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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117726/detection-of-reactive-oxygen-and-nitrogen-species-by-electron-paramagnetic-resonance-epr-technique
#1
REVIEW
Sibel Suzen, Hande Gurer-Orhan, Luciano Saso
During the last decade there has been growing interest in physical-chemical oxidation processes and the behavior of free radicals in living systems. Radicals are known as intermediate species in a variety of biochemical reactions. Numerous techniques, assays and biomarkers have been used to measure reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), and to examine oxidative stress. However, many of these assays are not entirely satisfactory or are used inappropriately. The purpose of this chapter is to review current EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) spectroscopy methods for measuring ROS, RNS, and their secondary products, and to discuss the strengths and limitations of specific methodological approaches...
January 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092270/multimodal-individualized-concept-of-hemodynamic-monitoring
#2
Zsolt Molnar, Zsolt Szabo, Marton Nemeth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the pathophysiological rationale of advanced hemodynamic monitoring in the critically ill and also to highlight the importance of a multimodal, individualized approach. RECENT FINDINGS: There are several clinical studies and animal experiments evaluating, which hemodynamic endpoint should be the best target during fluid management. Recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses also investigated the effects of advanced hemodynamic endpoints targeted hemodynamic management on outcome mainly in high-risk surgical patients...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033257/incidental-left-main-bronchus-obstruction-during-left-sided-double-lumen-tube-intubation-of-a-patient-with-an-unrecognized-tracheal-bronchus-a-case-report
#3
Ho Bum Cho, Hyoung June Kim, Hyung Youn Gong, Mun Gyu Kim, Sang Ho Kim
INTRODUCTION: Tracheal bronchus is a right-sided anomalous bronchus arising from the trachea above the main carina and occurs in 0.1% to 2% of the general population. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of left main bronchus obstruction during a left-sided double-lumen tube intubation in a patient with an unrecognized tracheal bronchus. After the intubation, to confirm the position of the tube, we observed what we believed was the carina with a fiberoptic bronchoscope, but it was a site between the tracheal bronchus and the right main bronchus...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013001/mitochondrial-functions-of-thp-1-monocytes-following-the-exposure-to-selected-natural-compounds
#4
Nadin Schultze, Heike Wanka, Paula Zwicker, Ulrike Lindequist, Beate Haertel
The immune system is an important target of various xenobiotics, which may lead to severe adverse effects including immunosuppression or inappropriate immunostimulation. Mitochondrial toxicity is one possibility by which xenobiotics exert their toxic effects in cells or organs. In this study, we investigated the impact of three natural compounds, cyclosporine A (CsA), deoxynivalenol (DON) and cannabidiol (CBD) on mitochondrial functions in the THP-1 monocytic cell line. The cells were exposed for 24h to two different concentrations (IC10 and IC50 determined by MTT) of each compound...
December 21, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993669/contrasting-effects-of-glutamine-deprivation-on-apoptosis-induced-by-conventionally-used-anticancer-drugs
#5
Kadri Valter, Lian Chen, Björn Kruspig, Polina Maximchik, Hengmin Cui, Boris Zhivotovsky, Vladimir Gogvadze
Tumor cells dependence on glutamine offers a rationale for their elimination via targeting of glutamine metabolism. The aim of this work was to investigate how glutamine deprivation affects the cellular response to conventionally used anticancer drugs. To answer this question, neuroblastoma cells were pre-incubated in a glutamine-free medium and treated with cisplatin or etoposide. Obtained results revealed that glutamine withdrawal affected cellular response to therapeutic drugs in a different manner. Glutamine deprivation suppressed etoposide-induced, but markedly stimulated cisplatin-induced apoptosis...
December 18, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939958/the-impact-of-antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-on-peri-implant-disease-what-mechanisms-are-involved-in-this-novel-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Lívia Jacovassi Tavares, Ana Claudia Pavarina, Carlos Eduardo Vergani, Erica Dorigatti de Avila
According to the American Academy of Implant Dentistry, 3 million Americans have dental implants, and this number is growing by 500,000 each year. Proportionally, the number of biological complications is also increasing. Among them, peri-implant disease is considered the most common cause of implant loss after osseointegration. In this context, microorganisms residing on the surfaces of implants and their prosthetic components are considered to be the primary etiologic factor for peri-implantitis. Some research groups have proposed combining surgical and non-surgical therapies with systemic antibiotics...
December 6, 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931091/evaluation-of-altered-drug-pharmacokinetics-in-critically-ill-adults-receiving-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#7
REVIEW
Michael A Ha, Adam C Sieg
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-support modality used in patients with refractory cardiac and/or respiratory failure. A significant resurgence in the use ECMO has been seen in recent years as a result of substantial improvements in technology and survival benefit. With expanding ECMO use, a better understanding of how ECMO affects drug pharmacokinetics (PK) is necessary. The vast majority of PK studies in patients receiving ECMO have been conducted within neonatal or pediatric populations or within a controlled environment (e...
