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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141213/cpeb2-activates-grasp1-mrna-translation-and-promotes-ampa-receptor-surface-expression-long-term-potentiation-and-memory
#1
Wen-Hsin Lu, Nai-Hsing Yeh, Yi-Shuian Huang
Activity-dependent synthesis of plasticity-related proteins is necessary to sustain long-lasting synaptic modifications and consolidate memory. We investigated the role of the translational regulator cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 2 (CPEB2) in learning and memory because regulated mRNA translation contributes to synaptic plasticity. Forebrain-restricted CPEB2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice exhibited impaired hippocampus-dependent memory in contextual fear conditioning and Morris water maze tests...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136107/contextual-fear-extinction-induces-hippocampal-metaplasticity-mediated-by-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5
#2
Branden J Stansley, Nicole M Fisher, Rocco G Gogliotti, Craig W Lindsley, P Jeffrey Conn, Colleen M Niswender
Dysregulated fear memory can lead to a broad spectrum of anxiety disorders. The brain systems underlying fear memory are manifold, with the hippocampus being prominently involved by housing fear-related spatial memories as engrams, which are created and stored through neural changes such as synaptic plasticity. Although metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors contribute significantly to both fear behavior and hippocampal synaptic plasticity, the relationship between these two phenomena has not been fully elucidated...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133432/locus-coeruleus-ablation-exacerbates-cognitive-deficits-neuropathology-and-lethality-in-p301s-tau-transgenic-mice
#3
Termpanit Chalermpalanupap, Jason P Schroeder, Jacki M Rorabaugh, L Cameron Liles, James J Lah, Allan I Levey, David Weinshenker
The brainstem locus coeruleus (LC) supplies norepinephrine (NE) to the forebrain and degenerates in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Loss of LC neurons is correlated with increased severity of other AD hallmarks including β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, tau neurofibrillary tangles and cognitive deficits, suggesting that it contributes to the disease progression. Lesions of the LC in amyloid-based transgenic mouse models of AD exacerbate Aβ pathology, neuroinflammation, and cognitive deficits, but it is unknown how the loss of LC neurons affects tau-mediated pathology or behavioral abnormalities...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124546/fast-neural-dynamics-of-proactive-cognitive-control-in-a-task-switching-analogue-of-the-wisconsin-card-sorting-test
#4
Gema Díaz-Blancat, Juan García-Prieto, Fernando Maestú, Francisco Barceló
One common assumption has been that prefrontal executive control is mostly required for target detection (Posner and Petersen in Ann Rev Neurosci 13:25-42, 1990). Alternatively, cognitive control has also been related to anticipatory updating of task-set (contextual) information, a view that highlights proactive control processes. Frontoparietal cortical networks contribute to both proactive control and reactive target detection, although their fast dynamics are still largely unexplored. To examine this, we analyzed rapid magnetoencephalographic (MEG) source activations elicited by task cues and target cards in a task-cueing analogue of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test...
November 9, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119716/episodic-memory-retrieval-in-adolescents-with-and-without-developmental-language-disorder-dld
#5
Joanna C Lee
BACKGROUND: Two reasons may explain the discrepant findings regarding declarative memory in developmental language disorder (DLD) in the literature. First, standardized tests are one of the primary tools used to assess declarative memory in previous studies. It is possible they are not sensitive enough to subtle memory impairment. Second, the system underlying declarative memory is complex, and thus results may vary depending on the types of encoding and retrieval processes measured (e...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103920/influence-of-the-anteromedial-thalamus-on-social-defeat-associated-contextual-fear-memory
#6
Miguel J Rangel, Marcus Vinicius C Baldo, Newton Sabino Canteras
The ventral part of the anteromedial thalamic nucleus (AMv) is heavily targeted by the dorsal premammillary nucleus (PMd), which is the main hypothalamic site that is responsive to both predator and conspecific aggressor threats. This PMd-AMv pathway is likely involved in modulating memory processing, and previous findings from our group have shown that cytotoxic lesions or pharmacological inactivation of the AMv drastically reduced contextual fear responses to predator-associated environments. In the present study, we investigated the role of the AMv in both unconditioned (i...
