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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346627/severe-and-protracted-sleep-disruptions-in-mouse-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#1
Rishi Sharma, Pradeep Sahota, Mahesh M Thakkar
Increasing evidences suggest that the predator threat model is a valid animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, sleep has never been examined in this model. Since sleep disturbances, including insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness, are severe and protracted symptoms of PTSD, we hypothesized that mice exposed to predator odor trauma (POT) will display contextual fear conditioning along with severe and protracted sleep disruptions.Adult male C57BL/6J mice, instrumented with wire electrodes [to record hippocampal field potentials (LFP) and nuchal muscle (EMG) activity], were exposed to contextual conditioning using soiled cat litter as unconditional stimulus (US)...
January 13, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341327/involvement-of-the-dorsal-hippocampus-in-expression-and-extinction-of-cocaine-induced-conditioned-place-preference
#2
Leah N Hitchcock, K Matthew Lattal
A key aspect of substance abuse is that drug taking often occurs in a specific context. As a consequence, exposure to drug-associated contexts can trigger cravings and relapse, even after long periods of abstinence. Although many studies have demonstrated that the hippocampus is critical for developing and retrieving contextual and spatial memories, comparatively little is known about the role of the hippocampus in acquiring and inhibiting memories involving contexts and drugs of abuse. We examined the effects of hippocampal inactivation on expression of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) after initial acquisition or extinction of CPP in C57BL/6 mice...
January 17, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338491/the-effect-of-ketamine-on-the-consolidation-and-extinction-of-contextual-fear-memory
#3
Nicholas E Clifton, Kerrie L Thomas, Jeremy Hall
Ketamine, principally an antagonist of N-methyl-ᴅ-aspartate receptors, induces schizophrenia-like symptoms in adult humans, warranting its use in the investigation of psychosis-related phenotypes in animal models. Genomic studies further implicate N-methyl-ᴅ-aspartate receptor-mediated processes in schizophrenia pathology, together with more broadly-defined synaptic plasticity and associative learning processes. Strong pathophysiological links have been demonstrated between fear learning and psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335778/hippocampal-area-ca2-properties-and-contribution-to-hippocampal-function
#4
REVIEW
Vincent Robert, Sadiyah Cassim, Vivien Chevaleyre, Rebecca A Piskorowski
This review focuses on area CA2 of the hippocampus, as recent results have revealed the unique properties and surprising role of this region in encoding social, temporal and contextual aspects of memory. Originally identified and described by Lorente de No, in 1934, this region of the hippocampus has unique intra-and extra-hippocampal connectivity, sending and receiving input to septal and hypothalamic regions. Recent in vivo studies have indicated that CA2 pyramidal neurons encode spatial information during immobility and play an important role in the generation of sharp-wave ripples...
January 15, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335678/does-mental-context-drift-or-shift
#5
Sarah DuBrow, Nina Rouhani, Yael Niv, Kenneth A Norman
Theories of episodic memory have generally proposed that individual memory traces are linked together by a representation of context that drifts slowly over time. Recent data challenge the notion that contextual drift is always slow and passive. In particular, changes in one's external environment or internal model induce discontinuities in memory that are reflected in sudden changes in neural activity, suggesting that context can shift abruptly. Furthermore, context change effects are sensitive to top-down goals, suggesting that contextual drift may be an active process...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335006/genetic-dissection-of-the-neuro-glio-vascular-machinery-in-the-adult-brain
#6
Gregory W Kirschen, Rachel Kéry, Hanxiao Liu, Afrinash Ahamad, Liang Chen, Wendy Akmentin, Ramya Kumar, Joel Levine, Qiaojie Xiong, Shaoyu Ge
The adult brain actively controls its metabolic homeostasis via the circulatory system at the blood brain barrier interface. The mechanisms underlying the functional coupling from neuron to vessel remain poorly understood. Here, we established a novel method to genetically isolate the individual components of this coupling machinery using a combination of viral vectors. We first discovered a surprising non-uniformity of the glio-vascular structure in different brain regions. We carried out a viral injection screen and found that intravenous Canine Adenovirus 2 (CAV2) preferentially targeted perivascular astrocytes throughout the adult brain, with sparing of the hippocampal hilus from infection...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321993/sansoninto-a-traditional-herbal-medicine-ameliorates-behavioral-abnormalities-and-down-regulation-of-early-growth-response-1-expression-in-mice-exposed-to-social-isolation-stress
#7
Hironori Fujiwara, Ryohei Tsushima, Ryo Okada, Suresh Awale, Ryota Araki, Takeshi Yabe, Kinzo Matsumoto
Social isolation (SI) mice exhibit behavioral abnormalities such as impairments of sociability- and attention-like behaviors, offering an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to identify the effects of Sansoninto (SST; suān zǎo rén tāng) on the psychiatric symptoms related to ADHD using SI mice. Four-week-old mice were socially isolated during the experimental period, and SST administration (800 or 2400 mg/kg, p.o.) was started at 2 weeks after starting SI...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317519/%C3%AE-arrestin-biased-%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-promotes-extinction-learning-of-cocaine-reward-memory
#8
Bing Huang, Youxing Li, Deqin Cheng, Guanhong He, Xing Liu, Lan Ma
Extinction learning of cocaine-associated contextual cues can help prevent cocaine addicts from relapsing. Pharmacological manipulation of β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) during extinction learning is being developed as a potential strategy to treat drug addiction. We demonstrated that the extinction learning of cocaine-associated memory was mediated by β-arrestin2-biased but not heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-dependent β-adrenergic signaling. We found that administration of the nonbiased β-AR antagonist propranolol, but not the G protein-biased β-AR antagonist carvedilol, blocked extinction learning of cocaine-conditioned place preference and the associated ERK activation in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex...
