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long-term memory

Benoît Silvestre de Ferron, Catherine Vilpoux, Myriam Kervern, Alexandre Robert, Johan Antol, Mickael Naassila, Olivier Pierrefiche
Low to moderate perinatal ethanol exposure (PEE) may have disastrous consequences for the central nervous system resulting notably in permanent cognitive deficits. Learning and memory are mediated in the hippocampus by long-term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD), two forms of synaptic plasticity. PEE decreases LTP but also abnormally facilitates LTD (Kervern et al. ) through a presently unknown mechanism. We studied in rat hippocampus slice, the involvement of the chloride co-transporters NKCC1 and KCC2, in the role of GABAA inhibitions in facilitated LTD after moderate PEE...
October 25, 2016: Addiction Biology
Piotr Tutka, Maria W Kondrat-Wróbel, Katarzyna Zaluska, Dorota Żółkowska, Magdalena Florek-Łuszczki, Jarogniew J Łuszczki
BACKGROUND: Cytisine (CYT) is a partial agonist of brain α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors widely used in Central/Eastern Europe for smoking cessation. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effect of CYT on the ability of classical and novel antiepileptic drugs to prevent seizures evoked by the 6-Hz test, a model of psychomotor seizures in mice thought as a model of drug-resistant seizures. RESULTS: CYT administered intraperitoneally (i...
October 25, 2016: Psychopharmacology
S Moriguchi, T Ishizuka, Y Yabuki, N Shioda, Y Sasaki, H Tagashira, H Yawo, J Z Yeh, H Sakagami, T Narahashi, K Fukunaga
Here, we report a novel target of the drug memantine, ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels, potentially relevant to memory improvement. We confirmed that memantine antagonizes memory impairment in Alzheimer's model APP23 mice. Memantine increased CaMKII activity in the APP23 mouse hippocampus, and memantine-induced enhancement of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and CaMKII activity was totally abolished by treatment with pinacidil, a specific opener of KATP channels. Memantine also inhibited Kir6.1 and Kir6...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Li Hui, Mei Han, Guang Zhong Yin, Yingyang Zhang, Xu Feng Huang, Zheng Kang Qian, Wei Guo Gu, Xiao Chu Gu, Xiao Min Zhu, Jair C Soares, Yuping Ning, Yingjun Zheng, Xiang Dong Du, Xiang Yang Zhang
Long-term antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia is associated with the development of tardive dyskinesia (TD), which is involved in increased cognitive impairment. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene associated with dopamine and norepinephrine systems influences cognition. Schizophrenia with TD have higher DBH activity than those without TD. This study examined whether DBH5'-insertion/deletion (-Ins/Del) polymorphism could influence cognitive function in schizophrenia with and without TD. The presence of DBH5'-Ins/Del polymorphism was determined in 345 schizophrenia with TD and 397 schizophrenia without TD...
October 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
S R T Veerman, P F J Schulte, J B Deijen, L de Haan
BACKGROUND: In a recent placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial (n = 52), significant beneficial effects on memory (d = 0.30) and negative symptoms (d = 0.29) were found after 12 weeks of memantine augmentation in patients with clozapine-refractory schizophrenia. In this open-label 1-year extension study we report the long-term effects and tolerability of memantine add-on therapy to clozapine. METHOD: Completers of the first trial who experienced beneficial effects during 12 weeks of memantine treatment received memantine for 1 year...
October 25, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Soren Impey, Timothy Jopson, Carl Pelz, Amanuel Tafessu, Fatema Fareh, Damian Zuloaga, Tessa Marzulla, Lara-Kirstie Riparip, Blair Stewart, Susanna Rosi, Mitchell S Turker, Jacob Raber
BACKGROUND: Astronauts are exposed to (56)Fe ions that may pose a significant health hazard during and following prolonged missions in deep space. We showed previously that object recognition requiring the hippocampus, a structure critical for cognitive function, is affected in 2-month-old mice irradiated with (56)Fe ions. Here we examined object recognition in 6-month-old mice irradiated with (56)Fe ions, a biological age more relevant to the typical ages of astronauts. Moreover, because the mechanisms mediating the detrimental effects of (56)Fe ions on hippocampal function are unclear, we examined changes in hippocampal networks involved in synaptic plasticity and memory, gene expression, and epigenetic changes in cytosine methylation (5mC) and hydroxymethylation (5hmC) that could accompany changes in gene expression...