December 8, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863827/-assessment-of-physicians-and-nurses-knowledge-and-practices-of-aerosol-therapy
#8
N Eychenne, A Jaouadi, D Macquart de Terline, A Fratta, S Laribe-Caget, O Steichen, C Fernandez, M Antignac
INTRODUCTION: Aerosol therapy is an efficient, but complex procedure. National and international practice guidelines are regularly updated. However, only a few studies have assessed the application of guidelines by users. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and practices of physicians and nurses regarding these guidelines. METHODS: Two self-administered questionnaires were designed by a working team and presented to physicians and nurses of four university hospitals in Paris...
November 15, 2016: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851839/diagnosis-treatment-and-clinical-management-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-the-contemporary-era-a-review
#9
Bradley A Maron, Nazzareno Galiè
Importance: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by severe remodeling of the distal pulmonary arteries, increased pulmonary vascular resistance, and right ventricular dysfunction that promotes heart failure. Once regarded as largely untreatable, evidence-based decision making now guides clinical management of PAH and improves outcomes. However, misconceptions regarding the approach to PAH in the modern era are common and associated with substandard clinical care. Observations: The clinical profile of PAH has changed substantially since its original description...
December 1, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847821/djulis-chenopodium-formosanum-koidz-water-extract-and-its-bioactive-components-ameliorate-dermal-damage-in-uvb-irradiated-skin-models
#10
Yong-Han Hong, Ya-Ling Huang, Yao-Cheng Liu, Pi-Jen Tsai
Dermal photoaging is a condition of skin suffering inappropriate ultraviolet (UV) exposure and exerts inflammation, tissue alterations, redness, swelling, and uncomfortable feelings. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.) is a cereal food and its antioxidant and pigment constituents may provide skin protection from photoaging, but it still lacks proved experiments. In this study, protective effects of djulis extract (CFE) on UVB-irradiated skin were explored. The results showed that HaCaT cells with 150 μg/mL CFE treatment had higher survival and less production of interleukin- (IL-) 6, matrix metalloprotease- (MMP-) 1, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in UVB-irradiated conditions...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796477/neutrophils-from-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-patients-exhibit-an-increased-capacity-to-release-extracellular-traps-nets
#11
Enrique Podaza, Florencia Sabbione, Denise Risnik, Mercedes Borge, María B Almejún, Ana Colado, Horacio Fernández-Grecco, María Cabrejo, Raimundo F Bezares, Analía Trevani, Romina Gamberale, Mirta Giordano
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by immune defects that contribute to a high rate of infections and autoimmune cytopenias. Neutrophils are the first line of innate immunity and respond to pathogens through multiple mechanisms, including the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). These web-like structures composed of DNA, histones, and granular proteins are also produced under sterile conditions and play important roles in thrombosis and autoimmune disorders. Here we show that neutrophils from CLL patients are more prone to release NETs compared to those from age-matched healthy donors (HD)...
October 28, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723012/poorly-designed-research-does-not-help-clarify-the-role-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-diabetic-foot-ulcers
#12
EDITORIAL
Mesut Mutluoglu, Gunalp Uzun, Michael Bennett, Peter Germonpré, David Smart, Daniel Mathieu
Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are one of the most common indications for hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT). The role of HBOT in DFUs is often debated. Recent evidence based guidelines, while recommending its use, urge further studies to identify the patient subgroups most likely to benefit from HBOT. A recent study in Diabetes Care aimed to assess the efficacy of HBOT in reducing the need for major amputation and improving wound healing in patients with chronic DFUs. In this study, patients with Wagner grade 2-4 diabetic foot lesions were randomly assigned to have HBOT (30 sessions/90 min/244 kPa) or sham treatment (30 sessions/90 min/air/125 kPa)...
September 2016: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576283/-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Elisa Estenssoro, Arnaldo Dubin
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute respiratory failure produced by an inflammatory edema secondary to increased lung capillary permeability. This causes alveolar flooding and subsequently deep hypoxemia, with intrapulmonary shunt as its most important underlying mechanism. Characteristically, this alteration is unresponsive to high FIO2 and only reverses with end-expiratory positive pressure (PEEP). Pulmonary infiltrates on CXR and CT are the hallmark, together with decreased lung compliance...
