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Oxygen toxicity

Enza Fazio, Antonio Speciale, Salvatore Spadaro, Martina Bonsignore, Francesco Cimino, Mariateresa Cristani, Domenico Trombetta, Antonella Saija, Fortunato Neri
Tailored colloids of uniformly sized and engineered molybdenum oxide nanoparticles were produced, for the first time, by pulsed laser ablation in water. This green technique ensures the formation of contaminant-free nanostructures and the absence of by-products, very useful issues in biological applications. A selective tuning of MoO chemical bonding configurations and a suitable control of nanoparticles size distributions were achieved during the ablation processes by varying the water temperature and by applying an external electric field...
June 18, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Yue Yi, Beizhen Xie, Ting Zhao, Hong Liu
Microbial fuel cell based biosensors (MFC-biosensors) utilize anode biofilms as biological recognition elements to monitor biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and biotoxicity. However, the relatively poor sensitivity constrains the application of MFC-biosensors. To address this limitation, this study provided a systematic comparison of sensitivity between the MFC-biosensors constructed with two inocula. Higher biomass density and viability were both observed in the anode biofilm of the mixed culture MFC, which resulted in better sensitivity for BOD assessment...
June 13, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Hao Zhu, Wencheng Ma, Hongjun Han, Chunyan Xu, Yuxing Han, Weiwei Ma
Ozonation of pyridine and indole was investigated both in aqueous solution and biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (BPCGW). Experimental results showed that the removal of indole was hardly affected by pH value. Direct reaction rate constant of ozone with pyridine increased from 0.18 M-1  s-1 (protonated pyridine) to 3.03 M-1  s-1 (molecular pyridine), and that with molecular indole was 8.6 × 105  M-1  s-1 . Seven and five transformation intermediates were observed for pyridine and indole, respectively...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Minling Gao, Yu Liu, Youming Dong, Zhengguo Song
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a commonly used, artificially-synthesized, industrial chemical that can be released into the soil. However, to date, there is no comprehensive study on the effects of DEHP on photosynthesis, induction of reactive oxygen species, and response of the antioxidant defense system in wheat plants growing in DEHP contaminated soil. This study was conducted to address this gap in knowledge. Our results showed that after application of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg DEHP, photosynthetic parameters, fluorescence parameters, and chlorophyll content of wheat leaves at seedling, jointing, and booting stages decreased, while the intercellular carbon dioxide concentration increased...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
S Dutta Gupta, A Agarwal, S Pradhan
The knowledge on the mode of action, biocompatibility and ecological tolerance of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is gradually accumulating over the years with contradictory findings. Most of the studies indicated the toxic impact of AgNPs on plant growth and development, where induction of oxidative stress was considered to be one of the causal factors. The present study demonstrates the phytostimulatory effect of bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) during seed germination and seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa L...
June 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Behnaz Ghaemi, Elnaz Shaabani, Roqya Najafi Taher, Saeedeh Jafari Nodooshan, Amin Sadeghpour, Sharmin Kharrazi, Amir Amani
In this study, we investigated whether ZnO coating on Ag nanoparticles tunes electron flux and hole figuration at Metal-semiconductor interface under UV radiation. This effect triggers photo activity and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from Ag@ZnO nanoparticles which results in enhanced cytotoxic effects and apoptotic cell death in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB231). In this context, up-regulation of apoptotic cascade proteins (i.e. Bax/Bcl2 association, p53, Cytochrome C and caspase-3) along with activation of oxidative stress proteins suggested occurrence of apoptosis by Ag@ZnO NPs in cancer cells through mitochondrial pathway...
June 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Qunqun Bao, Ping Hu, Yingying Xu, Tiansheng Cheng, Chenyang Wei, Limin Pan, Jianlin Shi
Cerebral vasculature and neuronal networks will be largely destroyed due to the oxidative damages by over-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) during stroke, accompanied by the symptoms of ischemic injury and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Ceria nanoparticles, acting as an effective and recyclable ROS scavenger, have been showing high effectiveness in neuroprotection. However, the brain access of nanoparticles can only be achieved by targeting the damaged area of BBB, leading to the disrupted BBB unprotected and turbulence of microenvironment in brain...