November 2, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098176/transient-prepubertal-mifepristone-treatment-normalizes-deficits-in-contextual-memory-and-neuronal-activity-of-adult-male-rats-exposed-to-maternal-deprivation
#7
Manila Loi, Ratna Angela Sarabdjitsingh, Andromachi Tsouli, Stephanie Trinh, Marit Arp, Harmen J Krugers, Henk Karst, Ruud van den Bos, Marian Joëls
Early life adversity is a well-known risk factor for behavioral dysfunction later in life, including the formation of contextual memory; it is also (transiently) accompanied by hyperactivity of the stress system. We tested whether mifepristone (MIF) treatment, which among other things blocks glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), during the prepubertal period [postnatal days (PND)26-PND28] normalizes memory deficits in adult male rats exposed to 24-h maternal deprivation (MD) at PND3. MD reduced body weight gain and increased basal corticosterone (CORT) levels during the PND26, but not in adulthood...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094984/creating-a-recollection-based-memory-through-drawing
#8
Jeffrey D Wammes, Melissa E Meade, Myra A Fernandes
Drawing a picture of to-be-remembered information substantially boosts memory performance in free-recall tasks. In the current work, we sought to test the notion that drawing confers its benefit to memory performance by creating a detailed recollection of the encoding context. In Experiments 1 and 2, we demonstrated that for both pictures and words, items that were drawn by the participant at encoding were better recognized in a later test than were words that were written out. Moreover, participants' source memory (in this experiment, correct identification of whether the word was drawn or written) was superior for items drawn relative to written at encoding...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089442/extinction-of-contextual-cocaine-memories-requires-cav1-2-within-d1r-expressing-cells-and-recruits-hippocampal-cav1-2-dependent-signaling-mechanisms
#9
Caitlin E Burgdorf, Kathryn C Schierberl, Anni S Lee, Delaney K Fischer, Tracey A Van Kempen, Vladimir Mudragel, Richard L Huganir, Teresa A Milner, Michael J Glass, Anjali M Rajadhyaksha
Exposure to cocaine-associated contextual cues significantly contributes to relapse. Extinction of these contextual associations, which involves a new form of learning, reduces cocaine-seeking behavior, however the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain largely unknown. We report that extinction, but not acquisition of cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) in male mice increased Cav1.2 L-type Ca(2+) channel mRNA and protein in postsynaptic density (PSD) fractions of the hippocampus, a brain region involved in drug-context associations...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075187/predictive-place-cell-sequences-for-goal-finding-emerge-from-goal-memory-and-the-cognitive-map-a-computational-model
#10
Lorenz Gönner, Julien Vitay, Fred H Hamker
Hippocampal place-cell sequences observed during awake immobility often represent previous experience, suggesting a role in memory processes. However, recent reports of goals being overrepresented in sequential activity suggest a role in short-term planning, although a detailed understanding of the origins of hippocampal sequential activity and of its functional role is still lacking. In particular, it is unknown which mechanism could support efficient planning by generating place-cell sequences biased toward known goal locations, in an adaptive and constructive fashion...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072188/body-dysmorphic-disorder-latest-neuroanatomical-and-neuropsychological-findings
#11
K Tasios, I Michopoulos
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by a preoccupation with a perceived defect or flaw in physical appearance that is not observable or appears slight to others. It leads to severe distress and functional impairment. Cognitive-behavioural and neurobiological similarities to obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have led to its newly conceived classification as an obsessive compulsive related disorder (OCRD). In the process of investigating the neurobiology of BDD, neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have been conducted...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071811/top-down-contextual-knowledge-guides-visual-attention-in-infancy
#12
Kristen Tummeltshammer, Dima Amso
The visual context in which an object or face resides can provide useful top-down information for guiding attention orienting, object recognition, and visual search. Although infants have demonstrated sensitivity to covariation in spatial arrays, it is presently unclear whether they can use rapidly acquired contextual knowledge to guide attention during visual search. In this eye-tracking experiment, 6- and 10-month-old infants searched for a target face hidden among colorful distracter shapes. Targets appeared in Old or New visual contexts, depending on whether the visual search arrays (defined by the spatial configuration, shape and color of component items in the search display) were repeated or newly generated throughout the experiment...
October 26, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066839/calcineurin-p-erk-egr-1-pathway-is-involved-in-fear-memory-impairment-after-isoflurane-exposure-in-mice
#13
Xiaoxuan Yang, Guohui Li, Qingsheng Xue, Yan Luo, Sensen Wang, Yimeng Xia, Lei Zhuang, Buwei Yu
Isoflurane exposure adversely influences subsequent fear memory formation in mice. Calcineurin (CaN), a phosphatase, prevents the establishment of emotional memory by dephosphorylating substrates and inhibiting the expression of learning and memory related genes. We investigated whether isoflurane impairment of fear memory formation was associated with altered CaN activity and downstream phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated kinases (p-ERK) and early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1) expression in hippocampus and amygdala...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065777/how-do-associative-and-phonemic-overlap-interact-to-boost-illusory-recollection
#14
Keith A Hutchison, Michelle L Meade, Nikolas S Williams, Krista D Manley, Jaimie C McNabb
This project investigated the underlying mechanisms that boost false remember responses when participants receive study words that are both semantically and phonologically similar to a critical lure. Participants completed a memory task in which they were presented with a list of words all associated with a critical lure. Included within the list of semantic associates was a target that was either semantically associated (e.g., yawn) to the critical lure (e.g., sleep) or shared the initial (e.g., slam) or final (e...
