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Inappropriate oxygen

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404202/positive-end-expiratory-pressure-in-acute-hypoxemic-respiratory-failure-due-to-community-acquired-pneumonia-do-we-need-a-personalized-approach
#1
Valentina Paolini, Paola Faverio, Stefano Aliberti, Grazia Messinesi, Giuseppe Foti, Oriol Sibila, Anna Monzani, Federica De Giacomi, Anna Stainer, Alberto Pesci
Background: Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a life-threatening complication in patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP). The use of non-invasive ventilation is controversial. With this prospective, observational study we aimed to describe a protocol to assess whether a patient with moderate-to-severe hypoxemic ARF secondary to CAP benefits, in clinical and laboratoristic terms, from the application of a positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) + oxygen vs oxygen alone. Methods: Patients who benefit from PEEP application (PEEP-responders) were defined as those with partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) increase >20% and/or reduction of respiratory distress during PEEP + oxygen therapy compared to oxygen therapy alone...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401411/calculating-metabolic-energy-expenditure-across-a-wide-range-of-exercise-intensities-the-equation-matters
#2
Shalaya Kipp, William C Byrnes, Rodger Kram
We compared ten published equations for calculating energy expenditure from oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production using data for 10 high-caliber male distance runners over a wide range of running velocities. We found up to a 5.2% difference in calculated metabolic rate between two widely used equations. We urge our fellow researchers abandon out-of-date equations with published acknowledgments of errors or inappropriate biochemical/physical assumptions.
February 5, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296095/free-radical-scavenging-reverses-fructose-induced-salt-sensitive-hypertension
#3
Zachary P Zenner, Kevin L Gordish, William H Beierwaltes
We have previously reported that a moderate dietary supplementation of 20% fructose but not glucose leads to a salt-sensitive hypertension related to increased proximal sodium-hydrogen exchanger activity and increased renal sodium retention. We also found that while high salt increased renal nitric oxide formation, this was retarded in the presence of fructose intake. We hypothesized that at least part of the pathway leading to fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension could be due to fructose-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and inappropriate stimulation of renin secretion, all of which would contribute to an increase in blood pressure...
2018: Integrated Blood Pressure Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295858/hif-1%C3%AE-stabilization-reduces-retinal-degeneration-in-a-mouse-model-of-retinitis-pigmentosa
#4
Lorena Olivares-González, Cristina Martínez-Fernández de la Cámara, David Hervás, José María Millán, Regina Rodrigo
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited retinal dystrophies characterized by progressive and irreversible loss of vision due to rod and cone degeneration. Evidence suggests that an inappropriate oxygen level could contribute to its pathogenesis. Rod cell death could increase oxygen concentration, reduce hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) and contribute to cone cell death. The purposes of this study were: 1) to analyze the temporal profile of HIF-1α, its downstream effectors VEGF, endothelin-1 (ET-1), iNOS, and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), and neuroinflammation in retinas of the murine model of rd10 (retinal degeneration 10) mice with RP; 2) to study oxygen bioavailability in these retinas; and 3) to investigate how stabilizing HIF-1α proteins with dimethyloxaloglycine (DMOG), a prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, affects retinal degeneration, neuroinflammation, and antioxidant response in rd10 mice...
January 2, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279366/evaluation-of-safety-and-cost-of-an-open-design-oxygen-mask-in-a-large-community-hospital
#5
Patricia A DeJuilio, Maya B Jenkins, Jeffrey P Huml
BACKGROUND: In our large community hospital, we observed that traditional oxygen masks were sometimes set at an inappropriately low flow. We hoped to eliminate this safety concern through adoption of an open-design oxygen mask. We also hoped that more immediate flow changes would lead to a decrease in medical gas consumption. Finally, by standardizing to one mask, goals were to reduce the cost of oxygen delivery. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis, 12 months before and 12 months after implementation of the open-design oxygen mask...
December 26, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273582/the-role-of-chloroplasts-in-plant-pathology
#6
REVIEW
Robert G Sowden, Samuel J Watson, Paul Jarvis
Plants have evolved complex tolerance systems to survive abiotic and biotic stresses. Central to these programmes is a sophisticated conversation of signals between the chloroplast and the nucleus. In this review, we examine the antagonism between abiotic stress tolerance (AST) and immunity: we propose that to generate immunogenic signals, plants must disable AST systems, in particular those that manage reactive oxygen species (ROS), while the pathogen seeks to reactivate or enhance those systems to achieve virulence...
December 21, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230967/the-obesity-factor-how-cardiorespiratory-fitness-is-estimated-more-accurately-in-people-with-obesity
#7
Karsten Königstein, Christopher Klenk, Anja Rossmeissl, Sandra Baumann, Denis Infanger, Benjamin Hafner, Timo Hinrichs, Henner Hanssen, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss
OBJECTIVE: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is clinically used to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The relation to total body mass (TBM) leads to an underestimation of CRF in people with obesity and to inappropriate prognostic and therapeutic decisions. This study aimed to determine body composition-derived bias in the estimation of CRF in people with obesity. METHODS: Two hundred eleven participants (58.8% women; mean BMI 35.7 kg/m2 [± 6.94; 20.7-58...
