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Jessica P Anand, Kelsey E Kochan, Anthony F Nastase, Deanna Montgomery, Nicholas W Griggs, John R Traynor, Henry I Mosberg, Emily M Jutkiewicz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mu opioid receptor (μ-receptor) agonists are used for pain management, but produce adverse effects including tolerance, dependence, and euphoria. The co-administration of a μ-receptor agonist with a delta opioid receptor (δ-receptor) antagonist has been shown to produce antinociception with reduced development of some side effects. We characterized the effects of three μ-receptor agonist/δ-receptor antagonist peptidomimetics in vivo after acute and repeated administration to determine if this profile provides a viable alternative to traditional opioid analgesics...
January 19, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Marina Saldanha da Silva Athayde, Rafael Lima Kons, Daniele Detanico
This study aimed to verify the effect of caffeine intake on blood lactate concentrations and neuromuscular and technical-tactical performance during simulated judo matches. Fourteen male judo athletes received capsules containing caffeine or placebo and were evaluated in both conditions. Before the baseline and 1 hour after the caffeine/placebo intake, athletes performed the countermovement jump test (CMJ), handgrip strength, judogi grip strength test (JGST), and blood samples were collected. Subsequently, the athletes were submitted to three 5 minute matches with 15 minute intervals...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Sparkes W, Turner An, Weston M, Russell M, Johnston Mj, Kilduff Lp
The 24h responses to small-sided games (SSG) soccer training were characterized. Professional soccer players (n=16) performed SSG's (4vs4 + goalkeepers; 6x7-min, 2-min inter-set recovery) with performance (peak-power output, PPO; jump height, JH), physiological (blood creatine kinase: CK, lactate; salivary testosterone, cortisol), and mood measures collected before (baseline), and after (immediately; 0h, +2h, +24h). For PPO and JH, possibly small-moderate reductions occurred at 0h (-1.1W·kg; ±0.9W·kg, -3...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Joseba Andoni Hernández-Preciado, Eneko Baz, Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández, David Marchante, Jordan Santos-Concejero
This study examined the acute effects of the potentiation protocol known as French Contrast Method on the vertical jumping ability measured by a countermovement jump (CMJ). 31 athletes participated in the study (intervention group n=17 and control group n=14). The CMJ height was measured using the IOS application MyJump App 2.0 pre- and post- the French Contrast protocol, which consisted of 3 sets of isometric partial squats, drop jumps, dynamic half-squats and hurdle jumps. The CMJ height improved from its baseline values by 5...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Mehrez Hammami, Nawel Gaamouri, Roy J Shephard, Mohamed Souhaiel Chelly
The aim was to compare the effects of two differing 8-week in-season strength training programs (contrast strength training [CST] vs. plyometric training [PT]) on selected performance tests (5 and 40m sprints, S 4 X 5 m change of direction test, squat (SJ) and countermovement (CMJ) jumps , leg peak power on a cycle ergometer force-velocity test, 1-repetition maximal (1-RM) half squat, and electromyographic [EMG] activity of the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and rectus femoris muscles during vertical jump tests)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
M Klaas, H Flayac, M Amthor, I G Savenko, S Brodbeck, T Ala-Nissila, S Klembt, C Schneider, S Höfling
We study the influence of spatial confinement on the second-order temporal coherence of the emission from a semiconductor microcavity in the strong coupling regime. The confinement, provided by etched micropillars, has a favorable impact on the temporal coherence of solid state quasicondensates that evolve in our device above threshold. By fitting the experimental data with a microscopic quantum theory based on a quantum jump approach, we scrutinize the influence of pump power and confinement and find that phonon-mediated transitions are enhanced in the case of a confined structure, in which the modes split into a discrete set...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Sarah H Ward, Troy Blackburn, Darin A Padua, Laura E Stanley, Matthew S Harkey, Brittney A Luc-Harkey, Brian G Pietrosimone
CONTEXT:   Aberrant biomechanics may affect force attenuation at the knee during dynamic activities, potentially increasing the risk of sustaining a knee injury or hastening the development of osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Impaired quadriceps neuromuscular function has been hypothesized to influence the development of aberrant biomechanics. OBJECTIVE:   To determine the association between quadriceps neuromuscular function (strength, voluntary activation, and spinal-reflex and corticomotor excitability) and sagittal-plane knee biomechanics during jump landings in individuals with ACLR...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Michael J Duncan, Chelsey Lawson, Josh Hurst, Jason Tallis, Victoria Jones, Emma L J Eyre