January 9, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310485/enhanced-innate-fear-and-altered-stress-axis-regulation-in-vglut3-knockout-mice
#9
Diána Balázsfi, Anna Fodor, Bibiána Török, Szilamér Ferenczi, Krisztina J Kovács, József Haller, Dóra Zelena
Glutamatergic neurons, characterized by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGluT1-3) provide the main excitation in the brain. Their disturbances have been linked to various brain disorders, which could be also modeled by the contextual fear test in rodents. We aimed to characterize the participation of VGluT3 in the development of contextual fear through its contribution to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA) regulation using knockout (KO) mice. Contextual fear conditioning was induced by foot shock and mice were examined 1 and 7 d later in the same environment comparing wild type with KO...
January 8, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306773/midlife-stress-alters-memory-and-mood-related-behaviors-in-old-age-role-of-locally-activated-glucocorticoids
#10
Nicola Wheelan, Christopher J Kenyon, Anjanette P Harris, Carolynn Cairns, Emad Al Dujaili, Jonathan R Seckl, Joyce L W Yau
Chronic exposure to stress during midlife associates with subsequent age-related cognitive decline and may increase the vulnerability to develop psychiatric conditions. Increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity has been implicated in pathogenesis though any causative role for glucocorticoids is unestablished. This study investigated the contribution of local glucocorticoid regeneration by the intracellular enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), in persisting midlife stress-induced behavioral effects in mice...
December 23, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304448/reinstatement-of-instrumental-actions-in-humans-possible-mechanisms-and-their-implications-to-prevent-it
#11
A Matías Gámez, Rodolfo Bernal-Gamboa
The study of post-extinction recovery effects in humans has received significant attention. For instance, research on reinstatement has increased in the last decade. However, most of the studies focus on the return of fear responses. In the present experiments, we used a videogame task to explore the reinstatement of operant behavior in human participants. In Experiment 1, after participants learned to shoot at enemies, they received an extinction procedure that eliminated the shooting behavior. However, the mere reintroduction of the outcome reinstated the original response...
January 2, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288824/inhaled-lavandula-angustifolia-essential-oil-inhibits-consolidation-of-contextual-but-not-tone-fear-conditioning-in-rats
#12
Laura Segismundo Coelho, Nelson Francisco Correa-Netto, Marcia Yuriko Masukawa, Ariadiny Caetano Lima, Samia Maluf, Alessandra Linardi, Jair Guilherme Santos-Junior
Although the current treatment for anxiety is effective, it promotes a number of adverse reactions and medical interactions. Inhaled essential oils have a prominent action on the central nervous system, with minimal systemic effects, primarily because of reduced systemic bioavailability. The effects of drugs on the consolidation of fear conditioning reflects its clinical efficacy in preventing a vicious cycle of anticipatory anxiety leading to fearful cognition and anxiety symptoms. In this study, we investigated the effects of inhaled Lavandula angustifolia essential oil on the consolidation of aversive memories and its influence on c-Fos expression...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283042/rethinking-the-role-of-the-angular-gyrus-in-remembering-the-past-and-imagining-the-future-the-contextual-integration-model
#13
Siddharth Ramanan, Olivier Piguet, Muireann Irish
Despite consistent activation on tasks of episodic memory, the precise contribution of the left angular gyrus (AG) to mnemonic functions remains vigorously debated. Mounting evidence suggests that AG activity scales with subjective ratings of vividness and confidence in recollection, with further evidence pointing to its involvement during construction of detailed and coherent future simulations. Lesion studies, however, indicate that damage to the AG does not render patients amnesic on standard source and associative memory paradigms...
