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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149788/knowledge-of-alzheimer-s-disease-among-vietnamese-americans-and-correlates-of-their-knowledge-about-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Sang E Lee, Banghwa Lee Casado
The present study examined the knowledge of Alzheimer's disease and correlates of the disease knowledge among Vietnamese Americans. Cross-sectional survey interviews were conducted with 95 middle-aged and older Vietnamese Americans. Vietnamese Americans showed limited knowledge about Alzheimer's disease. Normalization of Alzheimer's disease in old age was prevalent. They lacked knowledge about treatment and cure of Alzheimer's disease. Those who reside longer in the U.S. and are more exposed to Alzheimer's disease are likely to have higher levels of Alzheimer's disease knowledge...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147557/the-diversity-and-utility-of-amyloid-fibrils-formed-by-short-amyloidogenic-peptides
#2
REVIEW
Zahraa S Al-Garawi, Kyle L Morris, Karen E Marshall, Jutta Eichler, Louise C Serpell
Amyloidogenic peptides are well known for their involvement in diseases such as type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. However, more recently, amyloid fibrils have been shown to provide scaffolding and protection as functional materials in a range of organisms from bacteria to humans. These roles highlight the incredible tensile strength of the cross-β amyloid architecture. Many amino acid sequences are able to self-assemble to form amyloid with a cross-β core. Here we describe our recent advances in understanding how sequence contributes to amyloidogenicity and structure...
December 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147492/alterations-in-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-aberrant-protein-s-nitrosylation-and-associated-spatial-memory-loss-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-mellitus-type-2-mice
#3
Aneeqa Noor, Saadia Zahid
Objectives: Epidemiological and biochemical studies conducted over the past two decades have established a strong link between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the exact mechanisms through which aberrations in insulin signaling associated with T2DM contribute to cognitive decline are not yet known. Materials and Methods: In an effort to explore possible molecular links between T2DM and AD, the present study investigated the status of neurodegeneration, adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and nitrosative stress induced protein S-nitrosylation in streptozotocin (STZ) induced mice models of T2DM...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146683/pcsk9-variants-ldl-cholesterol-and-neurocognitive-impairment-the-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-regards-study
#4
Matthew T Mefford, Robert S Rosenson, Mary Cushman, Michael E Farkouh, Leslie A McClure, Virginia G Wadley, Marguerite R Irvin, Vera A Bittner, Monika M Safford, Ransi Somaratne, Keri L Monda, Paul Muntner, Emily B Levitan
Background -Despite concerns about adverse neurocognitive events raised by prior trials, pharmacologic PCSK9 inhibition was not associated with neurocognitive effects in a recent phase 3 randomized trial. PCSK9 loss-of-function (LOF) variants that result in life-long exposure to low LDL-C can provide information on the potential long-term effects of low LDL-C on neurocognitive impairment and decline. Methods -We investigated the association between PCSK9 LOF variants and neurocognitive impairment and decline among African-American REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study participants with (n=241) and without (n=10,454) C697X or Y142X LOF variants...
