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Persistent Pulmonary hypertension of the newborn

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138242/role-of-ecmo-in-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#1
REVIEW
Merrill McHoney, Philip Hammond
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is typified morphologically by failure of diaphragmatic development with accompanying lung hypoplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Patients who have labile physiology and low preductal saturations despite optimal ventilatory and inotropic support may be considered for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Systematic reviews into the benefits of ECMO in CDH concluded that any benefit is unclear. Few randomised trials exist to demonstrate clear benefit and guide management...
November 14, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108501/occult-massive-visceral-fat-necrosis-following-therapeutic-hypothermia-for-neonatal-encephalopathy
#2
Salwa Khedr, Anna Piskorski, Adrienne R Bingham, Justin Goldstein, Abbot R Laptook, Monique E De Paepe
Therapeutic hypothermia (head or whole-body cooling) improves survival and neurodevelopmental outcome in term newborns with moderate-to-severe encephalopathy. Hypothermia treatment is well tolerated; the most common side effect is thrombocytopenia. In about 1% of infants, focal subcutaneous fat necrosis has been reported. We describe a case of clinically unsuspected massive visceral fat necrosis in a term infant with Apgar score 0 at 1 min ("resuscitated apparently stillborn" infant) who was treated with therapeutic hypothermia for 72 h and expired on the 25th day of life following a neonatal course complicated by severe encephalopathy, pulmonary artery hypertension, persistent thrombocytopenia, hypoglycemia, and severe basal ganglia-thalamic abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging...
January 1, 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058384/nitric-oxide-for-the-treatment-of-preterm-infants-with-severe-rds-and-pulmonary-hypertension
#3
Carlo Dani, Iuri Corsini, Jessica Cangemi, Venturella Vangi, Simone Pratesi
BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) cannot be recommended for the routine treatment of respiratory failure in premature neonates, but it has been suggested that the effectiveness of iNO therapy should be further studied in more select preterm infants, such as those with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of PPHN in very preterm infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), to assess the effectiveness of iNO in these patients, and to individuate possible predictive factors for the response to iNO in preterm infants with RDS...
November 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058246/factors-relating-caesarean-section-to-persistent-pulmonary-hypertension-of-the-newborn
#4
REVIEW
Niralee Babooa, Wen-Jing Shi, Chao Chen
BACKGROUND: Several studies have clearly demonstrated a significantly higher incidence of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) in neonates delivered by caesarean section (CS) compared to those delivered vaginally. The pathophysiological factors underlying the link between CS and PPHN are still poorly understood. In this review, we describe the mechanisms that could explain the association between CS delivery and subsequent PPHN, as well as potential preventive measures...
December 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047092/redox-signaling-and-persistent-pulmonary-hypertension-of-the-newborn
#5
Megha Sharma, Adeleye J Afolayan
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are redox-signaling molecules that are critically involved in regulating endothelial cell functions, host defense, aging, and cellular adaptation. Mitochondria are the major sources of ROS and important sources of redox signaling in pulmonary circulation. It is becoming increasingly evident that increased mitochondrial oxidative stress and aberrant signaling through redox-sensitive pathways play a direct causative role in the pathogenesis of many cardiopulmonary disorders including persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033108/clinical-course-in-infants-diagnosed-with-transient-tachypnea-of-newborn-a-clinical-trial-assessing-the-role-of-conservative-versus-conventional-management
#6
M Dehdashtian, M Aletayeb, A Malakian, M R Aramesh, H Malvandi
BACKGROUND: Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) is a respiratory disorder secondary to inadequate or delayed clearance of lung fluids. Early symptoms of the disease are indistinguishable from neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, and persistent pulmonary hypertension. Therefore, these newborns, in addition to receiving conservative management, receive antibiotics until blood cultures provide definite results. In this study, we assessed the clinical course of neonates diagnosed with TTN who received conventional versus conservative management...
October 9, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017182/factors-and-outcomes-of-persistent-pulmonary-hypertension-of-the-newborn-associated-with-acute-kidney-injury-in-thai-neonates
#7
Wuttichart Kamolvisit, Sutthikiat Jaroensri, Benthira Ratchatapantanakorn, Narongsak Nakwan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974647/a-quality-improvement-project-to-improve-evidence-based-inhaled-nitric-oxide-use
#8
Colleen A Hughes Driscoll, Natalie L Davis, Megan Miles, Dina El-Metwally
BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) reduces extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use in term and near-term neonates with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn; however, its overutilization is increasing. We hypothesized that implementing a shared baseline protocol would safely improve evidence-based INO use in a Level IV neonatal ICU. METHODS: Through several plan-do-study-act cycles, a shared baseline protocol for initiation and weaning of INO was developed and implemented starting in August 2014...