December 12, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175443/intracellular-tlr22-acts-as-an-inflammation-equalizer-via-suppression-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-selective-activation-of-mapk-pathway-in-fish
#8
Xu Ding, Yaosi Liang, Wan Peng, Ruozhu Li, Haoran Lin, Yong Zhang, Danqi Lu
TLR22, a typical member of the fish-specific TLRs, is a crucial sensor in virally triggered innate immune signalling retained from natural selection. To elucidate the role of the TLR22-specific signalling cascade mechanism, we provide evidence that the double-stranded (ds) RNA-sensor TLR22 positively regulates the ERK pathway and negatively regulates the JNK, p38 MAP kinase and NF-κB pathway. Here, we show that TLR22 restrains NF-κB activation and IFN (interferon) β and AP-1 (activator protein-1) promoter binding (impairing "primary response" genes (TNF and IL-1)), induces "secondary response" genes (IL-12 and IL-6) and mediates the irregular expression of inflammatory genes...
November 23, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156747/lethality-of-inappropriate-plasma-exposure-on-chicken-embryonic-development
#9
Jiao Jiao Zhang, Jin Oh Jo, Do Luong Huynh, Mrinmoy Ghosh, Nameun Kim, Sang Baek Lee, Hak Kyo Lee, Young Sun Mok, Taeho Kwon, Dong Kee Jeong
In this study, we examined the effects of non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma on embryonic development in chicken eggs in order to determine the optimal level of plasma exposure for the promotion of embryonic growth. We exposed developing chicken embryos at either Hamburger-Hamilton (HH) stage 04 or HH 20 to plasma at voltages of 11.7 kV to 27.6 kV. Our results show exposure at 11.7 kV for 1 min promoted chicken embryonic development, but exposure to more duration and intensity of plasma resulted in dose-dependent embryonic death and HH 20 stage embryos survive longer than those at stage HH 04...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153134/phd-in-the-foxd1-lineage-cells-links-hypoxia-to-inappropriate-nephrogenesis
#10
Tetsuhiro Tanaka
Insufficient oxygenation during pregnancy negatively influences kidney development, which likely serves as a predisposing factor in chronic kidney disease at later stages in life. In this issue of Kidney International, Kobayashi et al. demonstrate that deletion of prolyl hydroxylase 2 and 3, 2 of the major oxygen sensors, in the FoxD1 lineage cells reduces kidney size and inhibits nephrogenesis in mice. Temporospatial expression pattern and studies on additional knockouts suggest the involvement of hypoxia-inducible factor 2...
December 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136618/hepcidin-in-iron-homeostasis-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-implications-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients
#11
Sintayehu Ambachew, Belete Biadgo
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in epidemic proportions worldwide. Evidence suggests body iron overload is frequently linked and observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Body iron metabolism is based on iron conservation and recycling by which only a part of the daily need is replaced by duodenal absorption. The principal liver-produced peptide called hepcidin plays a fundamental role in iron metabolism. It directly binds to ferroportin, the sole iron exporter, resulting in the internalization and degradation of ferroportin...
November 15, 2017: Acta Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118835/classic-cases-revisited-oxygen-in-court-and-the-problem-of-therapeutic-illusion
#12
Piotr Szawarski
Medical science attempts to inform clinical practice. Law is concerned with causality. Intersection of law and medicine at times highlights the shortcomings in the medical approach to causality. Evidence-based medicine is only as good as the process of gathering evidence and this is inherently imperfect as suggested by philosophers. There is a risk of attributing a causal relationship when there is none, which can result in a false belief about an intervention. False beliefs can become entrenched forming a dogma...
August 2017: Journal of the Intensive Care Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116692/a-pilot-study-evaluating-knowledge-of-indications-for-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy
#13
Mark W Jones
A pilot study was conducted in mid-Michigan to evaluate knowledge of appropriate hyperbaric oxygen therapy referrals in "first contact" physicians who did not have additional hyperbaric training. The hypothesis for this study is that many first-contact physicians have little or no exposure to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy and its indications. A survey was distributed regarding accepted indications combined with conditions not currently approved or contraindicated for HBO₂. Answers were tallied for correct identification of approved indications, missed approved indications, and inappropriate identification of unapproved indications...