October 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279390/locus-coeruleus-input-to-hippocampal-ca3-drives-single-trial-learning-of-a-novel-context
#14
Akiko Wagatsuma, Teruhiro Okuyama, Chen Sun, Lillian M Smith, Kuniya Abe, Susumu Tonegawa
The memory for a new episode is formed immediately upon experience and can last up to a lifetime. It has been shown that the hippocampal network plays a fundamental role in the rapid acquisition of a memory of a one-time experience, in which the novelty component of the experience promotes the prompt formation of the memory. However, it remains unclear which neural circuits convey the novelty signal to the hippocampus for the single-trial learning. Here, we show that during encoding neuromodulatory input from locus coeruleus (LC) to CA3, but not CA1 or to the dentate gyrus, is necessary to facilitate novel contextual learning...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276730/the-ebb-and-flow-of-experience-determines-the-temporal-structure-of-memory
#15
David Clewett, Lila Davachi
Everyday life consists of a continuous stream of information, yet somehow we remember the past as distinct episodic events. Prominent models posit that event segmentation is driven by erroneous predictions about how current experiences are unfolding. Yet this perspective fails to explain how memories become integrated or separated in the absence of prior knowledge. Here, we propose that contextual stability dictates the temporal organization of events in episodic memory. To support this view, we summarize new findings showing that neural measures of event organization index how ongoing changes in external contextual cues and internal representations of time influence different forms of episodic memory...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260597/a-review-of-adolescent-autobiographical-memory-and-the-implications-for-assessment-of-unaccompanied-minors-refugee-determinations
#16
Zoe Given-Wilson, Matthew Hodes, Jane Herlihy
The number of unaccompanied asylum-seeking children (UASC) is increasing, and unlike those who arrive with their parents, UASC are subject to interview to determine refugee status. The limited amount of objective evidence available in most asylum claims means that the UASC's account of their experiences often becomes key in deciding whether or not the young person is granted protection. Research indicates that assumptions about human memory influence decision-makers' views on asylum seekers' accounts; however, these do not necessarily appear to fit with the published research on autobiographical memory and may lead to an unfair decision...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259554/strengthening-of-existing-episodic-memories-through-non-invasive-stimulation-of-prefrontal-cortex-in-older-adults-with-subjective-memory-complaints
#17
Rosa Manenti, Marco Sandrini, Elena Gobbi, Chiara Cobelli, Michela Brambilla, Giuliano Binetti, Maria Cotelli
Episodic memory is critical to daily life functioning. This type of declarative memory declines with age and is the earliest cognitive function to be compromised in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Subjective memory complaints are commonly reported by older adults and have been considered a risk factor for developing AD. The possibilities for prevention of memory disorders in older adults have increased substantially in recent years. Previous studies have shown that anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) applied over the left lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) after a contextual reminder strengthened existing verbal episodic memories, conceivably through reconsolidation, in elderly people...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258546/hippocampal-calpain-is-required-for-the-consolidation-and-reconsolidation-but-not-extinction-of-contextual-fear-memory
#18
Taikai Nagayoshi, Kiichiro Isoda, Nori Mamiya, Satoshi Kida
Memory consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction have been shown to share similar molecular signatures, including new gene expression. Calpain is a Ca2+-dependent protease that exerts its effects through the proteolytic cleavage of target proteins. Neuron-specific conditional deletions of calpain 1 and 2 impair long-term potentiation in the hippocampus and spatial learning. Moreover, recent studies have suggested distinct roles of calpain 1 and 2 in synaptic plasticity. However, the role of hippocampal calpain in memory processes, especially memory consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction, is still unclear...
December 19, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249047/electrolytic-post-training-lesions-of-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-block-startle-potentiation-in-a-cued-fear-conditioning-procedure
#19
Kelly Luyck, Bart Nuttin, Laura Luyten
Existing neuroanatomical models argue that the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) principally mediates sustained, long-lasting fear or anxiety responses, but not shorter, phasic fear responses, although recent studies paint a more complex picture. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of post-training electrolytic BST lesions in a cued fear conditioning protocol with relatively short (10 s) tones. We hypothesized that the BST would not play a crucial role in the expression of fear upon re-exposure to the conditioned tones...
December 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248858/cathodal-electrical-stimulation-of-frontoparietal-cortex-disrupts-statistical-learning-of-visual-configural-information
#20
Abbey S Nydam, David K Sewell, Paul E Dux
Attentional performance is facilitated by exploiting regularities and redundancies in the environment by way of incidental statistical learning. For example, during visual search, response times to a target are reduced by repeating distractor configurations-a phenomenon known as contextual cueing (Chun & Jiang, 1998). A range of neuroscientific methods have provided evidence that incidental statistical learning relies on subcortical neural structures associated with long-term memory, such as the hippocampus...
November 22, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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