June 22, 2018: ACS Nano
Thao V Nguyen, Andrea C Alfaro, Fabrice Merien, Ronald Lulijwa, Tim Young
Copper is a common contaminant in aquatic environments, which may cause physiological dysfunction in marine organisms. However, the toxicity mechanisms of copper in marine bivalves is not fully understood. In this study, we applied an integrated approach that combines flow cytometry and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics to characterize cellular and molecular mechanisms of copper immunotoxicity in New Zealand Greenshell™ mussel (Perna canaliculus) haemolymph. Flow cytometric results showed significant increases in haemocyte mortality, production of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis (via alteration of caspase 3/7 and mitochondrial membrane potential) of haemocytes exposed to increasing total concentrations of Cu2+ (62...
June 22, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Smita Kumar, Prabodh K Trivedi
Arsenic (As), naturally occurring metalloid and a potential hazardous material, is found in low concentrations in the environment and emerges from natural sources and anthropogenic activities. The presence of As in ground water, which is used for irrigation, is a matter of great concern since it affects crop productivity and contaminates food chain. In plants, As alters various metabolic pathways in cells including the interaction of substrates/enzymes with the sulfhydryl groups of proteins and the replacement of phosphate in ATP for energy...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ping-I Chou, Ding-Quan Ng, I-Chia Li, Yi-Pin Lin
Metal sulfides serve as the sinks of toxic heavy metals in anoxic sediments. Once exposed to fluctuations in environmental conditions, dissolution of metal sulfides can occur and release toxic heavy metal ions into water column. In this study, we investigated the effects of dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, salinity and humic acid (HA) on the dissolution of CuS, PbS and ZnS using batch experiments with continuous aeration to simulate the re-suspension of these metal sulfides during a storm event. Experimental results indicated that oxidative dissolution of CuS, PbS and ZnS occurred in the presence of DO...
May 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Youqiang Fu, Xujian Yang, Hong Shen
Iron plaque (IP) on root surface can enhance the tolerance of plants to environmental stresses. However, it remains unclear the impact of Fe2+ on cadmium (Cd) toxicity to rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings. In this study, the effects of different Fe2+ and Cd2+ concentration combinations on rice growth were examined hydroponically. Results indicated that Fe2+ concentration up to 3.2 mM did not damage rice roots while induced IP formation obviously. Cd2+ of 10 μM repressed rice growth significantly, while the addition of 0...
June 18, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Marcus C Parrish, Isaac A Chaim, Zachary D Nagel, Steven R Tannenbaum, Leona D Samson, Bevin P Engelward
It is well established that inflammation leads to the creation of potent DNA damaging chemicals, including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Nitric oxide can react with glutathione to create S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), which can in turn lead to S-nitrosated proteins. Of particular interest is the impact of GSNO on the function of DNA repair enzymes. The base excision repair (BER) pathway can be initiated by the alkyl-adenine DNA glycosylase (AAG), a monofunctional glycosylase that removes methylated bases...
May 5, 2018: DNA Repair
Camille C Savary, Nessrine Bellamri, Claudie Morzadec, Sophie Langouët, Valérie Lecureur, Laurent Vernhet
Chronic exposure to diesel engine exhausts is associated with an increased risk of pulmonary diseases including lung cancer. Diesel engine exhausts contain large amounts of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on which are adsorbed several carcinogenic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Acute toxicity of high concentrations of DEP has been largely demonstrated in various in vitro cellular models. In contrast, the cellular and molecular impacts of low environmental concentrations of DEP on the phenotype of chronically exposed lung epithelial cells remain to be investigated...
June 18, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Aishah Albalawi, Reem Hasaballah A Alhasani, Lincoln Biswas, James Reilly, Saeed Akhtar, Xinhua Shu
Acrylamide (ACR) is a water-soluble chemical used widely in industry, which can be formed in tobacco smoke and in starchy foods cooked at high temperatures. ACR is considered to be a neurotoxin, genotoxin and carcinotoxin. Previous studies reported that ACR-exposed workers and experimental animals exhibited visual function defects, although the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. In this study, we found that zebrafish embryos exposed to 1 mM and 2 mM ACR showed significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreased expression of the antioxidant genes Sod1, Sod2, Catalase, Gpx1 and Nrf2, reduced activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and elevated malondialdehyde (MDA), compared with control embryos...
