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Oxygen and head injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370008/initiating-nutritional-support-before-72-hours-is-associated-with-favorable-outcome-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-in-children-a-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-therapeutic-hypothermia
#1
Elizabeth Meinert, Michael J Bell, Sandra Buttram, Patrick M Kochanek, Goundappa K Balasubramani, Stephen R Wisniewski, P David Adelson
OBJECTIVES: To understand the relationship between the timing of initiation of nutritional support in children with severe traumatic brain injury and outcomes. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a randomized, controlled trial of therapeutic hypothermia (Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Consortium: Hypothermia, also known as "the Cool Kids Trial" (NCT 00222742). SETTINGS: Fifteen clinical sites in the United States, Australia, and New Zealand. SUBJECTS: Inclusion criteria included 1) age less than 18 years, 2) postresuscitation Glasgow Coma Scale less than or equal to 8, 3) Glasgow Coma Scale motor score less than 6, and 4) available to be randomized within 6 hours after injury...
January 24, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310404/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-combined-with-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-in-cutaneous-burn-and-inhalation-injury-caused-by-hydrofluoric-acid-and-nitric-acid
#2
Qinhua Pu, Jinxian Qian, Weiyi Tao, Aixiang Yang, Jian Wu, Yaodong Wang
RATIONALE: Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a highly corrosive agent and can cause corrosive burns. HF can penetrate deeply into tissues through intact skin and the lipid barrier, leading to painful liquefactive necrosis, and inducing hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia. In this study, we hypothesize that continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) may be beneficial in addressing hemodynamic instability in cases of HF poisoning. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 25-year-old man fell into an electroplating pool containing 10% HF and 50% nitric acid...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304923/potentially-modifiable-risk-factors-for-long-term-cognitive-impairment-after-critical-illness-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Amra Sakusic, John C O'Horo, Mikhail Dziadzko, Dziadzko Volha, Rashid Ali, Tarun D Singh, Rahul Kashyap, Ann M Farrell, John D Fryer, Ronald Petersen, Ognjen Gajic, Alejandro A Rabinstein
Long-term cognitive impairment is common in survivors of critical illness. Little is known about the etiology of this serious complication. We sought to summarize current scientific knowledge about potentially modifiable risk factors during intensive care unit (ICU) treatment that may play a substantial role in the development of long-term cognitive impairment. All searches were run on October 1, 2017. The search strategy included Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid CDR, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effect, Scopus, and Web of Science, and included MeSH headings and keywords related to intensive care, critical care, and cognitive disorders...
January 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290065/pathophysiology-of-primary-open-angle-glaucoma-from-a-neuroinflammatory-and-neurotoxicity-perspective-a-review-of-the-literature
#4
REVIEW
Karine Evangelho, Maria Mogilevskaya, Monica Losada-Barragan, Jeinny Karina Vargas-Sanchez
PURPOSE: Glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in humans, affecting 2% of the population. This disorder can be classified into various types including primary, secondary, glaucoma with angle closure and with open angle. The prevalence of distinct types of glaucoma differs for each particular region of the world. One of the most common types of this disease is primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), which is a complex inherited disorder characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell death, optic nerve head excavation and visual field loss...
December 30, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275617/-treatment-of-patients-with-different-degree-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-caused-by-inhalation-of-white-smoke
#5
F W Yang, H M Xin, J H Zhu, X Y Feng, X C Jiang, Z Y Gong, Y L Tong
Objective: To summarize the treatment experience of patients with different degree of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by inhalation of white smoke from burning smoke bomb. Methods: A batch of 13 patients with different degree of ARDS caused by inhalation of white smoke from burning smoke bomb, including 2 patients complicated by pulmonary fibrosis at the late stage, were admitted to our unit in February 2016. Patients were divided into mild (9 cases), moderate (2 cases), and serious (2 cases) degree according to the ARDS Berlin diagnostic criteria...
December 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208736/pathophysiological-and-behavioral-deficits-in-developing-mice-following-rotational-acceleration-deceleration-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Guoxiang Wang, Yi Ping Zhang, Zhongwen Gao, Lisa B E Shields, Fang Li, Tianci Chu, Huayi Lv, Thomas Moriarty, Xiao-Ming Xu, Xiaoyu Yang, Christopher B Shields, Jun Cai
Abusive head trauma (AHT) is the leading cause of death from trauma in infants and young children. An AHT animal model was developed on 12-day-old mice subjected to 90° head extension-flexion sagittal shaking repeated 30, 60, 80, and 100 times. The mortality and time until return of consciousness were dependent on the number of repeats and severity of the injury. Under 60 times of repeated head shakings, the pups demonstrated apnea and/or bradycardia immediately after injury. Acute oxygen desaturation was observed by pulse oximetry during respiratory and cardiac suppression...