The current study sought to examine the construct validity of the Resistance Training Skills Battery for Children (RTSBc), a movement screen purported to assess resistance training skill in children. Children aged 7-10 years (n = 27, 21 males, 6 females) undertook measures of resistance training skill via the RTSBc, motor competence and muscular fitness. Using a median split for RTSBc scores, children were categorised as high or low resistance training competence. Univariate ANCOVAs, controlling for maturation, were used to examine whether measures of muscular fitness and motor competence scores differed as a function of RTSBc competence...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
R S Pires, A A Moreira, H A Carmona, J S Andrade
We investigate the properties of a two-state sandpile model subjected to a confining potential in two dimensions. From the microdynamical description, we derive a diffusion equation, and find a stationary solution for the case of a parabolic confining potential. By studying the systems at different confining conditions, we observe two scale-invariant regimes. At a given confining potential strength, the cluster size distribution takes the form of a power law. This regime corresponds to the situation in which the density at the center of the system approaches the critical percolation threshold...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Marifi Güler
Two self-contained diffusion formulations, in the form of coupled stochastic differential equations, are developed for the temporal evolution of state densities over an ensemble of Markov chains evolving independently under a common transition rate matrix. Our first formulation derives from Kurtz's strong approximation theorem of density-dependent Markov jump processes [Stoch. PROCESS: Their Appl. 6, 223 (1978)STOPB70304-414910.1016/0304-4149(78)90020-0] and, therefore, strongly converges with an error bound of the order of lnN/N for ensemble size N...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
M V Ushcats, L A Bulavin, V M Sysoev, S Yu Ushcats
For realistic interaction models, which include both molecular attraction and repulsion (e.g., Lennard-Jones, modified Lennard-Jones, Morse, and square-well potentials), the asymptotic behavior of the virial expansions for pressure and density in powers of activity has been studied taking power terms of high orders into account on the basis of the known finite-order irreducible integrals as well as the recent approximations of infinite irreducible series. Even in the divergence region (at subcritical temperatures), this behavior stays thermodynamically adequate (in contrast to the behavior of the virial equation of state with the same set of irreducible integrals) and corresponds to the beginning of the first-order phase transition: the divergence yields the jump (discontinuity) in density at constant pressure and chemical potential...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
Alexey A Koronovskii, Maria K Kurovskaya, Olga I Moskalenko, Alexander Hramov, Stefano Boccaletti
We report that explosive synchronization of networked oscillators (a process through which the transition to coherence occurs without intermediate stages but is rather characterized by a sudden and abrupt jump from the network's asynchronous to synchronous motion) is related to self-similarity of synchronous clusters of different size. Self-similarity is revealed by destructing the network synchronous state during the backward transition and observed with the decrease of the coupling strength between the nodes of the network...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
Eike P Thesing, Lukas Gilz, James R Anglin
Hamiltonian daemons have recently been defined classically as small, closed Hamiltonian systems which can exhibit secular energy transfer from high-frequency to low-frequency degrees of freedom (steady downconversion), analogous to the steady transfer of energy in a combustion engine from the high terahertz frequencies of molecular excitations to the low kilohertz frequencies of piston motion [L. Gilz, E. P. Thesing, and J. R. Anglin, Phys. Rev. E 94, 042127 (2016)2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.94.042127]. Classical daemons achieve downconversion within a small, closed system by exploiting nonlinear resonances; the adiabatic theorem permits their operation but imposes nontrivial limitations on their efficiency...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
C Mortagne, V Chireux, R Ledesma-Alonso, M Ogier, F Risso, T Ondarçuhu, D Legendre, Ph Tordjeman
