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Childhood anxiety

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772083/effects-of-prenatal-stress-on-anxiety-and-depressive-like-behaviors-are-sex-specific-in-prepubertal-rats
#1
Ann Mary Iturra-Mena, Marcia Arriagada-Solimano, Ariane Luttecke-Anders, Alexies Dagnino-Subiabre
The fetal brain is highly susceptible to stress in late pregnancy, with lifelong effects of stress on physiology and behavior. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological and behavioral effects of prenatal stress during the prepubertal period of female and male rats. We subjected pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to a restraint stress protocol from gestational day 14 until 21, a critical period for fetal brain susceptibility to stress effects. Male and female offspring were subsequently assessed at postnatal day 24 for anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, and spontaneous social interaction...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770251/review-of-the-neurological-benefits-of-phytocannabinoids
#2
REVIEW
Joseph Maroon, Jeff Bost
Background: Numerous physical, psychological, and emotional benefits have been attributed to marijuana since its first reported use in 2,600 BC in a Chinese pharmacopoeia. The phytocannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD), and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) are the most studied extracts from cannabis sativa subspecies hemp and marijuana. CBD and Δ9-THC interact uniquely with the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Through direct and indirect actions, intrinsic endocannabinoids and plant-based phytocannabinoids modulate and influence a variety of physiological systems influenced by the ECS...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766369/nutritional-issues-in-food-allergy
#3
REVIEW
Isabel J Skypala, Rebecca McKenzie
Diet and nutrition play an important role in the development and management of food allergy. The diet of expectant mothers can have an effect on their offspring in terms of allergic outcomes. A host of confounding factors may influence this, with a maternal diet rich in fruits and vegetables, fish, vitamin D-rich foods associated with a lower risk of allergic disease in their children. More surprisingly, the consumption of milk and butter has also been shown to have a protective effect, especially in a farm environment...
May 15, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764522/treatment-resistant-depression-and-peripheral-c-reactive-protein
#4
Samuel R Chamberlain, Jonathan Cavanagh, Peter de Boer, Valeria Mondelli, Declan N C Jones, Wayne C Drevets, Philip J Cowen, Neil A Harrison, Linda Pointon, Carmine M Pariante, Edward T Bullmore
BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a candidate biomarker for major depressive disorder (MDD), but it is unclear how peripheral CRP levels relate to the heterogeneous clinical phenotypes of the disorder.AimTo explore CRP in MDD and its phenotypic associations. METHOD: We recruited 102 treatment-resistant patients with MDD currently experiencing depression, 48 treatment-responsive patients with MDD not currently experiencing depression, 48 patients with depression who were not receiving medication and 54 healthy volunteers...
May 16, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763998/media-technology-use-and-attitudes-associations-with-physical-and-mental-well-being-in-youth-with-implications-for-evidence-based-practice
#5
Nadine Zeeni, Rita Doumit, Joelle Abi Kharma, Maria-Jose Sanchez-Ruiz
BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that the use of technology and media, in their different available forms, may have detrimental effects on the physical and mental well-being of adolescents and young adults. AIMS: The present study aimed to investigate the use of different types of technology and media, attitudes toward them, and how they relate to physical and mental well-being in Lebanese university students. METHODS: A descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional design was used...
May 15, 2018: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763648/autism-spectrum-disorder-classification-diagnosis-and-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Samata R Sharma, Xenia Gonda, Frank I Tarazi
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, Asperger's syndrome (AS) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). The new diagnostic criteria of ASD focuses on two core domains: social communication impairment and restricted interests/repetitive behaviors. The prevalence of ASD has been steadily increasing over the past two decades, with current estimates reaching up to 1 in 36 children. Hereditary factors, parental history of psychiatric disorders, pre-term births, and fetal exposure to psychotropic drugs or insecticides have all been linked to higher risk of ASD...
May 12, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761341/the-prevalence-of-developmental-defects-of-enamel-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-adolescents-in-western-sweden-a-barn-i-tanadvarden-bita-children-in-dental-care-study
#7
B Jälevik, A Szigyarto-Matei, A Robertson
AIM: To describe the prevalence of different types of developmental defects of the enamel (DDE) in varying age-cohorts and habitations, and to analyse if early trauma to the primary teeth and early subsequent serious health problems were related to DDE in the permanent dentition. Dental fear and anxiety, and aesthetic problems as a consequence of DDE were also investigated. METHODS: DDE was registered over 5 years annually in three age cohorts (796 children). The DDE index (FDI Commision on Oral Health, Research and Epidemiology, Int Dent J 42:411-426, 1992) was used...