November 30, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201849/concurrent-surgery-of-craniectomy-and-splenectomy-as-initial-treatment-in-severe-traumatic-head-injury-a-case-report
#7
Hyeong Rae Lee, Nam Kyu You, Sook Jin Seo, Mi Sun Choi
It is not a common case for neurosurgery department and the other departments to perform joint operation at the same time. Patients with severe head injury are a condition in which vital signs are unstable due to severe brain swelling and increased intracranial pressure, and emergency surgery is required. A 44-year-old man visited the trauma center with a motorcycle accident. The Glasgow Coma Scale score at the time of emergency department was 3 points, and the pupil was fixed at 6 mm on both sides. His medical history was unknown...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131369/photobiomodulation-for-traumatic-brain-injury-and-stroke
#8
REVIEW
Michael R Hamblin
There is a notable lack of therapeutic alternatives for what is fast becoming a global epidemic of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Photobiomodulation (PBM) employs red or near-infrared (NIR) light (600-1100nm) to stimulate healing, protect tissue from dying, increase mitochondrial function, improve blood flow, and tissue oxygenation. PBM can also act to reduce swelling, increase antioxidants, decrease inflammation, protect against apoptosis, and modulate microglial activation state. All these mechanisms of action strongly suggest that PBM delivered to the head should be beneficial in cases of both acute and chronic TBI...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109872/severe-decompression-illness-case-report-prehospital-recognition-and-regional-transport-considerations
#9
Julie Estrada, David Meurer, Kevin De Boer, Karl Huesgen
A 46-year-old male presented to our tertiary care emergency department (ED) with shortness of breath and chest pain following an uneventful four-hour SCUBA dive at 100 feet. His prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) assessment revealed transient hypotension and hypoxia. He later developed progressive skin mottling. Serology was significant for acute kidney injury, transaminitis, hemoconcentration, and hypoxia on an arterial blood gas. Computed tomography (CT) angiography demonstrated intravascular gas throughout the mesenteric and pulmonary arteries as well as the portal venous system...
2017: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096887/definitive-airway-management-after-prehospital-supraglottic-rescue-airway-in-pediatric-trauma
#10
Matthew C Hernandez, Ryan M Antiel, Karthik Balakrishnan, Martin D Zielinski, Denise B Klinkner
INTRODUCTION: Supraglottic airway (SGA) use and outcomes in pediatric trauma are poorly understood. We compared outcomes between patients receiving prehospital SGA versus bag mask ventilation (BVM). METHODS: We reviewed pediatric multisystem trauma patients (2005-2016), comparing SGA and BVM. Primary outcome was adequacy of oxygenation and ventilation. Additional measures included tracheostomy, mortality and abbreviated injury scores (AIS). RESULTS: Ninety patients were included (SGA, n=17 and BVM, n=73)...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069074/non-invasive-monitoring-of-brain-edema-after-hypoxia-in-newborn-piglets
#11
Shadi N Malaeb, Meltem Izzetoglu, Jane McGowan, Maria Delivoria-Papadopoulos
BACKGROUND: Development of cerebral edema after brain injury carries a high risk for brain damage and death. The present study tests the ability of a non-invasive cerebral edema monitoring system that uses near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with water as the chromophore of interest to detect brain edema following hypoxia. METHODS: Ventilated piglets were exposed to hypoxia for 1 h, and then returned to normal oxygen levels for 4 h. A NIRS sensor was placed on the animal's head at baseline, and changes in light attenuation were converted to changes in H2O...
October 25, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919828/jugular-bulb-oxygen-saturation-correlates-with-full-outline-of-responsiveness-score-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-patients
#12
Tjokorda Gde Agung Senapathi, Made Wiryana, Ketut Sinardja, Ketut Wibawa Nada, Ida Bagus Krisna Jaya Sutawan, Christopher Ryalino, Aloysius Alphonso
BACKGROUND: Maintaining brain oxygenation status is the main goal of treatment in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2) monitoring is a technique to estimate global balance between cerebral oxygen supply and its metabolic requirement. Full Outline of Responsiveness (FOUR) score, a new consciousness measurement scoring, is expected to become an alternative for Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) in evaluating neurologic status of patients with severe traumatic head injury, especially for those under mechanical ventilation...
2017: Open Access Emergency Medicine: OAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901374/ferulic-acid-exerts-neuroprotective-effects-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-injury-via-antioxidant-and-anti-apoptotic-mechanisms-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#13
Zhongkun Ren, Rongping Zhang, Yuanyuan Li, Yu Li, Zhiyong Yang, Hui Yang
Ferulic acid (FA) is a derivative of cinnamic acid. It is used in the treatment of heart head blood-vessel disease and exerts protective effects against hypoxia/ischemia-induced cell injury in the brain. This study investigated the potential neuroprotective effects of FA against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain injury in vivo and in vitro through hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Nissl staining assays, flow cytometry, Hoechst 33258 staining, quantitative PCR, western blot analysis and fluorescence microscopic analysis...
