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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654221/high-salt-diet-impairs-memory-related-synaptic-plasticity-via-increased-oxidative-stress-and-suppressed-synaptic-protein-expression
#1
Qian Ge, Zhengjun Wang, Yuwei Wu, Qing Huo, Zhaoqiang Qian, Zhongmin Tian, Wei Ren, Xia Zhang, Jing Han
SCOPE: A high salt (HS) diet is detrimental to cognitive function, in addition to having a role in cardiovascular disorders. However, the method by which a HS diet impairs cognitive functions such as learning and memory remains open. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we found that mice on a 7 week HS diet demonstrated disturbed short-term memory in an object-place recognition task, and both 4 week and 7 week HS treatments impaired long-term memory, as evidenced in a fear conditioning test...
June 27, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654032/assessing-working-memory-in-children-the-comprehensive-assessment-battery-for-children-working-memory-cabc-wm
#2
Kathryn Cabbage, Shara Brinkley, Shelley Gray, Mary Alt, Nelson Cowan, Samuel Green, Trudy Kuo, Tiffany P Hogan
The Comprehensive Assessment Battery for Children - Working Memory (CABC-WM) is a computer-based battery designed to assess different components of working memory in young school-age children. Working memory deficits have been identified in children with language-based learning disabilities, including dyslexia(1)(,)(2) and language impairment(3)(,)(4), but it is not clear whether these children exhibit deficits in subcomponents of working memory, such as visuospatial or phonological working memory. The CABC-WM is administered on a desktop computer with a touchscreen interface and was specifically developed to be engaging and motivating for children...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653801/a-putative-lysophosphatidylinositol-receptor-gpr55-modulates-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity
#3
Katrina Hurst, Corinne Badgley, Tanner Ellsworth, Spencer Bell, Lindsey Friend, Brad Prince, Jacob Welch, Zack Cowan, Ryan Williamson, Chris Lyon, Brandon Anderson, Brian Poole, Michael Christensen, Michael McNeil, Jarrod Call, Jeffrey G Edwards
GPR55, an orphan G-protein coupled receptor, is activated by lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) and the endocannabinoid anandamide, as well as by other compounds including THC. LPI is a potent endogenous ligand of GPR55 and neither GPR55 nor LPIs' functions in the brain are well understood. While endocannabinoids are well known to modulate brain synaptic plasticity, the potential role LPI could have on brain plasticity has never been demonstrated. Therefore, we examined not only GPR55 expression, but also the role its endogenous ligand could play in long-term potentiation, a common form of synaptic plasticity...
June 8, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653281/fingolimod-exerts-only-temporary-antiepileptogenic-effects-but-longer-lasting-positive-effects-on-behavior-in-the-wag-rij-rat-absence-epilepsy-model
#4
Antonio Leo, Rita Citraro, Nicola Amodio, Caterina De Sarro, Maria Eugenia Gallo Cantafio, Andrew Constanti, Giovambattista De Sarro, Emilio Russo
One of the major challenges in the epilepsy field is identifying disease-modifying drugs in order to prevent or delay spontaneous recurrent seizure onset or to cure already established epilepsy. It has been recently reported that fingolimod, currently approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, has demonstrated antiepileptogenic effects in 2 different preclinical models of acquired epilepsy. However, to date, no data exist regarding the role of fingolimod against genetic epilepsy. Therefore, we have addressed this issue by studying the effects of fingolimod in Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats, a well-established genetic model of absence epilepsy, epileptogenesis, and neuropsychiatric comorbidity...
June 26, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652561/chronic-subdural-hematoma-in-elderly-patients-is-this-disease-benign
#5
Masaaki Uno, Hiroyuki Toi, Satoshi Hirai
As the world population becomes progressively older, the overall incidence of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is increasing. Peak age of onset for CSDH has also increased, and recently the 80-year-old level has a peak. Many patients with CSDH have had prior treatment with anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs, which have an accompanying risk of CSDH. In elderly patients with CSDH, symptoms of cognitive change (memory disturbance, urinary incontinence, and decreased activity) and disturbance of consciousness at admission were more frequent compared to younger patients with CSDH...
