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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684474/environmental-enrichment-cognitive-neuroprotection-in-an-experimental-model-of-cerebral-ischemia-biochemical-and-molecular-aspects
#1
Lara Vezula Gonçalves, Alice Laschuk Herlinger, Tamara Andrea Alarcon Ferreira, Juliana Barbosa Coitinho, Rita Gomes Wanderley Pires, Cristina Martins-Silva
Stroke is considered a major cause of global morbidity. Currently, there are no effective treatments for post-stroke cognitive impairment. Enriched environment (EE) has been brought forward as a preconditioning method to induce cerebral tolerance in an ischemic event. However, the subjacent mechanisms involved in this tolerance are not yet clear. Herein we aimed to identify the mechanisms of neuroprotection triggered by EE preconditioning in a murine model of ischemic stroke. In order to do so, C57Bl/6 mice were kept for five weeks either in EE or in standard environment (SC) prior to ischemic injury through bilateral carotid occlusion (BCCAo) or sham surgery...
April 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684336/pka-creb-bdnf-signaling-pathway-mediates-propofol-induced-long-term-learning-and-memory-impairment-in-hippocampus-of-rats
#2
Yu Zhong, Jing Chen, Li Li, Yi Qin, Yi Wei, Shining Pan, Yage Jiang, Jialin Chen, Yubo Xie
Studies have found that propofol can induce widespread neuroapoptosis in developing brains, which leads to cause long-term learning and memory abnormalities. However, the specific cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying propofol-induced neuroapoptosis remain elusive. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of PKA-CREB-BDNF signaling pathway in propofol-induced long-term learning and memory impairment during brain development. Seven-day-old rats were randomly assigned to control, intralipid and three treatment groups (n = 5)...
April 20, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682300/latent-hiv-dynamics-and-implications-for-sustained-viral-suppression-in-the-absence-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#3
EDITORIAL
John M Murray
Objectives: The interaction between HIV and the immune system gives rise to a complex dynamical system. We therefore investigate whether delayed viral rebound after antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption (ATI) may be due to an individual's viral-immune state being in a region of relative stability, and if so, how this can be extended. Methods: Using a mathematical model duplicating plasma viral levels, HIV DNA and immune homeostatic dynamics for individuals on ART commenced at either primary (PHI) or chronic (CHI) HIV infection, we investigate whether latent reservoir reductions and perturbations in other infected and uninfected memory CD4+ T cell subsets can delay viral rebound...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681474/ejaculation-induced-by-the-activation-of-crz-neurons-is-rewarding-to-drosophila-males
#4
Shir Zer-Krispil, Hila Zak, Lisha Shao, Shir Ben-Shaanan, Lea Tordjman, Assa Bentzur, Anat Shmueli, Galit Shohat-Ophir
The reward system is a collection of circuits that reinforce behaviors necessary for survival [1, 2]. Given the importance of reproduction for survival, actions that promote successful mating induce pleasurable feeling and are positively reinforced [3, 4]. This principle is conserved in Drosophila, where successful copulation is naturally rewarding to male flies, induces long-term appetitive memories [5], increases brain levels of neuropeptide F (NPF, the fly homolog of neuropeptide Y), and prevents ethanol, known otherwise as rewarding to flies [6, 7], from being rewarding [5]...