November 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883787/investigations-into-hypoxia-and-oxidative-stress-at-the-optic-nerve-head-in-a-rat-model-of-glaucoma
#14
Glyn Chidlow, John P M Wood, Robert J Casson
The vascular hypothesis of glaucoma proposes that retinal ganglion cell axons traversing the optic nerve head (ONH) undergo oxygen and nutrient insufficiency as a result of compromised local blood flow, ultimately leading to their degeneration. To date, evidence for the hypothesis is largely circumstantial. Herein, we made use of an induced rat model of glaucoma that features reproducible and widespread axonal transport disruption at the ONH following chronic elevation of intraocular pressure. If vascular insufficiency plays a role in the observed axonal transport failure, there should exist a physical signature at this time point...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838774/the-role-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-in-the-prevention-and-management-of-radiation-induced-complications-of-the-head-and-neck-%C3%A2-a-systematic-review-of-literature
#15
P Ravi, D Vaishnavi, A Gnanam, V B Krishnakumar Raja
Radiation therapy for the treatment of head and neck cancer can injure normal tissues and have devastating side effects. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is known to reduce the severity of radiation-induced injury by promoting wound healing. While most of the research in literature has focused on its efficacy in osteonecrosis, HBO has other proven benefits as well. The aim of this review was to identify the various benefits of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in patients who have undergone radiation for head and neck cancer...
December 2017: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790515/transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-channel-family-member-2-friend-or-foe
#16
Joseph Y Cheung, Barbara A Miller
Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (Trpm2) channels are nonvoltage-activated channels permeable to monovalent and divalent cations, and are expressed in heart, brain, kidney, vasculature, and hematopoietic cells. Trpm2 is overexpressed in bladder, lung, breast, liver, head, and neck cancers. Classically, Trpm2 activation induces cell injury and death by Ca(2+) overload or enhanced inflammatory response. Recent studies show that Trpm2 protects lungs from endotoxin-induced injury by reducing reactive oxygen species production in phagocytes; and improves cardiac function after ischemia-reperfusion injury by preserving mitochondrial respiration and cellular adenosine triphosphate levels while decreasing reactive oxygen species levels...
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777523/transient-osteoporosis-of-the-hip-treated-with-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-a-case-series
#17
Kazuyoshi Yagishita, Tetsuya Jinno, Daisuke Koga, Tsuyoshi Kato, Mitsuhiro Enomoto, Tsuyoshi Kato, Takeshi Muneta, Atsushi Okawa
INTRODUCTION: Transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH) is a self-limiting disorder characterized by bone marrow edema at the femoral head and neck. Patients report pain as moderate or severe at onset; pain gradually subsides at about six months (range four to 12 months). Differential diagnosis of the early stages of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is sometimes difficult. Because hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy is effective for reduction of edema in soft tissue injury and early stages of ONFH, we hypothesized that HBO₂ could be effective in TOH for accelerated recovery...
November 2016: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748496/huperzine-a-alleviates-neuroinflammation-oxidative-stress-and-improves-cognitive-function-after-repetitive-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Zhengrong Mei, Peiying Zheng, Xiangping Tan, Ying Wang, Bing Situ
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may trigger secondary injury cascades including endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. Unfortunately, there are no effective treatments targeting either primary or secondary injuries that result in long-term detrimental consequences. Huperzine A (HupA) is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) that has been used treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to explore the neuroprotective effects of HupA in TBI and its possible mechanisms...
December 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725211/critical-evaluation-of-the-lund-concept-for-treatment-of-severe-traumatic-head-injury-25%C3%A2-years-after-its-introduction
#19
REVIEW
Per-Olof Grände
When introduced in 1992, the Lund concept (LC) was the first complete guideline for treatment of severe traumatic brain injury (s-TBI). It was a theoretical approach, based mainly on general physiological principles-i.e., of brain volume control and optimization of brain perfusion and oxygenation of the penumbra zone. The concept gave relatively strict outlines for cerebral perfusion pressure, fluid therapy, ventilation, sedation, nutrition, the use of vasopressors, and osmotherapy. The LC strives for treatment of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind symptoms rather than just treating the symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690173/immediate-and-delayed-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-as-a-neuroprotective-treatment-for-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#20
Renana Baratz-Goldstein, Shlomi Toussia-Cohen, Aviya Elpaz, Vardit Rubovitch, Chaim G Pick
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury is the most common cause of death or chronic disability among people under-35-years-old. There is no effective pharmacological treatment currently existing for TBI. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is defined as the inhalation of pure oxygen in a hyperbaric chamber that is pressurized higher than 1atm. HBOT offers physiological and mechanical effects by inducing a state of increased pressure and hyperoxia. HBOT has been proposed as an effective treatment for moderate traumatic brain injury (mTBI), yet the exact therapeutic window and mechanism that underlies this effect is not completely understood...
September 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
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