June 26, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652395/differential-requirements-for-tcf1-long-isoforms-in-cd8-and-cd4-t-cell-responses-to-acute-viral-infection
#6
Jodi A Gullicksrud, Fengyin Li, Shaojun Xing, Zhouhao Zeng, Weiqun Peng, Vladimir P Badovinac, John T Harty, Hai-Hui Xue
In response to acute viral infection, activated naive T cells give rise to effector T cells that clear the pathogen and memory T cells that persist long-term and provide heightened protection. T cell factor 1 (Tcf1) is essential for several of these differentiation processes. Tcf1 is expressed in multiple isoforms, with all isoforms sharing the same HDAC and DNA-binding domains and the long isoforms containing a unique N-terminal β-catenin-interacting domain. In this study, we specifically ablated Tcf1 long isoforms in mice, while retaining expression of Tcf1 short isoforms...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651891/neuroanatomical-alterations-and-synaptic-plasticity-impairment-in-the-perirhinal-cortex-of-the-ts65dn-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome
#7
Vincenzo Roncacé, Costanza Burattini, Fiorenza Stagni, Sandra Guidi, Andrea Giacomini, Marco Emili, Giorgio Aicardi, Renata Bartesaghi
Down syndrome (DS), a genetic condition due to triplication of Chromosome 21, is characterized by numerous neurodevelopmental alterations and intellectual disability. Individuals with DS and DS mouse models are impaired in several memory domains, including hippocampus-dependent declarative (spatial, in rodents) memory and visual recognition memory, a form of memory in which the perirhinal cortex (PRC) plays a fundamental role. The anatomo-functional substrates of hippocampus-dependent memory impairment have been largely elucidated in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS...
June 23, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651787/a-role-for-proactive-control-in-rapid-instructed-task-learning
#8
Michael W Cole, Lauren M Patrick, Nachshon Meiran, Todd S Braver
Humans are often remarkably fast at learning novel tasks from instructions. Such rapid instructed task learning (RITL) likely depends upon the formation of new associations between long-term memory representations, which must then be actively maintained to enable successful task implementation. Consequently, we hypothesized that RITL relies more heavily on a proactive mode of cognitive control, in which goal-relevant information is actively maintained in preparation for anticipated high control demands. We tested this hypothesis using a recently developed cognitive paradigm consisting of 60 novel tasks involving RITL and 4 practiced tasks, with identical task rules and stimuli used across both task types...
June 23, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650950/neurobiologic-correlates-of-attention-and-memory-deficits-following-critical-illness-in-early-life
#9
Raisa M Schiller, Hanneke IJsselstijn, Marlous J Madderom, André B Rietman, Marion Smits, Arno F J van Heijst, Dick Tibboel, Tonya White, Ryan L Muetzel
OBJECTIVES: Survivors of critical illness in early life are at risk of long-term-memory and attention impairments. However, their neurobiologic substrates remain largely unknown. DESIGN: A prospective follow-up study. SETTING: Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. PATIENTS: Thirty-eight school-age (8-12 yr) survivors of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and/or congenital diaphragmatic hernia with an intelligence quotient greater than or equal to 80 and a below average score (z score ≤ -1...
June 23, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650827/neural-decomposition-of-time-series-data-for-effective-generalization
#10
Luke B Godfrey, Michael S Gashler
We present a neural network technique for the analysis and extrapolation of time-series data called neural decomposition (ND). Units with a sinusoidal activation function are used to perform a Fourier-like decomposition of training samples into a sum of sinusoids, augmented by units with nonperiodic activation functions to capture linear trends and other nonperiodic components. We show how careful weight initialization can be combined with regularization to form a simple model that generalizes well. Our method generalizes effectively on the Mackey-Glass series, a data set of unemployment rates as reported by the U...