May 14, 2018: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757881/health-and-educational-implications-of-prematurity-in-the-united-states-national-survey-of-children-s-health-2011-2012-data
#8
Michelle M Kelly
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Preterm birth is a significant public health issue, with children born prematurely experiencing educational and health difficulties throughout childhood. The aim of the descriptive secondary data analysis was to compare health implications and educational experiences in children born prematurely compared with children born at term. METHODS: The 2011/2012 National Survey of Children's Health data set was explored using separate chi-square tests of homogeneity to investigate differences in the occurrence of chronic health conditions and educationally relevant outcomes: individualized family services plan/individualized education plan (IFSP/IEP), and grade repetition between children born prematurely compared with those born at term...
March 2018: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757114/intolerance-of-uncertainty-as-the-vulnerability-factor-among-parents-of-childhood-cancer-survivors-a-3-month-follow-up-study
#9
Marie Vander Haegen, Anne-Marie Etienne
PURPOSE: In a 3-month follow-up study, we assessed the intolerance of uncertainty in 61 parents of a childhood cancer survivor. The objective was to compare its prevalence over time. We tested these parents twice i.e., at treatment completion (time 1) and 3 months later (time 2). We hypothesized that this personality factor stayed stable and had aversive effects on cognitive processes. FINDINGS: Noticeable intolerance of uncertainty rates were found. At both assessments, results showed that this factor was central in the development of excessive worries, poor problem orientation, rumination, cognitive avoidance and positive beliefs about worry...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752662/executive-attention-and-empathy-related-responses-in-boys-with-oppositional-defiant-disorder-or-conduct-disorder-with-and-without-comorbid-anxiety-disorder
#10
Jarla Pijper, Minet de Wied, Sophie van Rijn, Stephanie van Goozen, Hanna Swaab, Wim Meeus
This is a first study that investigated the relationships between executive attention-as an important aspect of emotion regulation-and state empathy and sympathy in ODD/CD boys with (N = 31) and without (N = 18) comorbid anxiety disorder (7-12 years). Empathic reactions were evoked using three sadness-inducing film clips. One clip was highly evocative involving a bear cub losing his mother, whilst two other clips were mildly evocative involving children in common childhood situations. Self-reports of empathy and sympathy were collected and executive attention was assessed with a performance task...
May 11, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745704/positive-and-negative-effects-of-internalizing-on-alcohol-use-problems-from-childhood-to-young-adulthood-the-mediating-and-suppressing-role-of-externalizing
#11
Katherine T Foster, Brian M Hicks, Robert A Zucker
A longstanding hypothesis is that some alcohol use problems (AUP) develop and are maintained through the "self-medication" of internalizing (INT; depression and anxiety) problems. However, their high rate of co-occurrence with one another and with externalizing (EXT; antisocial behavior and impulse control) problems obscures any causal association because EXT may account for the INT-AUP link. Using a large community sample, we estimated prospective effects of INT and EXT on AUP via latent cross-lagged mediation panel spanning 14 years from childhood (ages 9-11) to young adulthood (ages 21-23)...
May 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738944/sex-differences-in-traumatic-events-and-psychiatric-morbidity-associated-to-probable-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-among-latino-prisoners
#12
Coralee Pérez-Pedrogo, Alfonso Martínez-Taboas, Rafael A González, José N Caraballo, Carmen E Albizu-García
Latinos comprised 17.1% of the U.S. population and 33.1% of US prisoners, yet they are underrepresented in the psychopathology literature. Despite higher rates of trauma among incarcerated individuals than in the general population, most of the previous research in this area focused primarily on women samples, and very few studies examined sex differences in PTSD and traumatic experiences. In addition, there is a need for research assessing traumatic experiences and probable PTSD in men and women Latino inmates to inform culturally competent care and sex sensitive care for this vulnerable and underserved population...
April 14, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738782/pathological-and-non-pathological-variants-of-restrictive-eating-behaviors-in-middle-childhood-a-latent-class-analysis
#13
Ricarda Schmidt, Mandy Vogel, Andreas Hiemisch, Wieland Kiess, Anja Hilbert
Although restrictive eating behaviors are very common during early childhood, their precise nature and clinical correlates remain unclear. Especially, there is little evidence on restrictive eating behaviors in older children and their associations with children's shape concern. The present population-based study sought to delineate subgroups of restrictive eating patterns in N = 799 7-14 year old children. Using Latent Class Analysis, children were classified based on six restrictive eating behaviors (for example, picky eating, food neophobia, and eating-related anxiety) and shape concern, separately in three age groups...