October 3, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964329/characterization-of-gpcr-signaling-in-hypoxia
#9
Raja Chakraborty, Anurag Singh Sikarwar, Martha Hinton, Shyamala Dakshinamurti, Prashen Chelikani
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signal in response to various external stimuli including stress. GPCR signaling has been shown to play a critical role in the adaptation of cell response to limited oxygen supply. Hypoxia has been implicated in cardiovascular diseases, human pulmonary arterial responses, and persistent pulmonary hypertension in newborns. One of the key GPCRs implicated in hypoxia is the prostanoid receptor, thromboxane A2 receptor (TP). Hypoxia can affect TP localization, stability, and activity both in vivo and in vitro...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926832/persistent-pulmonary-hypertension-of-the-newborn-in-twin-twin-transfusion-syndrome-a-case-control-study
#10
Manon Gijtenbeek, M C Haak, Derk Jan Ten Harkel, Arjan B Te Pas, Johanna M Middeldorp, Frans J C M Klumper, Nan van Geloven, Dick Oepkes, Enrico Lopriore
BACKGROUND: Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is suggested to increase the risk of PPHN. OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence of PPHN in TTTS twins and to identify risk factors in TTTS twins for the development of severe PPHN. METHODS: Cases with severe PPHN were extracted from our monochorionic twin database (2002-2016). Severe PPHN was defined as severe hypoxaemia requiring mechanical ventilation and inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) treatment, confirmed by strict echocardiographic criteria...
2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923474/beyond-the-inhaled-nitric-oxide-in-persistent-pulmonary-hypertension-of-the-newborn
#11
REVIEW
Mei-Yin Lai, Shih-Ming Chu, Satyan Lakshminrusimha, Hung-Chih Lin
Persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) is a consequence of failed pulmonary vascular transition at birth and leads to pulmonary hypertension with shunting of deoxygenated blood across the ductus arteriosus (DA) and foramen ovale (FO) resulting in severe hypoxemia, and it may eventually lead to life-threatening circulatory failure. PPHN is a serious event affecting both term and preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. It is often associated with diseases such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia, meconium aspiration, sepsis, congenital pneumonia, birth asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome...
August 10, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828053/ultrasound-prenatal-diagnosis-and-emergency-interventional-radiologic-therapy-of-galen-aneurysmal-malformation-in-a-newborn
#12
Roxana Elena Bohiltea, Natalia Turcan, Cristian Mihalea, Bogdan Dorobat, Eliza Elena Cinteza, Adriana Dan, Magdalena Mihai, Adela Dimitriade, Cristian Boros, Mircea Dumitru, Ionut Gobej, Octavian Munteanu, Monica Mihaela Cirstoiu
Located under the cerebral hemispheres and draining the anterior and central regions of the brain into the sinus of the posterior cerebral fossa, the vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation is considered to be a rare cause of hydrocephaly. The presence of this condition in the neonatal period typically includes intractable heart failure and a poor prognosis. We report a case of aneurysm of the vein of Galen diagnosed prenatally at 28 weeks of gestation, with the delivery at term by caesarean section of a female infant...
December 2016: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816096/management-of-severe-pulmonary-hemorrhage-in-a-neonate-on-veno-arterial-ecmo-by-the-temporary-clamping-of-the-endotracheal-tube-a-case-report
#13
Vaclav Vobruba, Tomas Grus, Frantisek Mlejnsky, Jan Belohlavek, Jan Hridel, Lukas Lambert
Severe pulmonary hemorrhage in the newborn is an infrequent, but life-threatening, event. A newborn with persistent pulmonary hypertension and a large persistent ductus arteriosus and open foramen ovale presented with hypoxemia and progressive right heart failure shortly after birth, requiring veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. Twenty minutes after the initiation of ECMO, the patient developed severe pulmonary hemorrhage refractory to conventional treatment. As a last resort, the endotracheal tube was clamped...