June 22, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648820/selective-erasure-of-distinct-forms-of-long-term-synaptic-plasticity-underlying-different-forms-of-memory-in-the-same-postsynaptic-neuron
#11
Jiangyuan Hu, Larissa Ferguson, Kerry Adler, Carole A Farah, Margaret H Hastings, Wayne S Sossin, Samuel Schacher
Generalization of fear responses to non-threatening stimuli is a feature of anxiety disorders. It has been challenging to target maladaptive generalized memories without affecting adaptive memories. Synapse-specific long-term plasticity underlying memory involves the targeting of plasticity-related proteins (PRPs) to activated synapses. If distinct tags and PRPs are used for different forms of plasticity, one could selectively remove distinct forms of memory. Using a stimulation paradigm in which associative long-term facilitation (LTF) occurs at one input and non-associative LTF at another input to the same postsynaptic neuron in an Aplysia sensorimotor preparation, we found that each form of LTF is reversed by inhibiting distinct isoforms of protein kinase M (PKM), putative PRPs, in the postsynaptic neuron...
June 12, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648815/age-dependent-changes-in-autophosphorylation-of-alpha-calcium-calmodulin-dependent-kinase-ii-in-hippocampus-and-amygdala-after-contextual-fear-conditioning
#12
Ton Fang, Kamillia Kasbi, Stephanie Rothe, Wajeeha Aziz, K Peter Giese
The hippocampus and amygdala are essential brain regions responsible for contextual fear conditioning (CFC). The autophosphorylation of alpha calcium-calmodulin kinase II (αCaMKII) at threonine-286 (T286) is a critical step implicated in long-term potentiation (LTP), learning and memory. However, the changes in αCaMKII levels with aging and training in associated brain regions are not fully understood. Here, we studied how aging and training affect the levels of phosphorylated (T286) and proportion of phosphorylated:total αCaMKII in the hippocampus and amygdala...
June 22, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647624/shape-memory-polyurethanes-with-oxidation-induced-degradation-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-correlations-for-endovascular-material-applications
#13
Andrew C Weems, Kevin T Wacker, James K Carrow, Anthony J Boyle, Duncan J Maitland
The synthesis of thermoset shape memory polymer (SMP) polyurethanes from symmetric, aliphatic alcohols and diisocyanates has previously demonstrated excellent biocompatibility in short term in vitro and in vivo studies, although long term stability has not been investigated. Here we demonstrate that while rapid oxidation occurs in these thermoset SMPs, facilitated by the incorporation of multi-functional, branching amino groups, byproduct analysis does not indicate toxicological concern for these materials...
June 21, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647597/hypoxic-postconditioning-improves-behavioural-deficits-at-6-weeks-following-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-neonatal-rats
#14
Jonathan D Teo, Margaret J Morris, Nicole M Jones
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury in newborns is associated with high morbidity and mortality, with many babies suffering neurological deficits. Recently, we showed that hypoxic postconditioning (PostC) immediately post injury can protect against HI up to one week in neonatal rats. Here, we aimed to examine whether long term functional deficits were also improved by PostC. Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to control (C) or HI group on postnatal day 7 (P7). The HI group underwent unilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by hypoxia (7% oxygen, 3h)...
June 21, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647546/a-review-of-the-effects-of-very-low-nicotine-content-cigarettes-on-behavioral-and-cognitive-performance
#15
Diana R Keith, Allison N Kurti, Danielle R Davis, Ivori A Zvorsky, Stephen T Higgins
The present systematic review examines whether very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes ameliorate withdrawal-induced impairments in behavioral/cognitive performance. PubMed, PsycInfo, and Web of Science were searched for performance effects of VLNC cigarettes. For inclusion, reports had to be in English, published in a peer-reviewed journal through June 2017, examine VLNC cigarettes (<0.2mg nicotine yield), include ≥2hour smoking abstinence or reduced nicotine exposure, and examine performance. 19 of 1243 articles reviewed met inclusion criteria...
