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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205605/the-role-of-the-rna-demethylase-fto-fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-and-mrna-methylation-in-hippocampal-memory-formation
#1
Brandon J Walters, Valentina Mercaldo, Colleen J Gillon, Matthew Yip, Rachael L Neve, Frederick M Boyce, Paul W Frankland, Sheena A Josselyn
The formation of long-lasting memories requires coordinated changes in gene expression and protein synthesis (Davis and Squire, 1984; Duvarci et al, 2008; Hernandez and Abel, 2008). Although many studies implicate DNA modifications (DNA methylation, histone modifications) in memory formation, the contributions of RNA modifications remain largely unexplored. Here, we investigated the role of mRNA methylation in hippocampal-dependent memory formation in mice. RNA modifications are highly dynamic and readily reversible (Jia et al, 2013)...
February 16, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188357/analgesic-antiallodynic-and-anticonvulsant-activity-of-novel-hybrid-molecules-derived-from-n-benzyl-2-2-5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl-propanamide-and-2-2-5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl-butanamide-in-animal-models-of-pain-and-epilepsy
#2
Anna Rapacz, Krzysztof Kamiński, Jolanta Obniska, Paulina Koczurkiewicz, Elżbieta Pękala, Barbara Filipek
The purpose of the present study was to examine the analgesic activity of six novel hybrid molecules, which demonstrated in the previous research anticonvulsant activity in the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole seizure (scPTZ) tests in mice. The antinociceptive properties were estimated in three models of pain in mice-the hot plate test, the formalin test, and in the oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. Moreover, extended anticonvulsant studies were carried out and the antiseizure activity was investigated in the 6-Hz test...
February 10, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187857/adaptive-and-behavioral-changes-in-kynurenine-3-monooxygenase-knockout-mice-relevance-to-psychotic-disorders
#3
Sophie Erhardt, Ana Pocivavsek, Mariaelena Repici, Xi-Cong Liu, Sophie Imbeault, Daniel C Maddison, Marian A R Thomas, Joshua L Smalley, Markus K Larsson, Paul J Muchowski, Flaviano Giorgini, Robert Schwarcz
BACKGROUND: Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase converts kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine, and its inhibition shunts the kynurenine pathway-which is implicated as dysfunctional in various psychiatric disorders-toward enhanced synthesis of kynurenic acid, an antagonist of both α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Possibly as a result of reduced kynurenine 3-monooxygenase activity, elevated central nervous system levels of kynurenic acid have been found in patients with psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia...
December 16, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176459/reconsolidation-induced-rescue-of-a-remote-fear-memory-blocked-by-an-early-cortical-inhibition-involvement-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-and-the-mediation-by-the-thalamic-nucleus-reuniens
#4
Rodrigo O Sierra, Lizeth K Pedraza, Querusche K Zanona, Fabiana Santana, Flávia Z Boos, Ana P Crestani, Josué Haubrich, Lucas de Oliveira Alvares, Maria Elisa Calcagnotto, Jorge A Quillfeldt
Systems consolidation is a time-dependent reorganization process involving neocortical and hippocampal networks underlying memory storage and retrieval. The involvement of the hippocampus during acquisition is well described, however we know much less about the concomitant contribution of cortical activity levels to the formation of stable remote memories. Here, after a reversible pharmacological inhibition of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during the acquisition of a contextual fear conditioning, retrieval of both recent and remote memories were impaired, an effect that was reverted by a single memory reactivation session 48h after training, through a destabilization-dependent mechanism interpreted as reconsolidation, that restored the normal course of systems consolidation in order to rescue a remote memory...
February 8, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176408/hippocampal-release-of-dopamine-and-norepinephrine-encodes-novel-contextual-information
#5
Moreno-Castilla Perla, Pérez-Ortega Rodrigo, Violante-Soria Valeria, Balderas Israela, Bermudez-Rattoni Federico
The detection and processing of novel information encountered in our environment is crucial for proper adaptive behavior and learning. Hippocampus is a prime structure for novelty detection that receives high-level inputs including context information. It is of our interest to understand the mechanisms by which the hippocampus processes contextual information. For this, we performed in vivo microdyalisis in order to monitor extracellular changes in neurotransmitter levels during Object Location Memory (OLM), a behavioral protocol developed to evaluate contextual information processing in recognition memory...
February 8, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173832/gene-environment-interaction-between-lead-and-apolipoprotein-e4-causes-cognitive-behavior-deficits-in-mice
#6
Anna K Engstrom, Jessica M Snyder, Nobuyo Maeda, Zhengui Xia
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive cognitive decline and memory loss. Environmental factors and gene-environment interactions (GXE) may increase AD risk, accelerate cognitive decline, and impair learning and memory. However, there is currently little direct evidence supporting this hypothesis. METHODS: In this study, we assessed for a GXE between lead and ApoE4 on cognitive behavior using transgenic knock-in (KI) mice that express the human Apolipoprotein E4 allele (ApoE4-KI) or Apolipoprotein E3 allele (ApoE3-KI)...