November 16, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142239/differential-overexpression-of-serpina3-in-human-prion-diseases
#5
S Vanni, F Moda, M Zattoni, E Bistaffa, E De Cecco, M Rossi, G Giaccone, F Tagliavini, S Haïk, J P Deslys, G Zanusso, J W Ironside, I Ferrer, G G Kovacs, G Legname
Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders with sporadic, genetic or acquired etiologies. The molecular alterations leading to the onset and the spreading of these diseases are still unknown. In a previous work we identified a five-gene signature able to distinguish intracranially BSE-infected macaques from healthy ones, with SERPINA3 showing the most prominent dysregulation. We analyzed 128 suitable frontal cortex samples, from prion-affected patients (variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) n = 20, iatrogenic CJD (iCJD) n = 11, sporadic CJD (sCJD) n = 23, familial CJD (gCJD) n = 17, fatal familial insomnia (FFI) n = 9, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS)) n = 4), patients with Alzheimer disease (AD, n = 14) and age-matched controls (n = 30)...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141449/decisions-and-attitudes-regarding-participation-and-proxy-in-clinical-trials-among-patients-with-impaired-cognitive-function
#6
S Stormoen, I M Tallberg, O Almkvist, M Eriksdotter, E Sundström
Background Medical decision-making capacity is impaired in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Medical decision-making capacity depends on many different cognitive functions and varies due to situation and cognitive, social, and emotional status of the patient. Our aim was to analyze dementia patients' capacity to estimate risks and benefits in different clinical trials and determine how cognitive decline affects their attitude toward possible participation and proxy consent. Methods Groups: Alzheimer's disease (n = 20), mild cognitive impairment (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 33)...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138080/muscarinic-receptor-subtype-distribution-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-relevance-to-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
E P Lebois, C Thorn, J R Edgerton, M Popiolek, S Xi
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are G proteincoupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate the metabotropic actions of acetylcholine (ACh). There are five subtypes of mAChR, M1 - M5, which are expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) on numerous cell types and represent promising treatment targets for a number of different diseases, disorders, and conditions of the CNS. Although the present review will focus on Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a number of conditions such as Parkinson's disease (PD), schizophrenia, and others represent significant unmet medical needs for which selective muscarinic agents could offer therapeutic benefits...
November 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136783/revalidation-of-the-neuroprotective-effects-of-a-united-states-patented-polyherbal-formulation-on-scopolamine-induced-learning-and-memory-impairment-in-rats
#8
Prabhat Upadhyay, Ananya Sadhu, Praveen K Singh, Aruna Agrawal, K Ilango, Suresh Purohit, Govind Prasad Dubey
OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia yet treatment options are extremely limited. The disease is associated with cognitive impairment as well as structural irregularities, accumulation of plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, diminished levels of acetylcholine, oxidative stress, and inflammation in the brain. We have previously reported on the positive effects of a united states patented (US 7,273,626 B2) poly herbal test formulation, consisting of Bacopa monnieri, Hippophae rhamnoides and Dioscorea bulbifera extracts, on cognitive deficits in AD patients...
November 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135021/diagnostic-accuracy-of-the-chinese-version-of-the-trail-making-test-for-screening-cognitive-impairment
#9
Mingqing Wei, Jing Shi, Ting Li, Jingnian Ni, Xuekai Zhang, Yumeng Li, Shenghua Kang, Fuyun Ma, Hengge Xie, Bin Qin, Dongsheng Fan, Liping Zhang, Yongyan Wang, Jinzhou Tian
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Trail-Making Test (TMT), which is commonly used to measure executive function, consists of two components (TMT-A and TMTB). There is a lack of normative TMT data for Chinese elderly adults. This study aimed to evaluate the validity of the TMT in screening for cognitive impairment. DESIGN: 2,294 Chinese-speaking adults aged 50 to 85: 1,026 with normal cognition (NC), 462 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 108 with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 113 with vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI), 121 with vascular dementia (VaD), 282 with uncertain types of dementia, and 15 with mixed dementia...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133888/neuronal-hyperactivity-due-to-loss-of-inhibitory-tone-in-apoe4-mice-lacking-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathology
#10
Tal Nuriel, Sergio L Angulo, Usman Khan, Archana Ashok, Qiuying Chen, Helen Y Figueroa, Sheina Emrani, Li Liu, Mathieu Herman, Geoffrey Barrett, Valerie Savage, Luna Buitrago, Efrain Cepeda-Prado, Christine Fung, Eliana Goldberg, Steven S Gross, S Abid Hussaini, Herman Moreno, Scott A Small, Karen E Duff
The ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE) is the dominant genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the reason APOE4 is associated with increased AD risk remains a source of debate. Neuronal hyperactivity is an early phenotype in both AD mouse models and in human AD, which may play a direct role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Here, we have identified an APOE4-associated hyperactivity phenotype in the brains of aged APOE mice using four complimentary techniques-fMRI, in vitro electrophysiology, in vivo electrophysiology, and metabolomics-with the most prominent hyperactivity occurring in the entorhinal cortex...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133563/a-promising-anti-prion-trimethoxychalcone-binds-to-the-globular-domain-of-prp-c-and-changes-its-cellular-location
#11
N C Ferreira, L M Ascari, A G Hughson, G R Cavalheiro, C F Góes, P N Fernandes, J R Hollister, R A da Conceição, D S Silva, A M T Souza, M L C Barbosa, F A Lara, R A P Martins, B Caughey, Y Cordeiro
The search for anti-prion compounds has been encouraged by the fact that transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) share molecular mechanisms with more prevalent neurodegenerative pathologies, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Cellular prion protein conversion into protease-resistant forms (PrP(Res) or PrP(Sc)) is a critical step in the development of TSEs, thus being one of the main targets in the screening for anti-prion compounds. In this work, three trimethoxychalcones (J1, J8, J20) and one oxadiazole (Y17), previously identified in vitro as potential anti-prion compounds, were evaluated through different approaches in order to gain inferences about their mechanism of action...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133030/20-s-protopanaxadiol-ppd-alleviates-scopolamine-induced-memory-impairment-via-regulation-of-cholinergic-and-antioxidant-systems-and-expression-of-egr-1-c-fos-and-c-jun-in-mice
#12
Cong Lu, Liming Dong, Jingwei Lv, Yan Wang, Bei Fan, Fengzhong Wang, Xinmin Liu
20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) possesses various biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antitumor and anti-fatigue properties. Recent studies found that PPD functioned as a neurotrophic agent to ameliorate the sensory deficit caused by glutamate-induced excitotoxicity through its antioxidant effects and exhibited strong antidepressant-like effects in vivo. The objective of the present study was first to investigate the effect of PPD in scopolamine (SCOP)-induced memory deficit in mice and the potential mechanisms involved...
November 10, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132541/novel-treatment-strategies-using-tio2-nanowired-delivery-of-histaminergic-drugs-and-antibodies-to-tau-with-cerebrolysin-for-superior-neuroprotection-in-the-pathophysiology-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Aruna Sharma, Preeti K Menon, Ranjana Patnaik, Dafin F Muresanu, José V Lafuente, Z Ryan Tian, Asya Ozkizilcik, Rudy J Castellani, Herbert Mössler, Hari S Sharma
More than 5.5 million Americans of all ages are suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) till today for which no suitable therapy has been developed so far. Thus, there is an urgent need to explore novel therapeutic measures to contain brain pathology in AD. The hallmark of AD includes amyloid-beta peptide (AβP) deposition and phosphorylation of tau in AD brain. Recent evidences also suggest a marked decrease in neurotrophic factors in AD. Thus, exogenous supplement of neurotrophic factors could be one of the possible ways for AD therapy...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131981/disturbances-in-the-control-of-capillary-flow-in-an-aged-app-swe-ps1%C3%AE-e9-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Eugenio Gutiérrez-Jiménez, Hugo Angleys, Peter M Rasmussen, Mark J West, Laura Catalini, Nina K Iversen, Morten S Jensen, Sebastian Frische, Leif Østergaard
Vascular changes are thought to contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease, and both cerebral blood flow and its responses during neural activation are reduced before Alzheimer's disease symptoms onset. One hypothetical explanation is that capillary dysfunction reduces oxygen extraction efficacy. This study compares the morphology and hemodynamics of the microvasculature in the somatosensory cortex of 18-month-old APP(SWE)/PS1ΔE9 (transgenic [Tg]) mice and wild-type (WT) littermates. In particular, the extent to which their capillary transit times homogenize during functional activation was measured and compared...
October 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131306/comparative-effectiveness-and-safety-of-cognitive-enhancers-for-treating-alzheimer-s-disease-systematic-review-and-network-metaanalysis
#15
Andrea C Tricco, Huda M Ashoor, Charlene Soobiah, Patricia Rios, Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Jemila S Hamid, John D Ivory, Paul A Khan, Fatemeh Yazdi, Marco Ghassemi, Erik Blondal, Joanne M Ho, Carmen H Ng, Brenda Hemmelgarn, Sumit R Majumdar, Laure Perrier, Sharon E Straus
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To examine the comparative effectiveness and safety of cognitive enhancers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN: Systematic review and Bayesian network metaanalysis (NMA). SETTING: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Ageline (inception-March 2016). PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with AD in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, and nonrandomized studies. INTERVENTION: Any combination of donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, or memantine...