June 21, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646811/alternative-therapy-for-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-hypopnea-syndrome-a-1-year-single-blind-randomized-trial-of-tui-na
#16
Cheng-Nan Lu, Michael Friedman, Hsin-Ching Lin, Kuo-Wei Bi, Tun-Pin Hsueh, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Mao-Chang Su, Meng-Chih Lin
Context • Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is among the most prevalent of sleep-related breathing disorders. No long-term follow-up studies have documented the continued success of lifestyle changes in treatment; oral appliances have an approximate 50% success rate; compliance with continuous positive airway pressure is poor, ranging from 50% to 89%; and the success rate of upper-airway surgery is only 66.4%. Therefore, some OSAHS patients seek alternative treatments. Objectives • The study intended to examine the efficacy of traditional Chinese therapeutic massage (tui na) for patients with OSAHS...
July 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646578/the-impact-of-a-novel-transendometrial-approach-for-caesarean-myomectomy-on-obstetric-outcomes-of-subsequent-pregnancy-a-longitudinal-panel-study
#17
S Y Huang, S W Shaw, S Y Su, W F Li, H H Peng, P J Cheng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the obstetric and surgical outcomes of a novel transendometrial approach for myomectomy during caesarean section in subsequent pregnancies. DESIGN: Longitudinal panel study. SETTING: Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan, with approximately 5000 births per annum. POPULATION: Pregnant women complicated with uterine myoma. METHOD: Sixty-three pregnant women who received transendometrial myomectomy during the first caesarean delivery reported a subsequent live pregnancy and planned an elective repeat caesarean delivery...
June 24, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645309/herpes-simplex-virus-1-infects-the-olfactory-bulb-shortly-following-ocular-infection-and-exhibits-a-long-term-inflammatory-profile-in-the-form-of-effector-and-hsv-1-specific-t-cells
#18
Chandra M Menendez, Daniel J J Carr
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection can result in a life-threatening condition known as herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Trafficking patterns by which the virus reaches the central nervous system (CNS) following ocular infection are unresolved. We evaluated early viral dissemination pathways following ocular infection that involve trafficking to the olfactory bulb (OB). Additionally, we have characterized the capacity of HSV-1 to establish latency within OB tissue and profiled the local T lymphocyte response over the course of the acute infection into latency...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644892/r-modafinil-exerts-weak-effects-on-spatial-memory-acquisition-and-dentate-gyrus-synaptic-plasticity
#19
Bharanidharan Shanmugasundaram, Yogesh D Aher, Jana Aradska, Marija Ilic, Daniel Daba Feyissa, Predrag Kalaba, Nilima Y Aher, Vladimir Dragacevic, Babak Saber Marouf, Thierry Langer, Harald H Sitte, Harald Hoeger, Gert Lubec, Volker Korz
Modafinil is a wake promoting drug approved for clinical use and also has cognitive enhancing properties. Its enantiomer R-Modafinil (R-MO) is not well studied in regard to cognitive enhancing properties. Hence we studied its effect in a spatial memory paradigm and its possible effects on dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (DG-LTP). Clinically relevant doses of R-MO, vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or saline were administered for three days during the hole-board test and in in vivo DG-LTP. Synaptic levels of dopamine receptors D1R, D2R, dopamine transporter (DAT), and its phosphorylated form (ph-DAT) in DG tissue 4 h after LTP induction were quantified by western blot analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644490/potentiating-role-of-copper-on-spatial-memory-deficit-induced-by-beta-amyloid-and-evaluation-of-mitochondrial-function-markers-in-the-hippocampus-of-rats
#20
Ladan Behzadfar, Mohammad Abdollahi, Omid Sabzevari, Rohollah Hosseini, Ahmad Salimi, Parvaneh Naserzadeh, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Jalal Pourahmad
Mounting evidence suggests that copper, a crucial element in normal brain function, plays an important role in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, which is known as a neurodegenerative mitochondrial disorder. However, the precise mechanisms of its effects on cognitive and mitochondrial functions through the CNS have not been thoroughly recognized yet. In this study, we aimed to investigate the long-term (3-week) effects of copper sulfate (50, 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) exposure on learning and memory as well as on mitochondrial function in the hippocampus of rats in the presence and absence of beta amyloid (1 μg μl(-1) per side) intrahippocampally (IH)...
June 23, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
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