February 7, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154077/homer1a-drives-homeostatic-scaling-down-of-excitatory-synapses-during-sleep
#7
Graham H Diering, Raja S Nirujogi, Richard H Roth, Paul F Worley, Akhilesh Pandey, Richard L Huganir
Sleep is an essential process that supports learning and memory by acting on synapses through poorly understood molecular mechanisms. Using biochemistry, proteomics, and imaging in mice, we find that during sleep, synapses undergo widespread alterations in composition and signaling, including weakening of synapses through removal and dephosphorylation of synaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptors. These changes are driven by the immediate early gene Homer1a and signaling from group I metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR1/5...
February 3, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143405/early-start-of-progressive-motor-deficits-in-line-61-%C3%AE-synuclein-transgenic-mice
#8
R Rabl, C Breitschaedel, S Flunkert, S Duller, D Amschl, J Neddens, V Niederkofler, E Rockenstein, E Masliah, H Roemer, B Hutter-Paier
BACKGROUND: Synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease or multiple system atrophy are characterized by Lewy bodies in distinct brain areas. These aggregates are mainly formed by α-synuclein inclusions, a protein crucial for synaptic functions in the healthy brain. Transgenic animal models of synucleinopathies are frequently based on over-expression of human wild type or mutated α-synuclein under the regulatory control of different promoters. A promising model is the Line 61 α-synuclein transgenic mouse that expresses the transgene under control of the Thy-1 promoter...
January 31, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129064/pace-yourself-intraindividual-variability-in-context-use-revealed-by-self-paced-event-related-brain-potentials
#9
Brennan R Payne, Kara D Federmeier
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) have revealed multiple mechanisms by which contextual constraints impact language processing. At the same time, little work has examined the trial-to-trial dynamics of context use in the brain. In the current study, we probed intraindividual variability in behavioral and neural indices of context processing during reading. In a concurrent self-paced reading and ERP paradigm, participants read sentences that were either strongly or weakly constraining completed with an expected or unexpected target word...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120933/where-there-is-smoke-there-is-fear-impaired-contextual-inhibition-of-conditioned-fear-in-smokers
#10
Jan Haaker, Tina B Lonsdorf, Dirk Schümann, Nico Bunzeck, Jan Peters, Tobias Sommer, Raffael Kalisch
The odds-ratio of smoking is elevated in populations with neuropsychiatric diseases, in particular in the highly prevalent diagnoses of post-traumatic stress and anxiety disorders. Yet, the association between smoking and a key dimensional phenotype of these disorders -maladaptive deficits in fear learning and fear inhibition-is unclear. We therefore investigated acquisition and memory of fear and fear inhibition in healthy smoking and non-smoking participants (N=349, 22% smokers). We employed a well validated paradigm of context-dependent fear and safety learning (day1) including a memory retrieval on day 2...
January 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113810/learning-contextual-dependencies-with-convolutional-hierarchical-recurrent-neural-networks
#11
Zhen Zuo, Bing Shuai, Wang Gang, Xiao Liu, Xingxing Wang, Bing Wang, Yushi Chen
Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown their great success on image classification. CNNs mainly consist of convolutional and pooling layers, both of which are performed on local image areas without considering the dependencies among different image regions. However, such dependencies are very important for generating explicit image representation. In contrast, recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are well known for their ability of encoding contextual information in sequential data, and they only require a limited number of network parameters...
March 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113173/learning-contextual-dependence-with-convolutional-hierarchical-recurrent-neural-networks
#12
Zhen Zuo, Bing Shuai, Gang Wang, Xiao Liu, Xingxing Wang, Bing Wang, Yushi Chen
Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown their great success on image classification. CNNs mainly consist of convolutional and pooling layers, both of which are performed on local image areas without considering the dependence among different image regions. However, such dependence is very important for generating explicit image representation. In contrast, recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are well known for their ability of encoding contextual information in sequential data, and they only require a limited number of network parameters...
July 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111154/stimulation-of-the-posterior-cortical-hippocampal-network-enhances-precision-of-memory-recollection
#13
Aneesha S Nilakantan, Donna J Bridge, Elise P Gagnon, Stephen A VanHaerents, Joel L Voss
Episodic memory is thought to critically depend on interaction of the hippocampus with distributed brain regions [1-3]. Specific contributions of distinct networks have been hypothesized, with the hippocampal posterior-medial (HPM) network implicated in the recollection of highly precise contextual and spatial information [3-6]. Current evidence for HPM specialization is mostly indirect, derived from correlative measures such as neural activity recordings. Here we tested the causal role of the HPM network in recollection using network-targeted noninvasive brain stimulation in humans, which has previously been shown to increase functional connectivity within the HPM network [7]...