2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112296/live-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-induces-greater-tlr2-and-tlr2-6-activation-than-the-dead-bacterium-in-an-apical-anaerobic-co-culture-system
#14
Eva Maier, Rachel C Anderson, Eric Altermann, Nicole C Roy
Inappropriate activation of intestinal innate immune receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), by pathogenic bacteria is linked to chronic inflammation. In contrast, a 'tonic' level of TLR activation by commensal bacteria is required for intestinal homeostasis. A technical challenge when studying this activation in vitro is the co-culturing of oxygen-requiring mammalian cells with obligate anaerobic commensal bacteria. To overcome this, we used a novel apical anaerobic co-culture system to successfully adapt a TLR activation assay to be conducted in conditions optimised for both cell types...
November 7, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042484/accuracy-of-oxygen-flow-delivered-by-compressed-gas-cylinders-in-hospital-and-prehospital-emergency-care
#15
Frédéric Duprez, Jean Bernard Michotte, Gregory Cuvelier, Alexandre Legrand, Sharam Mashayekhi, Gregory Reychler
BACKGROUND: Oxygen cylinders are widely used both in hospital and prehospital care. Excessive or inappropriate FIO2 may be critical for patients with hypercapnia or hypoxia. Moreover, over-oxygenation could be deleterious in ischemic disorders. Supplemental oxygen from oxygen cylinder should therefore be delivered accurately. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of oxygen flows for oxygen cylinder in hospital and prehospital care. METHODS: A prospective trial was conducted to evaluate accuracy of delivered oxygen flows (2, 4, 6, 9 and 12 L/min) for different oxygen cylinder ready for use in different hospital departments...
October 17, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973402/2017-update-on-medical-overuse-a-systematic-review
#16
Daniel J Morgan, Sanket S Dhruva, Eric R Coon, Scott M Wright, Deborah Korenstein
Importance: Overuse of medical care is a well-recognized problem. Objective: To identify and highlight original research articles published in 2016 that are most relevant to understanding medical overuse or strategies to reduce it. Evidence Review: A structured review of English-language articles on PubMed published in 2016 coupled with examination of tables of contents of high-impact journals to identify articles related to medical overuse in adults...
January 1, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899790/alisporivir-rescues-defective-mitochondrial-respiration-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#17
Marco Schiavone, Alessandra Zulian, Sara Menazza, Valeria Petronilli, Francesco Argenton, Luciano Merlini, Patrizia Sabatelli, Paolo Bernardi
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle disease of known etiology without effective, or generally applicable therapy. Mitochondria are affected by the disease in animal models but whether mitochondrial dysfunction is part of the pathogenesis in patients remains unclear. We show that primary cultures obtained from muscle biopsies of DMD patients display a decrease of the respiratory reserve, a consequence of inappropriate opening of the permeability transition pore (PTP). Treatment with the cyclophilin inhibitor alisporivir - a cyclosporin A derivative that desensitizes the PTP but does not inhibit calcineurin - largely restored the maximal respiratory capacity without affecting basal oxygen consumption in cells from patients, thus reinstating a normal respiratory reserve...
September 9, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869712/acute-oxygen-therapy-an-audit-of-prescribing-and-delivery-practices-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-perth-western-australia
#18
Anam Kamran, Elisa Chia, Claire Tobin
BACKGROUND: Oxygen is a widely used drug in the hospital setting. However, international audits suggest that oxygen administration practices are often not compliant with prescribed standards. This can place patients at risk and cause serious adverse events. AIM: To analyse data related to recent practices of oxygen prescription and administration at Royal Perth Hospital (RPH), Western Australia. The results of this audit aim to guide further research on possible interventional studies implementing key solutions...
September 4, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819370/metformin-inhibits-gemcitabine-induced-apoptosis-in-pancreatic-cancer-cell-lines
#19
Dietmar Zechner, Ann-Christin Albert, Florian Bürtin, Brigitte Vollmar
Many preclinical and clinical studies are currently evaluating metformin in combination with classical therapeutic agents as anti-cancer therapy. In this study we used three distinct pancreatic cancer cell lines and evaluated cell death by trypan blue assay and Western Blots using antibodies directed against cleaved caspase 3 and PARP. Surprisingly, we observed that 20mM metformin did not enhance, but rather inhibited gemcitabine induced cell death in murine 7265PDA, 6606PDA and 6606l cells. Microenvironmental aspects such as oxygen supply or the pH value did not influence the inhibition of cancer cell apoptosis by metformin...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750686/carbon-dioxide-narcosis-due-to-inappropriate-oxygen-delivery-a-case-report
#20
Thomas Herren, Eva Achermann, Thomas Hegi, Adrian Reber, Max Stäubli
BACKGROUND: Oxygen delivery to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be challenging because of their potential hypoxic ventilatory drive. However, some oxygen delivery systems such as non-rebreathing face masks with an oxygen reservoir bag require high oxygen flow for adequate oxygenation and to avoid carbon dioxide rebreathing. CASE PRESENTATION: A 72-year-old Caucasian man with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was admitted to the emergency department because of worsening dyspnea and an oxygen saturation of 81% measured by pulse oximetry...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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