April 17, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681141/a-novel-method-for-the-development-of-environmental-public-health-indicators-and-benchmark-dose-estimation-using-a-health-based-end-point-for-chlorpyrifos
#5
Todd J Zurlinden, Brad Reisfeld
BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus (OP) compounds are the most widely used group of insecticides in the world. Risk assessments for these chemicals have focused primarily on 10% inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in the brain as the critical metric of effect. Aside from cholinergic effects resulting from acute exposure, many studies suggest a linkage between cognitive deficits and long-term OP exposure. OBJECTIVE: In this proof-of-concept study, we focused on one of the most widely used OP insecticides in the world, chlorpyrifos (CPF), and utilized an existing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model and a novel pharmacodynamic (PD) dose-response model to develop a point of departure benchmark dose estimate for cognitive deficits following long-term, low-dose exposure to this chemical in rodents...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680772/%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-is-required-for-the-induction-of-a-labile-state-during-memory-reconsolidation
#6
Chae-Seok Lim, Jae-Ick Kim, Chuljung Kwak, Jaehyun Lee, Eun Hae Jang, Jihae Oh, Bong-Kiun Kaang
Memory reconsolidation is the process by which previously consolidated memories reenter a labile state through reactivation of the memory trace and are actively consolidated through de novo protein synthesis. Although extensive studies have shown that β-adrenergic signaling plays a critical role in the restabilization of reactivated memory, its role in the destabilization of long-term memory is not well-studied. In this study, we found that membrane excitability increased in hippocampal CA1 neurons immediately after the retrieval of contextual fear memory...
April 19, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679519/designing-anticancer-peptides-by-constructive-machine-learning
#7
Francesca Grisoni, Claudia Neuhaus, Gisela Gabernet, Alex Müller, Jan Hiss, Gisbert Schneider
Constructive machine learning enables the automated generation of novel chemical structures without the need for explicit molecular design rules. This study presents the experimental application of such a generative model to design membranolytic anticancer peptides (ACPs) de novo. A recurrent neural network with long short-term memory cells was trained on alpha-helical cationic amphipathic peptide sequences and then fine-tuned with 26 known ACPs. This optimized model was used to generate unique and novel amino acid sequences...
April 21, 2018: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678590/comparlow-arsenic-concentrations-impair-memory-in-rat-offpring-exposed-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-role-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-glutamate-and-oxidative-stress
#8
Nina María Mónaco, Mariana Bartos, Sergio Dominguez, Cristina Gallegos, Cristina Bras, María Del Carmen Esandi, Cecilia Bouzat, Leda Giannuzzi, Alejandra Minetti, Fernanda Gumilar
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is an important natural pollutant. Millions of individuals worldwide drink water with high levels of iAs. Arsenic exposure has been associated to cognitive deficits. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In the present work we investigated in female adult offspring the effect of the exposure to low arsenite sodium levels through drinking water during pregnancy and lactation on short- and long-term memory. We also considered a possible underlying neurotoxic mechanism. Pregnant rats were exposed during pregnancy and lactation to environmentally relevant iAs concentrations (0...
April 17, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677187/breastfeeding-during-infancy-and-neurocognitive-function-in-adolescence-16-year-follow-up-of-the-probit-cluster-randomized-trial
#9
Seungmi Yang, Richard M Martin, Emily Oken, Mikhail Hameza, Glen Doniger, Shimon Amit, Rita Patel, Jennifer Thompson, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Konstantin Vilchuck, Natalia Bogdanovich, Michael S Kramer
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the long-term effect of breastfeeding on neurocognitive development is based almost exclusively on observational studies. In the 16-year follow-up study of a large, cluster-randomized trial of a breastfeeding promotion intervention, we evaluated the long-term persistence of the neurocognitive benefits of the breastfeeding promotion intervention previously observed at early school age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 13,557 participants (79...
April 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675583/do-alcohol-related-ampa-type-glutamate-receptor-adaptations-promote-intake
#10
F Woodward Hopf, Regina A Mangieri
Ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA, NMDA, and kainate receptors) play a central role in excitatory glutamatergic signaling throughout the brain. As a result, functional changes, especially long-lasting forms of plasticity, have the potential to profoundly alter neuronal function and the expression of adaptive and pathological behaviors. Thus, alcohol-related adaptations in ionotropic glutamate receptors are of great interest, since they could promote excessive alcohol consumption, even after long-term abstinence...