February 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108946/in-vivo-neuroimaging-and-behavioral-correlates-in-a-rat-model-of-chemotherapy-induced-cognitive-dysfunction
#14
Robert L Barry, Nellie E Byun, M Noor Tantawy, Chase A Mackey, George H Wilson, Adam J Stark, Michael P Flom, Laura C Gee, C Chad Quarles
Adjuvant chemotherapy has been used for decades to treat cancer, and it is well known that disruptions in cognitive function and memory are common chemotherapeutic adverse effects. However, studies using neuropsychological metrics have also reported group differences in cognitive function and memory before or without chemotherapy, suggesting that complex factors obscure the true etiology of chemotherapy-induced cognitive dysfunction (CICD) in humans. Therefore, to better understand possible mechanisms of CICD, we explored the effects of CICD in rats through cognition testing using novel object recognition (NOR) and contextual fear conditioning (CFC), and through metabolic neuroimaging via [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)...
January 20, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108414/the-macaque-lateral-grasping-network-a-neural-substrate-for-generating-purposeful-hand-actions
#15
REVIEW
Elena Borra, Marzio Gerbella, Stefano Rozzi, Giuseppe Luppino
In primates, neural mechanisms for controlling skilled hand actions primarily rely on sensorimotor transformations. These transformations are mediated by circuits linking specific inferior parietal with ventral premotor areas in which sensory coding of objects' features automatically triggers appropriate hand motor programs. Recently, connectional studies in macaques showed that these parietal and premotor areas are nodes of a large-scale cortical network, designated as "lateral grasping network," including specific temporal and prefrontal sectors involved in object recognition and executive functions, respectively...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106041/glutamatergic-projections-from-the-entorhinal-cortex-to-dorsal-dentate-gyrus-mediate-context-induced-reinstatement-of-heroin-seeking
#16
Feifei Ge, Na Wang, Cailian Cui, Yijing Li, Yan Liu, Yaoying Ma, Shuli Liu, Haolin Zhang, Xiaowei Sun
Re-exposure to the context associated with heroin intake provokes relapse to drug taking after abstinence. The dorsal dentate gyrus (dDG) and entorhinal cortex (EC) have been implicated in contextual memory processing, but the underlying circuit mechanisms in context-induced relapse remains poorly understood. In this study, using a self-administration rat model, we found that activation and synaptic transmission of glutamatergic projections from the EC to the upper blade of dentate gyrus (dDGub) were significantly enhanced during context-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking...
January 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104355/allopregnanolone-induces-state-dependent-fear-via-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis
#17
Gillian M Acca, Abel S Mathew, Jingji Jin, Stephen Maren, Naomi Nagaya
Gonadal steroids and their metabolites have been shown to be important modulators of emotional behavior. Allopregnanolone (ALLO), for example, is a metabolite of progesterone that has been linked to anxiety-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder. In rodents, it has been shown to reduce anxiety in a number of behavioral paradigms including Pavlovian fear conditioning. We have recently found that expression of conditioned contextual (but not auditory) freezing in rats can be suppressed by infusion of ALLO into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST)...
January 16, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100032/sequential-learning-during-contextual-fear-conditioning-guides-the-rate-of-systems-consolidation-implications-for-consolidation-of-multiple-memory-traces
#18
Lizeth K Pedraza, Rodrigo O Sierra, Ana P Crestani, Jorge A Quillfeldt, Lucas de Oliveira Alvares
Systems consolidation has been described as a time-dependent reorganization process involving the neocortical and hippocampal networks underlying memory storage and retrieval. Previous studies of our lab were able to demonstrate that systems consolidation is a dynamic process, rather than a merely passive, time-dependent phenomenon. Here, we studied the influence of sequential learning in contextual fear conditioning (CFC) with different training intensities in the time-course of hippocampal dependency and contextual specificity...
January 18, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093507/mosaic-expression-of-atrx-in-the-central-nervous-system-causes-memory-deficits
#19
Renee J Tamming, Jennifer R Siu, Yan Jiang, Marco A M Prado, Frank Beier, Nathalie G Bérubé
The rapid modulation of chromatin organization is thought to play a critical role in cognitive processes such as memory consolidation. This is supported in part by the dysregulation of many chromatin remodeling proteins in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. A key example is ATRX, an X-linked gene commonly mutated in individuals with syndromic and non-syndromic intellectual disability (ID). The consequences of Atrx inactivation on learning and memory have been difficult to evaluate due to the early lethality of hemizygous-null animals...
January 12, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093475/hippocampal-contribution-to-context-encoding-across-development-is-disrupted-following-early-life-adversity
#20
Hilary K Lambert, Margaret A Sheridan, Kelly Sambrook, Maya Rosen, Mary K Askren, Katie A McLaughlin
: Context can drastically influence responses to environmental stimuli. For example, a gunshot should provoke a different response at a public park than a shooting range. Little is known about how contextual processing and neural correlates change across human development or about individual differences related to early environmental experiences. Children (N=60; 8-19 years, 24 exposed to interpersonal violence) completed a context encoding task during fMRI scanning using a delayed match-to-sample design with neutral, happy, and angry facial cues embedded in realistic background scenes...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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