September 29, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130937/amphiphysin-bin1-negatively-regulates-dynamin-2-for-normal-muscle-maturation
#16
Belinda S Cowling, Ivana Prokic, Hichem Tasfaout, Aymen Rabai, Frédéric Humbert, Bruno Rinaldi, Anne-Sophie Nicot, Christine Kretz, Sylvie Friant, Aurélien Roux, Jocelyn Laporte
Regulation of skeletal muscle development and organization is a complex process that is not fully understood. Here, we focused on amphiphysin 2 (BIN1, also known as bridging integrator-1) and dynamin 2 (DNM2), two ubiquitous proteins implicated in membrane remodeling and mutated in centronuclear myopathies (CNMs). We generated Bin1-/- Dnm2+/- mice to decipher the physiological interplay between BIN1 and DNM2. While Bin1-/- mice die perinatally from a skeletal muscle defect, Bin1-/- Dnm2+/- mice survived at least 18 months, and had normal muscle force and intracellular organization of muscle fibers, supporting BIN1 as a negative regulator of DNM2...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130521/a-variant-in-ppp4r3a-protects-against-alzheimer-related-metabolic-decline
#17
Leigh Christopher, Valerio Napolioni, Raiyan R Khan, Summer S Han, Michael D Greicius
OBJECTIVES: A reduction in glucose metabolism in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) predicts conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and tracks disease progression, signifying its importance in AD. We aimed to use decline in PCC glucose metabolism as a proxy for the development and progression of AD to discover common genetic variants associated with disease vulnerability. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of decline in PCC [(18) F] FDG PET measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) participants (n=606)...
November 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130469/-heparan-sulphates-amyloidosis-and-neurodegeneration
#18
REVIEW
C Vera, J A Alvarez-Orozco, A Maiza, S Chantepie, R N Chehin, M O Ouidja, D Papy-Garcia
INTRODUCTION: A number of neurodegenerative disorders have been linked directly to the accumulation of amyloid fibres. These fibres are made up of proteins or peptides with altered structures and which join together in vivo in association with heparan sulphate-type polysaccharides. AIMS: To examine the most recent concepts in the biology of heparan sulphates and their role in the aggregation of the peptide Abeta, of tau protein, of alpha-synuclein and of prions...
November 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130150/predictors-of-adverse-psychological-experiences-surrounding-genome-wide-profiling-for-disease-risk
#19
K M Broady, K E Ormond, E J Topol, N J Schork, Cinnamon S Bloss
This study aimed to identify predictors of adverse psychological experiences among direct-to-consumer (DTC) genomic test consumers. We performed a secondary analysis on data from the Scripps Genomic Health Initiative (SGHI), which studied 2037 individuals tested with commercially available tests yielding personalized risk estimates for 23 common, genetically complex diseases. As part of the original study, the participants completed baseline and follow-up survey measures assessing demographics, personal and family health history, attitudes toward genetic testing, anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)), test-related distress (Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R)), and reactions to receipt of results...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Community Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129775/connecting-alzheimer-s-disease-to-diabetes-underlying-mechanisms-and-potential-therapeutic-targets
#20
REVIEW
Marcelo N N Vieira, Ricardo A S Lima-Filho, Fernanda G De Felice
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and vice versa, and a growing body of evidence indicates that these diseases are connected both at epidemiological, clinical and molecular levels. Recent studies have begun to reveal common pathogenic mechanisms shared by AD and type 2 diabetes. Impaired neuronal insulin signaling and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are present in animal models of AD, similar to observations in peripheral tissue in T2D. These findings shed light into novel diabetes-related mechanisms leading to brain dysfunction in AD...
November 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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