June 18, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Johannes Taeger, Agmal Scherzad, Doris Feineis, Raina Seupel, Rudolf Hagen, Norbert Kleinsasser, Stephan Hackenberg
Despite partial advances in therapy for patients suffering from head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), prognosis still remains poor with minimal improvement in survival for over the last several decades. Some agents found are known to cause cancer cell death in vitro by promoting cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. This is particularly of interest as some cancer cells are more sensitive to ROS than normal cells. It could be shown that the novel polyphenol conjugate (E)-3-(3',5'-Dimethoxyphenyl)-1-(2'-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (DPP-23) offers antitumor effects by the selective generation of ROS without an indication of toxicity in normal tissues in vitro and in vivo ...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Lin Cai, Juanni Chen, Zhongwei Liu, Hancheng Wang, Huikuan Yang, Wei Ding
Magnesium (Mg) is an essential mineral element for plants and is nontoxic to organisms. In this study, we took advantage of nanotechnologies to systematically investigate the antibacterial mechanisms of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgONPs) against the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum ( R. solanacearum ) in vitro and in vivo for the first time. R. solanacearum has contributed to catastrophic bacterial wilt, which has resulted in the world-wide reduction of tobacco production. The results demonstrated that MgONPs possessed statistically significant concentration-dependent antibacterial activity, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were measured as 200 and 250 μg/mL, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Irshad Ahmad Mir, V S Radhakrishanan, Kamla Rawat, Tulika Prasad, H B Bohidar
Herein, we report a facile microwave-assisted synthesis of cadmium-free water-soluble silver indium sulfide (AgInS2 or AIS) and AgInS@ZnS (or AIS@ZnS) core-shell quantum dots (QDs) using glutathione (GSH) as stabilizer. The core and core-shell nanocrystals exhibit tunable bandgap ranging of 2.3-3.1 and 2.4-3.5 eV, mean particle size of 2.5 and 3.25 nm, quantum yield of 26% and 49%, and fluorescence lifetimes of 326 and 438 ns, respectively. The core-shell QDs exhibit color-tunable emission in the visible region (500 to 600 nm), where the tunability was achieved by varying the molar ratio of Ag:In in the precursors...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Changjoon Keum, Sangwoo Park, Sang-Yup Lee
Copper-doped zeolite imidazole framework-8 (Cu/ZIF-8) is prepared and its peroxidase-like oxidative catalytic activity is examined with a demonstration of its applicability for cancer cell imaging. Through simple solution chemistry at room temperature, Cu/ZIF-8 nanocrystals are produced that catalytically oxidize an organic substrate of o-phenylenediamine in the presence of H2O2. In a similar manner to peroxidase, the Cu/ZIF-8 nanocrystals oxidize the substrate through a ping-pong mechanism with an activation energy of 59...
June 19, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Marco Pelin, Laura Fusco, Cristina Martín, Silvio Sosa, Javier Frontiñán-Rubio, Jose Miguel González-Domínguez, Mario Durán-Prado, Ester Vázquez, Maurizio Prato, Aurelia Tubaro
The extraordinary physicochemical properties of graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs) make them promising tools in nanotechnology and biomedicine. Considering the skin contact as one of the most feasible exposure routes to GBNs, the mechanism of toxicity of two GBNs (few-layer-graphene, FLG, and graphene oxide, GO) towards human HaCaT skin keratinocytes was investigated. Both materials induced a significant mitochondrial membrane depolarization: 72 h cell exposure to 100 μg mL-1 FLG or GO increased mitochondrial depolarization by 44% and 56%, respectively, while the positive control valinomycin (0...
June 19, 2018: Nanoscale
Kazuki Shibuya, Shun Onodera, Masatoshi Hori
Short-wavelength visible light (blue light: 400-500 nm) has lethal effects on various insects, such as fruit flies, mosquitoes, and flour beetles. However, the most toxic wavelengths of blue light might differ across developmental stages. Here, we investigate how the toxicity of blue light changes with the developmental stages of an insect by irradiating Drosophila melanogaster with different wavelengths of blue light. Specifically, the lethal effect on eggs increased at shorter light wavelengths (i.e., toward 405 nm)...
2018: PloS One
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