October 24, 2016: BMC Genomics
Michael D Nevarez, Johanna C Malone, Dorene M Rentz, Robert J Waldinger
OBJECTIVE: Identifying adaptive ways to cope with extreme stress is essential to promoting long-term health. Memory systems are highly sensitive to stress, and combat exposure during war has been shown to have deleterious effects on cognitive processes, such as memory, decades later. No studies have examined coping styles used by combat veterans and associations with later-life cognitive functioning. Defenses are coping mechanisms that manage difficult memories and feelings, with some more closely related to memory processes (e...
October 7, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Cathy Joanna Jensen, Frauke Demol, Romy Bauwens, Ron Kooijman, Ann Massie, Agnès Villers, Laurence Ris, Jacques De Keyser
In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that the astrocytic adrenergic signalling enhances glycogenolysis which provides energy to be transported to nearby cells and in the form of lactate. This energy source is important for motor and cognitive functioning. While it is suspected that the β2-adrenergic receptor on astrocytes might contribute to this energy balance, it has not yet been shown conclusively in vivo. Inducible astrocyte specific β2-adrenergic receptor knock-out mice were generated by crossing homozygous β2-adrenergic receptor floxed mice (Adrb2flox) and mice with heterozygous tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase-expression driven by the astrocyte specific L-glutamate/L-aspartate transporter promoter (GLAST-CreERT2)...
2016: PloS One
Todd A Fehniger, Megan A Cooper
Due to their ability to kill cancer cells and produce proinflammatory cytokines, natural killer (NK) cells have long been of clinical interest for their antitumor properties. The recent discovery of NK cell memory demonstrates that NK cell functions, and potentially antitumor responses, can be enhanced long term. Following nonspecific activation with the cytokines IL-12, IL-15, and IL-18 or in response to antigens or cytomegalovirus (CMV), human and mouse NK cells exhibit stable, enhanced functional responses with phenotypic and molecular changes...
October 20, 2016: Trends in Immunology
Fatemeh Ostadan, Carla Centeno, Jean-Felix Daloze, Mira Jesper Frenn Lundbye-Jensen, Marc Roig
A single bout of cardiovascular exercise performed immediately after practicing a motor task improves the long-term retention of the skill through an optimization of memory consolidation. However, the specific brain mechanisms underlying the effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on procedural memory are poorly understood. We sought to determine if a single bout of exercise modifies corticospinal excitability (CSE) during the early stages of memory consolidation. In addition, we investigated if changes in CSE are associated with exercise-induced off-line gains in procedural memory...
October 20, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Georgios Nikolakaros, Tuula Ilonen, Timo Kurki, Janina Paju, Sokratis G Papageorgiou, Risto Vataja
Wernicke's encephalopathy is often undiagnosed, particularly in non-alcoholics. There are very few reports of non-alcoholic patients diagnosed with Korsakoff syndrome in the absence of a prior diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy and no studies of diffusion tensor imaging in non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome. We report on three non-alcoholic psychiatric patients (all women) with long-term non-progressive memory impairment that developed after malnutrition accompanied by at least one of the three Wernicke's encephalopathy manifestations: ocular abnormalities, ataxia or unsteadiness, and an altered mental state or mild memory impairment...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Cinthia D Coria-Lucero, Rebeca S Golini, Ivana T Ponce, Nicolas Deyurka, Ana C Anzulovich, Silvia M Delgado, Lorena S Navigatore-Fonzo
Aging brain undergoes several changes leading to a decline in cognitive functions. Memory and learning-related genes such as Creb, Bdnf and its receptor TrkB, are expressed in different brain regions including prefrontal cortex. Those genes' proteins regulate a wide range of functions such as synaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation. In this work, our objectives were: 1) to investigate whether Creb1, Bdnf and TrkB genes display endogenous circadian expression rhythms, in the prefrontal cortex of rats maintained under constant darkness conditions; 2) to study the synchronization of those temporal patterns to the local cellular clock and 3) to evaluate the aging consequences on both cognition-related genes and activating clock transcription factor, BMAL1, rhythms...
October 19, 2016: Brain Research
Y H Cho, M E Craig, A S Januszewski, P Benitez-Aguirre, S Hing, A J Jenkins, K C Donaghue
AIM: To test the hypothesis that non-invasive skin autofluorescence, a measure of advanced glycation end products, would provide a surrogate measure of long-term glycaemia and be associated with early markers of microvascular complications in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Forearm skin autofluorescence (arbitrary units) was measured in a cross-sectional study of 135 adolescents with Type 1 diabetes [mean ± sd age 15.6 ± 2.1 years, diabetes duration 8...