May 5, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736980/face-to-face-interventions-for-informing-or-educating-parents-about-early-childhood-vaccination
#14
REVIEW
Jessica Kaufman, Rebecca Ryan, Louisa Walsh, Dell Horey, Julie Leask, Priscilla Robinson, Sophie Hill
BACKGROUND: Early childhood vaccination is an essential global public health practice that saves two to three million lives each year, but many children do not receive all the recommended vaccines. To achieve and maintain appropriate coverage rates, vaccination programmes rely on people having sufficient awareness and acceptance of vaccines.Face-to-face information or educational interventions are widely used to help parents understand why vaccines are important; explain where, how and when to access services; and address hesitancy and concerns about vaccine safety or efficacy...
May 8, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730662/anomalous-self-experiences-markers-of-schizophrenia-vulnerability-or-symptoms-of-depersonalization-disorder-a-phenomenological-investigation-of-two-cases
#15
Tor Gunnar Værnes, Jan Ivar Røssberg, Paul Møller
BACKGROUND: Basic self-disturbance (BSD) is proposed to constitute the clinical core of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including prodromal states and schizotypy. Anomalous self-experiences (ASEs) are suggested as phenotypic variants of BSD, representing markers of schizophrenia vulnerability. However, ASEs are not restricted to the schizophrenia spectrum, but may also occur in non-psychotic states like depersonalization disorder (DPD). It is unclear to what extent the prevalence and nature of ASEs are differing between the two conditions...
May 4, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722084/the-effects-of-maternal-risk-factors-during-pregnancy-on-the-onset-of-sleep-difficulties-in-infants-at-3-months-old
#16
Isabel Morales-Muñoz, Outi Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Anneli Kylliäinen, Pirjo Pölkki, Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen, Tiina Paunio, E Juulia Paavonen
Sleep problems in young children are among the most common concerns reported to paediatricians. Sleep is thought to have important regulatory functions, and sleep difficulties in early childhood are linked to several psychosocial and physiological problems. Moreover, several prenatal factors have been found to influence infants' sleep. Among them, most of the studies have been focused on maternal prenatal depression and/or anxiety as potential risk factors for sleep problems in childhood, whereas other relevant psychological factors during pregnancy have not received as much attention...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722053/the-role-of-maternal-anorexia-nervosa-and-bulimia-nervosa-before-and-during-pregnancy-in-early-childhood-wheezing-findings-from-the-ninfea-birth-cohort-study
#17
Maja Popovic, Costanza Pizzi, Franca Rusconi, Luigi Gagliardi, Claudia Galassi, Morena Trevisan, Franco Merletti, Lorenzo Richiardi
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates associations of maternal eating disorders (bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, and purging behaviors) with infant wheezing and examines the effects of eating disorders on several wheezing determinants. METHOD: We studied 5,150 singletons from the NINFEA birth cohort. Maternal bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa diagnoses were ascertained from the questionnaires completed in pregnancy and 6 months after delivery, and were analyzed as: ever diagnosis, only before pregnancy, and during pregnancy...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715609/the-impact-of-pre-and-perinatal-factors-on-psychopathology-in-adulthood
#18
Cecilia A Essau, Satoko Sasagawa, Peter M Lewinsohn, Paul Rohde
BACKGROUND: There is considerable evidence that pre- and post-natal factors are associated with a wide range of psychopathology in offspring during childhood and adolescence. OBJECTIVE: The main aims of the present study were to examine the associations between pre- and perinatal factors and psychopathology in offspring during adulthood, and to explore whether family factors (i.e., family cohesion, mother's social support, and father's social support) mediate these relationships...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708046/preliminary-study-of-family-accommodation-in-4-7-year-olds-with-anxiety-frequency-clinical-correlates-and-treatment-response
#19
Sophia Zavrou, Brittany Rudy, Carly Johnco, Eric A Storch, Adam B Lewin
BACKGROUND: Childhood anxiety disorders are common in early childhood and are associated with marked impairment. Family accommodation, which contributes to the maintenance of child anxiety, has only been minimally examined in children under the age of 7 years with anxiety disorders. AIMS: This study aimed at examining the frequency and clinical correlates of family accommodation in anxious children under the age of 7 years, as well as changes in family accommodation following cognitive-behavioral treatment...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706158/time-trends-in-the-global-prevalence-of-mental-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents-gap-in-data-on-u-s-youth
#20
EDITORIAL
Kathleen Ries Merikangas
There have been numerous reports in the media of alarming increases in the rates of childhood mental health symptoms and conditions in U.S. youth, including severe anxiety.1-3 Calling attention to striking increases in the rates of mental health problems is not required to raise public awareness of their significant impact on childrens' lives. In fact, the evidence base for increasing prevalence of mental disorders, or of any of these conditions in the United States or elsewhere, is quite weak.
May 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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