We experiment the interaction between a liquid puddle and a spherical probe by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for a probe radius R ranging from 10 nm to 30 μm. We have developed a new experimental setup by coupling an AFM with a high-speed camera and an inverted optical microscope. Interaction force-distance curves (in contact mode) and frequency shift-distance curves (in frequency modulation mode) are measured for different bulk model liquids for which the probe-liquid Hamaker constant H_{pl} is known. The experimental results, analyzed in the frame of the theoretical model developed in Phys...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
A Gschwind, M Klopotek, Y Ai, M Oettel
Using grand-canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations, we investigate the isotropic-nematic phase transition for hard rods of size L×1×1 on a three-dimensional cubic lattice. We observe such a transition for L≥6. For L=6, the nematic state has a negative order parameter, reflecting the co-occurrence of two dominating orientations. For L≥7, the nematic state has a positive order parameter, corresponding to the dominance of one orientation. We investigate rod lengths up to L=25 and find evidence for a very weakly first-order isotropic-nematic transition, while we cannot completely rule out a second-order transition...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
F Le Vot, E Abad, S B Yuste
Expanding media are typical in many different fields, e.g., in biology and cosmology. In general, a medium expansion (contraction) brings about dramatic changes in the behavior of diffusive transport properties such as the set of positional moments and the Green's function. Here, we focus on the characterization of such effects when the diffusion process is described by the continuous-time random-walk (CTRW) model. As is well known, when the medium is static this model yields anomalous diffusion for a proper choice of the probability density function (pdf) for the jump length and the waiting time, but the behavior may change drastically if a medium expansion is superimposed on the intrinsic random motion of the diffusing particle...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
Avinash Chand Yadav
We study survival time statistics in a noisy sample-space-reducing (SSR) process. Our simulations suggest that both the mean and standard deviation scale as ∼N/N^{λ}, where N is the system size and λ is a tunable parameter that characterizes the process. The survival time distribution has the form P_{N}(τ)∼N^{-θ}J(τ/N^{θ}), where J is a universal scaling function and θ=1-λ. Analytical insight is provided by a conjecture for the equivalence between the survival time statistics in the noisy SSR process and the record statistics in a correlated time series modeled as a drifted random walk with Cauchy distributed jumps...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
Nagendra K Panduranga, Jianxi Gao, Xin Yuan, H Eugene Stanley, Shlomo Havlin
Cascading failures in complex systems have been studied extensively using two different models: k-core percolation and interdependent networks. We combine the two models into a general model, solve it analytically, and validate our theoretical results through extensive simulations. We also study the complete phase diagram of the percolation transition as we tune the average local k-core threshold and the coupling between networks. We find that the phase diagram of the combined processes is very rich and includes novel features that do not appear in the models studying each of the processes separately...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
A Kamińska, T Srokowski
The Lévy walk process with rests is discussed. The jumping time is governed by an α-stable distribution with α>1 while a waiting time distribution is Poissonian and involves a position-dependent rate which reflects a nonhomogeneous trap distribution. The master equation is derived and solved in the asymptotic limit for a power-law form of the jumping rate. The relative density of resting and flying particles appears time-dependent, and the asymptotic form of both distributions obeys a stretched-exponential shape at large time...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
Roberta Carminati Shimano, Gabriela Rezende Yanagihara, Ana Paula Macedo, Jessica Suzuki Yamanaka, Antônio Carlos Shimano, João Manuel R S Tavares, João Paulo Mardegan Issa
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high-impact physical exercise as a prophylactic and therapeutic means in osteopenic bones of rats submitted to ovariectomy and protein diet intake. A total of 64 Wistar rats were divided into eight groups (n=8 each), being: OVX, ovx, standard diet and sedentary; OVXE, ovx, standard diet and jump; OVXP, ovx, high-protein diet and sedentary; and OVXEP, ovx, high-protein diet and jump; SH, sham, standard diet and sedentary; SHE, sham, standard diet and jump; SHP, sham, high-protein diet and sedentary; and SHEP, sham, high-protein-diet and jump...
January 18, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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