we aimed to study how pharmacological blockade of mGluR5 and activation of mGluR7 influence acquisition and extinction of social fear in mice...
April 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389208/role-of-the-amygdala-gaba-a-receptors-in-acpa-induced-deficits-during-conditioned-fear-learning
#17
Mohammad Nasehi, Farnaz Roghani, Mohaddeseh Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a key structure for the emotional processing and storage of memories associated with emotional events, especially fear. On the other hand, endocannabinoids and CB1 receptors play a key role in learning and memory partly through long-term synaptic depression of GABAergic synapses in the BLA. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of GABA-A receptor agonist and antagonist in the fear-related memory acquisition deficits induced by ACPA (a selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist)...
April 4, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387588/modulation-of-oscillatory-power-and-connectivity-in-the-human-posterior-cingulate-cortex-supports-the-encoding-and-retrieval-of-episodic-memories
#18
Bradley Lega, James Germi, Michael Rugg
Existing data from noninvasive studies have led researchers to posit that the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) supports mnemonic processes: It exhibits degeneration in memory disorders, and fMRI investigations have demonstrated memory-related activation principally during the retrieval of memory items. Despite these data, the role of the PCC in episodic memory has received only limited treatment using the spatial and temporal precision of intracranial EEG, with previous analyses focused on item retrieval. Using data gathered from 21 human participants who underwent stereo-EEG for seizure localization, we characterized oscillatory patterns in the PCC during the encoding and retrieval of episodic memories...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386011/engrams-and-circuits-crucial-for-systems-consolidation-of-a-memory
#19
Takashi Kitamura, Sachie K Ogawa, Dheeraj S Roy, Teruhiro Okuyama, Mark D Morrissey, Lillian M Smith, Roger L Redondo, Susumu Tonegawa
Episodic memories initially require rapid synaptic plasticity within the hippocampus for their formation and are gradually consolidated in neocortical networks for permanent storage. However, the engrams and circuits that support neocortical memory consolidation have thus far been unknown. We found that neocortical prefrontal memory engram cells, which are critical for remote contextual fear memory, were rapidly generated during initial learning through inputs from both the hippocampal-entorhinal cortex network and the basolateral amygdala...
April 7, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385873/synaptic-targeting-of-double-projecting-ventral-ca1-hippocampal-neurons-to-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-basal-amygdala
#20
Woong Bin Kim, Jun-Hyeong Cho
The acquisition and retrieval of contextual fear memory requires coordinated neural activity in the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and amygdala. The contextual information encoded in the hippocampus is conveyed to the mPFC and amygdala for contextual fear conditioning. Previous studies have suggested that a CA1 neuronal population in the ventral hippocampus (VH) projects to both the mPFC and amygdala and is recruited in context-dependent control of conditioned fear. However, how double-projecting ventral CA1 (vCA1) neurons modulate the activity of the mPFC and amygdala at the synaptic level has not been previously determined...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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