August 1, 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814329/severe-persistent-pulmonary-hypertension-of-the-newborn-and-dysmorphic-features-in-neonate-with-a-deletion-involving-twist1-and-phf14-a-case-report
#14
Carina Schinagl, Guro Reinholt Melum, Olaug Kristin Rødningen, Kathrine Bjørgo, Jannicke Hanne Andresen
BACKGROUND: Persistent pulmonary hypertension is a well-known disease of the newborn that in most cases responds well to treatment with nitric oxide and treatment of any underlying causes. Genetic causes of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn are rare. The TWIST1 gene is involved in morphogenetics, and deletions are known to cause Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. Deletions of PHF14 have never been reported in neonates, but animal studies have shown a link between severe defects in lung development and deletions of this gene...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755186/liver-transplantation-for-hereditary-tyrosinaemia-type-1-in-the-united-kingdom
#15
Patrick McKiernan
Fourteen children have undergone liver transplantation for hereditary tyrosinaemia type 1 (HT1) at Birmingham Children's hospital (BCH) since 1989; six were treated prior to the availability of Nitisinone in 1993 and eight in the post Nitisinone era. Prior to 1993 essentially all children with HT1 were referred for transplantation. In the Nitisinone era only those with unresponsive liver failure or suspected malignancy were considered for transplantation. Those who were treated pre-emptively following newborn screening have no evidence of liver disease and none have required transplantation...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737730/sildenafil-in-infants-and-children
#16
REVIEW
Larisa Simonca, Robert Tulloh
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) management has been transformed in recent times with the advent of cheap and effective diagnostic tools and therapy. Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase-V inhibitor, has been at the centre of this treatment, and its success in treating PAH has led to its widespread uptake in adult and paediatric pulmonary hypertension (PH), as a first line treatment choice. This might apply to persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) or bronchopulmonary dysplasia, as well as to more complex diseases, such as idiopathic pulmonary hypertension...
July 24, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735030/effect-of-bosentan-therapy-in-persistent-pulmonary-hypertension-of-the-newborn
#17
Gunlawadee Maneenil, Anucha Thatrimontrichai, Waricha Janjindamai, Supaporn Dissaneevate
BACKGROUND: Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) contributes to neonatal hypoxemia and is associated with a high mortality. Some PPHN patients are unresponsive to inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). Bosentan, an oral endothelin-1 receptor antagonist, reduces pulmonary vascular resistance and hence may play a role in the treatment of PPHN. METHODS: A retrospective medical records review was performed in newborns who received oral bosentan as an adjunctive therapy for treatment of PPHN between January 2013 and February 2016 at the neonatal intensive care unit of Songklanagarind Hospital...
July 11, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734808/-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-manifesting-as-neonatal-respiratory-distress-in-an-hiv-exposed-uninfected-newborn
#18
A Pham, H El Mjati, N Nathan, F Kieffer, D Mitanchez
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most common intrauterine infections, affecting approximately 1% of all live births. There are few reports on congenital CMV infections manifesting as isolated pneumonitis. CASE REPORT: We report a case of congenital CMV with neonatal respiratory distress affecting an HIV-exposed uninfected infant. This infant required noninvasive ventilation beginning within the first 15min of life. The initial chest X-ray showed diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacifications...
July 19, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714905/effects-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-epa-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-on-fetal-pulmonary-circulation-an-experimental-study-in-fetal-lambs
#19
Dyuti Sharma, Estelle Aubry, Thavarak Ouk, Ali Houeijeh, Véronique Houfflin-Debarge, Rémi Besson, Philippe Deruelle, Laurent Storme
Background: Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) causes significant morbidity and mortality in neonates. n-3 Poly-unsaturated fatty acids have vasodilatory properties in the perinatal lung. We studied the circulatory effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fetal sheep and in fetal pulmonary arterial rings. Methods: At 128 days of gestation, catheters were placed surgically in fetal systemic and pulmonary circulation, and a Doppler probe around the left pulmonary artery (LPA)...
July 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714608/selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-during-pregnancy-do-we-have-now-more-definite-answers-related-to-prenatal-exposure
#20
REVIEW
Asher Ornoy, Gideon Koren
Despite extensive studies, there still seems to be uncertainty as to the possible reproductive risk of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) in pregnancy. We, therefore, assess the current data on the risk/benefit of SSRI use in pregnancy. As the neurodevelopmental effects of SSRIs are discussed in another paper in this issue, we will not address the possible neurodevelopmental effects. Special emphasis is given to the newer, large population-based studies...
July 17, 2017: Birth defects research
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