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traumatic brain trauma

A Craig, N A Elbers, J Jagnoor, B Gopinath, A Kifley, M Dinh, I Pozzato, R Q Ivers, M Nicholas, I D Cameron
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the psychological impact of traffic injuries in bicyclists (cyclists) with comparisons to car occupants who also have sustained traffic injuries. Factors predictive of elevated psychological distress were also investigated. METHODS: An inception cohort prospective design was used. Participants included cyclists who sustained a physical injury (n = 238) aged ≥17 years (mean age 41.7yrs), assessed within 28 days of the crash, following medical examination by a registered healthcare practitioner...
October 20, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Sandro M Krieg, Raimund Trabold, Nikolaus Plesnila
Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) V1 receptors are known to mediate brain edema formation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). So far, however, AVP V1 receptors were only inhibited by genetic deletion or prior to trauma. Therefore the current study aimed to determine the therapeutic window of AVP V1 receptors anatomization after TBI. Male C57BL/6 mice (n=7 per group) were subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI) and 500 ng of a selective peptide V1 receptor antagonist (V1880) were applied by intracerebroventricular injection 5 min, 1, 3, and 6 hours thereafter...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Chung-Ching Chio, Mao-Tsun Lin, Ching-Ping Chang, Hung-Jung Lin
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) regulates many processes after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Both Neuro AiD(™) (MLC601) and Astragaloside (AST) attenuate microglia activation in rats with TBI. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether MLC601 or AST improves output of TBI by affecting microglial expression of TGF-β1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (120 in number) were used to investigate the contribution of TGF-β1-containing microglia in the MLC601-mediated or the AST-mediated neuroprotection in the brain trauma condition using lateral fluid-percussion injury...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Thomas Beez, Jennifer Brown
BACKGROUND: Atlanto-occipital dislocation (AOD) is a rare but severe sequela of high energy trauma. Children are at increased risk, due to their immature spine and biomechanical characteristics. LITERATURE REVIEW: The prevailing mechanism of injury is motor vehicle collision as passenger. AOD commonly presents with cardiorespiratory arrest, spinal cord injury or cranial nerve deficits. Concomitant injuries, such as traumatic brain injury, are frequently encountered...
October 18, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Tellen D Bennett, Rebecca R Dixon, Cory Kartchner, Peter E DeWitt, Yamila Sierra, Diane Ladell, Allison Kempe, Desmond K Runyan, J Michael Dean, Heather T Keenan
OBJECTIVES: In children with traumatic brain injury, 1) to describe the hospital discharge functional outcome and change from baseline function using the Functional Status Scale and 2) to determine any associations between discharge Functional Status Scale and age, injury mechanism, neurologic examination, imaging, and other predictors of outcome. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study, May 2013 to November 2015. SETTING: Two U.S. children's hospitals designated as American College of Surgeons level 1 pediatric trauma centers...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
J Willis Kiessling, Dean A Hertzler, David E M Drucker, Heather S Spader
BACKGROUND: This case report illustrates the need to evaluate the possibility of multiple arterial sources when presented with a frontal epidural hematoma associated with facial trauma. CASE DESCRIPTION: Our patient presented after being struck in the face by a baseball. Computed tomography (CT) of the brain revealed a large frontal epidural hematoma. Intraoperatively, bleeding from a frontal branch of the middle meningeal artery was encountered and cauterized, and the hematoma was removed...
October 14, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Vigneswaran Veeramuthu, Vairavan Narayanan, Norlisah Ramli, Aditya Hernowo, Vicknes Waran, Mark W Bondi, Lisa Delano-Wood, Dharmendra Ganesan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the extent of persistent neuropsychological impairment in patients with complicated versus uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). METHODS: 61 patients with mTBI (GCS 13 to 15) were prospectively recruited, categorized according to baseline CT findings, and underwent neuropsychological assessment at initial admission (n=61) as well as at 6 month follow-up (n=30). A paired t-test, Cohen's d effect size calculation, and repeated measure ANOVA were used to establish the differences between the groups in terms of their neuropsychological performance...
October 14, 2016: World Neurosurgery
William Peacock
Dear Editor I read with great interest the manuscript titled "A New Panel of Blood Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury/Concussion in Adults" by Shan R, et al, published in the January issue of the Journal. (1) I do have some questions. The key to marker discovery studies is a precise and accurate description of how the population was identified, including controls. I have significant concerns about the control population in the manuscript. In the presentation the characteristics of the control group are unclear, described only as "not patients in the ED" and with the same exclusion criteria of the other cohorts...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Anthony R Mawson, Nola T Radford, Binu Jacob
Stuttering affects about 1% of the general population and from 8 to 11% of children. The onset of persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) typically occurs between 2 and 4 years of age. The etiology of stuttering is unknown and a unifying hypothesis is lacking. Clues to the pathogenesis of stuttering include the following observations: PDS is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and birth-associated trauma; stuttering can recur or develop in adulthood following traumatic events such as brain injury and stroke; PDS is associated with structural and functional abnormalities in the brain associated with speech and language; and stuttering resolves spontaneously in a high percentage of affected children...