October 24, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047291/recurrent-moderate-hypoglycemia-exacerbates-oxidative-damage-and-neuronal-death-leading-to-cognitive-dysfunction-after-the-hypoglycemic-coma
#15
Gabriela Languren, Teresa Montiel, Leticia Ramírez-Lugo, Israela Balderas, Gustavo Sánchez-Chávez, Francisco Sotres-Bayón, Federico Bermúdez-Rattoni, Lourdes Massieu
Moderate recurrent hypoglycemia (RH) is frequent in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (TIDM) patients who are under intensive insulin therapy increasing the risk for severe hypoglycemia (SH). The consequences of RH are not well understood and its repercussions on neuronal damage and cognitive function after a subsequent episode of SH have been poorly investigated. In the current study, we have addressed this question and observed that previous RH during seven consecutive days exacerbated oxidative damage and neuronal death induced by a subsequent episode of SH accompanied by a short period of coma, in the parietal cortex, the striatum and mainly in the hippocampus...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042315/il-1%C3%AE-reduces-glua1-phosphorylation-and-its-surface-expression-during-memory-reconsolidation-and-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-can-modulate-these-effects
#16
Ivana Machado, Helgi B Schiöth, Mercedes Lasaga, Teresa Scimonelli
Pro-inflammatory cytokines can affect cognitive processes such as learning and memory. Particularly, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) influences hippocampus-dependent memories. We previously reported that administration of IL-1β in dorsal hippocampus impaired contextual fear memory reconsolidation. This effect was reversed by the melanocortin alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Our results also demonstrated that IL-1β produced a significant decrease in glutamate release from dorsal hippocampus synaptosomes after reactivation of the fear memory...
October 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040949/phenomenological-characteristics-of-recovered-memory-in-nonclinical-individuals
#17
Chui-De Chiu
A central hypothesis of recovered memory is that the source of the memory may be misattributed, and the memory of an imagined event may be mistaken as the memory of the perceived event that was not remembered. The judgment of memory source depends upon phenomenological characteristics. Thus, the present study investigated characteristics of recovered memory. To exclude potential confounding effects of traumatic stress and acute mental illness, data on recovered memories of diverse valences in a nonclinical sample were collected...
October 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038220/context-memory-formation-requires-activity-dependent-protein-degradation-in-the-hippocampus
#18
Patrick K Cullen, Nicole C Ferrara, Shane E Pullins, Fred J Helmstetter
Numerous studies have indicated that the consolidation of contextual fear memories supported by an aversive outcome like footshock requires de novo protein synthesis as well as protein degradation mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Context memory formed in the absence of an aversive stimulus by simple exposure to a novel environment requires de novo protein synthesis in both the dorsal (dHPC) and ventral (vHPC) hippocampus. However, the role of UPS-mediated protein degradation in the consolidation of context memory in the absence of a strong aversive stimulus has not been investigated...
November 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035073/contextual-cueing-of-tactile-search-is-coded-in-an-anatomical-reference-frame
#19
Leonardo Assumpção, Zhuanghua Shi, Xuelian Zang, Hermann J Müller, Thomas Geyer
This work investigates the reference frame(s) underlying tactile context memory, a form of statistical learning in a tactile (finger) search task. In this task, if a searched-for target object is repeatedly encountered within a stable spatial arrangement of task-irrelevant distractors, detecting the target becomes more efficient over time (relative to nonrepeated arrangements), as learned target-distractor spatial associations come to guide tactile search, thus cueing attention to the target location. Since tactile search displays can be represented in several reference frames, including multiple external and an anatomical frame, in Experiment 1 we asked whether repeated search displays are represented in tactile memory with reference to an environment-centered or anatomical reference frame...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031808/specific-disruption-of-contextual-memory-recall-by-sparse-additional-activity-in-the-dentate-gyrus
#20
Hye-Yeon Cho, Mujun Kim, Jin-Hee Han
The dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is essential for contextual and spatial memory processing. While lesion or silencing of the DG impairs contextual memory encoding and recall, overly activated DG also prevents proper memory retrieval. Abnormally elevated activity in the DG is repeatedly reported in amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients or aged adults. Although the correlation between memory failure and abnormally active hippocampus is clear, their causal relationship or the underlying nature of such interfering activity is not well understood...
October 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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