April 20, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674952/stability-and-function-of-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses-depend-on-bcl11b-ctip2
#11
Elodie De Bruyckere, Ruth Simon, Sigrun Nestel, Bernd Heimrich, Dennis Kätzel, Alexei V Egorov, Pentao Liu, Nancy A Jenkins, Neal G Copeland, Herbert Schwegler, Andreas Draguhn, Stefan Britsch
Structural and functional plasticity of synapses are critical neuronal mechanisms underlying learning and memory. While activity-dependent regulation of synaptic strength has been extensively studied, much less is known about the transcriptional control of synapse maintenance and plasticity. Hippocampal mossy fiber (MF) synapses connect dentate granule cells to CA3 pyramidal neurons and are important for spatial memory formation and consolidation. The transcription factor Bcl11b/Ctip2 is expressed in dentate granule cells and required for postnatal hippocampal development...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674605/brain-training-games-enhance-cognitive-function-in-healthy-subjects
#12
Abdulrahman Al-Thaqib, Fahad Al-Sultan, Abdullah Al-Zahrani, Fahad Al-Kahtani, Khalid Al-Regaiey, Muhammad Iqbal, Shahid Bashir
BACKGROUND Brain training games (BTG) are believed to play a major role in improving cognitive functions. The current study evaluated if BTG showed positive impact on attention and memory functions compared with baseline visit in healthy subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was carried out from October 2015 until April 2016 in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University and in King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We enrolled 51 normal healthy subjects to use a computerized cognitive training game (Lumosity) for exercises that target a range of cognitive functions, including attention, processing speed, visual memory, and executive functions for about 15 min per day, at least 7 days per week, for 3 weeks...
April 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674602/neuropsychological-performance-in-alcohol-dependent-patients-a-one-year-longitudinal-study
#13
Lucia Ioime, Riccardo Guglielmo, Giuseppe Fertonani Affini, Marianna Quatrale, Giovanni Martinotti, Antonino Callea, Evelina Savi, Luigi Janiri
Objective: Despite several studies that have highlighted the harmful effects of alcohol consumption on cognitive functions it remains unclear whether certain brain areas are more sensitive than others are or whether alcohol causes widespread cognitive deficit. Moreover, the role of continued abstinence has yet to be clarified regarding the quality of recovery on the different cognitive domains. The aim of this 1-year longitudinal study was to evaluate the recovery of cognitive deficits in the medium (6 months) and long term (12 months) after the interruption of drinking...
April 20, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674331/ono-8590580-a-novel-gaba-a-%C3%AE-5-negative-allosteric-modulator-enhances-long-term-potentiation-and-improves-cognitive-deficits-in-preclinical-models
#14
Soichi Kawaharada, Miki Nakanishi, Nobuto Nakanishi, Keisuke Hazama, Masato Higashino, Arwel Lewis, Gary S Clark, Mark S Chambers, Scott A Maidment, Tetsuya Yasuhiro, Seishi Katsumata, Shuji Kaneko
GABAA receptors containing α5 subunits (GABAA α5) are highly expressed in the hippocampus and negatively involved in memory processing, as shown by the fact that GABAA α5 deficient mice show higher hippocampus-dependent performance than wild type mice. Accordingly, small molecule GABAA α5 negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) are known to enhance spatial learning and memory in rodents. Here we introduce a new, orally-available GABAA α5 NAM that improves hippocampal functions. ONO-8590580 binds to the benzodiazepine binding sites on recombinant human α5-containing GABAA receptors with a Ki of 7...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674171/a-combinatorial-modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-rat-medial-amygdala-by-oxytocin-urocortin3-and-estrogen
#15
Linoy Mia Frankiensztajn, Rotem Gur-Pollack, Shlomo Wagner
The medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) plays a pivotal role in a variety of mammalian social behaviors. Specifically, activity of the hypothalamic pro-social neuropeptide oxytocin in the MeA was shown to be crucial for social recognition memory. The MeA is also a hub of neuroendocrine activity and expresses a large number of receptors of neuropeptides and hormones. These include oxytocin receptor, estrogen receptor alpha and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor type 2 (CRFR2). In a previous study we found that intracerebroventricular (ICV) oxytocin application to anesthetized rats promotes long-term depression (LTD) of the MeA response to electrical stimulation of its main sensory input, the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)...