October 18, 2016: European Neurology
Pilar Anton-Martin, Bruno Braga, Stephen Megison, Janna Journeycake, Jessica Moreland
Severe trauma may cause refractory life-threatening respiratory failure requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Concurrent traumatic brain injury, however, complicates the use of ECMO because of the major risk of intracranial bleeding with systemic anticoagulation. Craniotomy and/or craniectomy for hematoma evacuation during ECMO are extremely high-risk procedures secondary to ongoing anticoagulation, and there are only a few such case reports in the literature.We present the case of a child with multiple thoracic injuries and life-threatening respiratory failure supported on ECMO...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Sarit Shimony-Kanat, Julie Benbenishty
OBJECTIVE: To characterize trauma-related falls in infants and toddlers aged 0 to 3 years over a 4-year period and develop a risk stratification model of causes of fall injuries. METHODS: Data on falls of 0 to 3 year olds from 2009 to 2012 were identified from a Jerusalem tertiary hospital trauma registry (N = 422) and the National Trauma Registry of Israel (N = 4,131). RESULTS: Almost half of falls occurred during the first year of life, and 57% of the children were Jewish...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Philbert Y Van, Martin A Schreiber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The traumatically injured patient is at high risk for developing venous thromboembolism. Clinical practice guidelines developed by the American College of Chest Physicians and the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma recognize the importance of initiating thromboprophylaxis, but the guidelines lack specific recommendations regarding the timing and dose of pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. We review the literature regarding initiation of thromboprophylaxis in different injuries, the use of inferior vena cava filters, laboratory monitoring, dosing regimens, and the use of antiplatelet therapy...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Megan J Leonhard, Dagan A Wright, Rongwei Fu, David P Lehrfeld, Kathleen F Carlson
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) greatly contributes to morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. We examined potential urban/rural disparities in mortality amongst Oregon pediatric patients with TBI treated in trauma hospitals. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of children ages 0-19 using the Oregon Trauma Registry for years 2009-2012. Geographic location of injury was classified using the National Center for Health Statistics Urban/Rural Classification Scheme...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Daisuke Kudo, Shigeki Kushimoto, Atsushi Shiraishi, Hiroshi Ogura, Akiyoshi Hagiwara, Daizoh Saitoh
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether preinjury medication with antithrombotic agents was related to an increase in hemostatic interventions in patients with severe trauma without traumatic brain injury. METHODS: Consecutive trauma patients who were admitted to the emergency departments of the study hospitals with an injury severity score ≥16 were enrolled in this retrospective, observational, multicenter study of coagulation in the acute phase of severe trauma...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Rafet Özay, Erhan Türkoğlu, Bora Gürer, Habibullah Dolgun, Oya Evirgen, Berrin İmge Ergüder, Nazlı Hayırlı, Levent Gürses, Zeki Şekerci, Erdal Reşit Yılmaz
BACKGROUND: The development of secondary brain injury via oxidative stress after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is well known. Decorin inactivates Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), complement system (CS) and Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) which are related the oxidative stress and apoptosis. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of Decorin (DC) on TBI. METHODS: A total of 24 male rats were used and divided into four groups as follows; control, trauma, DC, and methylprednisolone (MP)...
October 12, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Ashley Blanchard, Keven I Cabrera, Nathan Kuppermann, Peter S Dayan
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the prevalence of and adverse outcomes caused by pneumocephali in children with minor blunt head trauma who had no other intracranial injuries (ie, isolated pneumocephali). METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a public use dataset from a multicenter prospective study of pediatric minor head trauma. We included children younger than 18 years with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 14 or 15 and non-trivial mechanisms of injury who had cranial computed tomographies obtained...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Stephen S Humble, Laura D Wilson, John W McKenna, Taylor C Leath, Yanna Song, Mario A Davidson, Jesse M Ehrenfeld, Oscar D Guillamondegui, Pratik P Pandharipande, Mayur B Patel
OBJECTIVE: To determine risk factors associated with tracheostomy placement after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subsequent outcomes among those who did and did not receive a tracheostomy. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study compared adult trauma patients with severe TBI (n = 583) who did and did not receive tracheostomy. A multivariable logistic regression model assessed the associations between age, sex, race, insurance status, admission GCS, AIS (Head, Face, Chest) and tracheostomy placement...
October 14, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Stefan Candefjord, Johan Winges, Ahzaz Ahmad Malik, Yinan Yu, Thomas Rylander, Tomas McKelvey, Andreas Fhager, Mikael Elam, Mikael Persson
Traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of death and severe disability for young people and a major public health problem for elderly. Many patients with intracranial bleeding are treated too late, because they initially show no symptoms of severe injury and are not transported to a trauma center. There is a need for a method to detect intracranial bleedings in the prehospital setting. In this study, we investigate whether broadband microwave technology (MWT) in conjunction with a diagnostic algorithm can detect subdural hematoma (SDH)...
October 13, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
S E Dekker, H-M de Vries, W D Lubbers, P M van de Ven, E J Toor, F W Bloemers, L M G Geeraedts, P Schober, C Boer
PURPOSE: Despite the availability of different lactate clearance (LC) metrics for clinical use, it remains unknown which metric is superior as a clinical predictor for outcome, particularly in trauma patients. This retrospective study compared four previously described metrics of LC and examined the association between LC and outcome in trauma patients. METHODS: Lactate values of trauma patients admitted to a level I trauma center between 2010 and 2013 were retrieved from patient records...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Bérangère Gohy, Engy Ali, Rafael Van den Bergh, Erin Schillberg, Masood Nasim, Muhammad Mahmood Naimi, Sophia Cheréstal, Pauline Falipou, Eric Weerts, Peter Skelton, Catherine Van Overloop, Miguel Trelles
BACKGROUND: In Afghanistan, Médecins Sans Frontières provided specialised trauma care in Kunduz Trauma Centre (KTC), including physiotherapy. In this study, we describe the development of an adapted functional score for patient outcome monitoring, and document the rehabilitation care provided and patient outcomes in relation to this functional score. METHODS: A descriptive cohort study was done, including all patients admitted in the KTC inpatient department (IPD) between January and June 2015...
October 13, 2016: International Health
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