2016: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571187/profiling-carbonylated-proteins-in-heart-and-skeletal-muscle-mitochondria-from-trained-and-untrained-mice
#14
Andrea Carpentieri, Tania Gamberi, Alessandra Modesti, Angela Amoresano, Barbara Colombini, Marta Nocella, Maria Angela Bagni, Tania Fiaschi, Lorenzo Barolo, Massimo Gulisano, Francesca Magherini
Understanding the relationship between physical exercise, reactive oxygen species, and skeletal muscle modification is important in order to better identify the benefits or the damages that appropriate or inappropriate exercise can induce. Heart and skeletal muscles have a high density of mitochondria with robust energetic demands, and mitochondria plasticity has an important role in both the cardiovascular system and skeletal muscle responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of regular physical activity on the oxidation profiles of mitochondrial proteins from heart and tibialis anterior muscles...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565684/the-role-of-barrier-function-autophagy-and-cytokines-in-maintaining-intestinal-homeostasis
#15
REVIEW
Dana Elshaer, Jakob Begun
Intestinal homeostasis is maintained through the interplay of the intestinal mucosa, local and systemic immune factors, and the microbial content of the gut. The cellular processes of autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, the unfolded protein response and regulation of reactive oxygen species production are required to maintain a balance between pro-inflammatory responses against potential pathogens and a tolerogenic response towards commensal bacteria. Intestinally active cytokines regulate innate immune pathways and cellular pathways within the gut mucosa...
August 24, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528685/patrolling-monocytes-promote-intravascular-neutrophil-activation-and-glomerular-injury-in-the-acutely-inflamed-glomerulus
#16
Michaela Finsterbusch, Pam Hall, Anqi Li, Sapna Devi, Clare L V Westhorpe, A Richard Kitching, Michael J Hickey
Nonclassical monocytes undergo intravascular patrolling in blood vessels, positioning them ideally to coordinate responses to inflammatory stimuli. Under some circumstances, the actions of monocytes have been shown to involve promotion of neutrophil recruitment. However, the mechanisms whereby patrolling monocytes control the actions of neutrophils in the circulation are unclear. Here, we examined the contributions of monocytes to antibody- and neutrophil-dependent inflammation in a model of in situ immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis...
August 30, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503269/drosophila-glob1-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-cytoskeletal-integrity-during-oogenesis
#17
Renu Yadav, Surajit Sarkar
BACKGROUND: Hemoglobins (Hbs) are evolutionarily conserved heme-containing metallo-proteins of the Globin protein family that harbour the characteristic "globin fold." Hemoglobins have been functionally diversified during evolution and their usual property of oxygen transport is rather a recent adaptation. Drosophila genome possesses three globin genes (glob1, glob2, and glob3), and we have reported earlier that adequate expression of glob1 is required for various aspects of development, as well as to regulate the cellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
November 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464555/application-of-vacuum-assisted-closure-therapy-and-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-for-an-exposed-titanium-plate-after-mandible-reconstruction
#18
Taku Maeda, Yuhei Yamamoto, Soichi Tanaka, Toshihiko Hayashi
The authors report a case of an 84-year-old woman with an exposed mandibular plate after reconstruction, which finally healed with combination therapy using vacuum-assisted closure therapy and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The woman was diagnosed with mucosal carcinoma of the right oral cavity. During reconstruction after segmental excision of the mandible, a titanium plate was selected based on several risk factors. After the operation, the plate became exposed at the center of the chin. A second surgery was deemed inappropriate because of her age, malnutrition, and recurrent aspiration pneumonia...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426736/predictors-of-airspace-disease-on-chest-x-ray-in-emergency-department-patients-with-clinical-bronchiolitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Jennifer H Chao, Raymond Chou-Jui Lin, Shashidhar Marneni, Shreya Pandya, Sana Alhajri, Richard Sinert
BACKGROUND: An abnormal chest X-ray (CXR) inconsistent with simple bronchiolitis is found in 7%-23% of cases. Despite national guidelines stating "current evidence does not support routine radiography in children with bronchiolitis"; the use of CXR in these patients remains high. Inappropriate use of CXR not only exposes children to excess radiation, but also increases medical costs. The majority of the time, CXRs are obtained to diagnose or rule out pneumonia. We aim to provide an evidence-based approach defining the utility of CXR in bronchiolitis for the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial pneumonia...
October 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405062/where-s-the-leak-in-vascular-barriers-a-review
#20
Melissa A Kottke, Thomas J Walters
Edema is typically presented as a secondary effect from injury, illness, disease, or medication, and its impact on patient wellness is nested within the underlying etiology. Therefore, it is often thought of more as an amplifier to current preexisting conditions. Edema, however, can be an independent risk factor for patient deterioration. Improper management of edema is costly not only to the patient, but also to treatment and care facilities, as mismanagement of edema results in increased lengths of hospital stay...
September 2016: Shock
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