October 22, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Danielle Douglas, Sathesan Thavabalasingam, Zahraa Chorghay, Edward B O'Neil, Morgan D Barense, Andy C H Lee
Surprisingly little is known about how the brain combines spatial elements to form a coherent percept. Regions that may underlie this process include the hippocampus (HC) and parahippocampal place area (PPA), regions central to spatial perception but whose role in spatial coherency has not been explored. Participants were scanned with functional MRI while they judged whether Escher-like scenes were possible or impossible. Univariate analyses revealed differential HC and PPA involvement, with greater HC activity during spatial incoherency detection and more PPA activity during spatial coherency detection...
October 22, 2016: Hippocampus
Andrea Locci, Patrizia Porcu, Giuseppe Talani, Francesca Santoru, Roberta Berretti, Elisa Giunti, Valentina Licheri, Enrico Sanna, Alessandra Concas
Exposure of female rats to estradiol during the perinatal period has profound effects on GABAergic neurotransmission that are crucial to establish sexually dimorphic brain characteristics. We previously showed that neonatal β-estradiol 3-benzoate (EB) treatment decreases brain concentrations of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone, a potent positive modulator of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAAR). We thus evaluated whether neonatal EB treatment affects GABAAR expression and function in the hippocampus of adult female rats...
October 18, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Anne M Murray, Fang-Chi Hsu, Jeff D Williamson, R Nick Bryan, Hertzel C Gerstein, Mark D Sullivan, Michael E Miller, Iris Leng, Laura L Lovato, Lenore J Launer
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The Memory in Diabetes (MIND) substudy of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) study, a double 2x2 factorial parallel-group randomised clinical trial, tested whether intensive compared with standard management of hyperglycaemia, BP or lipid levels reduced cognitive decline and brain atrophy in 2977 people with type 2 diabetes. We describe the results of the observational extension study, ACCORDION MIND ( registration no. NCT00182910), which aimed to measure the long-term effects of the three ACCORD interventions on cognitive and brain structure outcomes approximately 4 years after the trial ended...
October 20, 2016: Diabetologia
Nicole Mons, Daniel Beracochea
A prime mechanism that contributes to the development and maintenance of alcoholism is the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and the release of glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans and primates, corticosterone in rodents) from the adrenal glands. In the brain, sustained, local elevation of glucocorticoid concentration even long after cessation of chronic alcohol consumption compromises functional integrity of a circuit, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the hippocampus (HPC), and the amygdala (AMG)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jillian Iafrati, Arnaud Malvache, Cecilia Gonzalez Campo, M Juliana Orejarena, Olivier Lassalle, Lamine Bouamrane, Pascale Chavis
The postnatal maturation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) represents a period of increased vulnerability to risk factors and emergence of neuropsychiatric disorders. To disambiguate the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to these disorders, we revisited the endophenotype approach from a developmental viewpoint. The extracellular matrix protein reelin which contributes to cellular and network plasticity, is a risk factor for several psychiatric diseases. We mapped the aggregate effect of the RELN risk allele on postnatal development of PFC functions by cross-sectional synaptic and behavioral analysis of reelin-haploinsufficient mice...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Naseem Jamnia, Janice H Urban, Grace Beth Stuzmann, Sarah Chiren, Emily Reisenbigler, Robert Marr, Daniel A Peterson, Dorothy A Kozlowski
Repeat concussions (RC) can result in significant long-term neurological consequences and increased risk for neurodegenerative disease compared to single concussion (SC). Mechanisms underlying this difference are poorly understood and best elucidated using an animal model. To the best of our knowledge, there is no closed-head model in the adult rat using a commercially available device. We developed a novel and clinically relevant closed-head injury (CHI) model of both single and multiple concussions in the adult rat using a controlled cortical impact (CCI) device...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Hillary C Schiff, Joshua P Johansen, Mian Hou, David Ea Bush, Emily K Smith, JoAnna E Klein, Joseph E LeDoux, Robert M Sears
Memory formation requires the temporal coordination of molecular events and cellular processes following a learned event. During Pavlovian threat (fear) conditioning (PTC), sensory and neuromodulatory inputs converge on post-synaptic neurons within the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA). By activating an intracellular cascade of signaling molecules, these G-protein-coupled neuromodulatory receptors are capable of recruiting a diverse profile of plasticity-related proteins. Here we report that norepinephrine, through its actions on β-adrenergic receptors (βARs), modulates aversive memory formation following PTC through two molecularly and temporally distinct signaling mechanisms...
October 20, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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