April 11, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673580/the-long-term-effects-of-cocaine-use-on-cognitive-functioning-a-systematic-critical-review
#16
REVIEW
Kirsten M Frazer, Qwynten Richards, Diana R Keith
BACKGROUND: The predominant view of chronic cocaine use maintains that it causes a broad range of cognitive deficits. However, concerns about the possibly deleterious impact of cocaine on cognitive functioning have yet to be thoroughly vetted. This review addresses the impact of cocaine use on such cognitive domains as executive function, memory, language, and psychomotor speed. Additionally, relevant neuroimaging data is considered to understand the neural basis underlying cocaine-related effects on cognitive functioning...
April 16, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673482/dunce-phosphodiesterase-acts-as-a-checkpoint-for-drosophila-long-term-memory-in-a-pair-of-serotonergic-neurons
#17
Lisa Scheunemann, Pierre-Yves Plaçais, Yann Dromard, Martin Schwärzel, Thomas Preat
A key function of the brain is to filter essential information and store it in the form of stable, long-term memory (LTM). We demonstrate here that the Dunce (Dnc) phosphodiesterase, an important enzyme that degrades cAMP, acts as a molecular switch that controls LTM formation in Drosophila. We show that, during LTM formation, Dnc is inhibited in the SPN, a pair of newly characterized serotonergic neurons, which stimulates the cAMP/PKA pathway. As a consequence, the SPN activates downstream dopaminergic neurons, opening the gate for LTM formation in the olfactory memory center, the mushroom body...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673239/effects-of-treadmill-exercise-on-pi3k-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-pathway-and-tau-protein-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#18
Jae-Hoon Jeong, Eun-Bum Kang
PURPOSE: This study aimed to clearly evaluate the effects of obesity on cerebral health. Thus, we induced obesity in rats using a long-term high-fat diet (HFD), then investigated its effects on insulin signaling and tau hyperphosphorylation. Additionally, we examined the effects of 8 weeks of treadmill exercise (TE) on insulin signaling and tau hyperphosphorylation. METHODS: Rats were separated into Normal Diet-Control, HFD-Control, and HFD-TE groups. TE loads were gradually increased...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672112/word-length-set-size-and-lexical-factors-re-examining-what-causes-the-word-length-effect
#19
Dominic Guitard, Andrew J Gabel, Jean Saint-Aubin, Aimée M Surprenant, Ian Neath
The word length effect, better recall of lists of short (fewer syllables) than long (more syllables) words has been termed a benchmark effect of working memory. Despite this, experiments on the word length effect can yield quite different results depending on set size and stimulus properties. Seven experiments are reported that address these 2 issues. Experiment 1 replicated the finding of a preserved word length effect under concurrent articulation for large stimulus sets, which contrasts with the abolition of the word length effect by concurrent articulation for small stimulus sets...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671746/spatio-temporal-attention-based-lstm-networks-for-3d-action-recognition-and-detection
#20
Sijie Song, Cuiling Lan, Junliang Xing, Wenjun Zeng, Jiaying Liu
Human action analytics has attracted a lot of attention for decades in computer vision. It is important to extract discriminative spatio-temporal features to model the spatial and temporal evolutions of different actions. In this paper, we propose a spatial and temporal attention model to explore the spatial and temporal discriminative features for human action recognition and detection from skeleton data. We build our networks based on the recurrent neural networks with long short-term memory units. The learned model is capable of selectively focusing on discriminative joints of skeletons within each input frame and paying different levels of attention to the outputs of different frames...
July 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
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