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hepatitis b diabetes

Michael Christensen, Jonas B Jensen, Steen Jakobsen, Niels Jessen, Jørgen Frøkiær, Bruce E Kemp, Allison L Marciszyn, Hui Li, Núria M Pastor-Soler, Kenneth R Hallows, Rikke Nørregaard
The type-2 diabetes drug metformin has proven to have protective effects in several renal disease models. Here, we investigated the protective effects in a 3-day unilateral ureteral obstruction (3dUUO) mouse model. Compared with controls, ureteral obstructed animals displayed increased tubular damage and inflammation. Metformin treatment attenuated inflammation, increased the anti-oxidative response and decreased tubular damage. Hepatic metformin uptake depends on the expression of organic cation transporters (OCTs)...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sanjay K Agarwal, Dipankar Bhowmik, Sandeep Mahajan, Soumita Bagchi
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipient (RTR). Immunosuppressive drugs are one of the most important risk factor for post-transplant tuberculosis (PTTB). A paucity of data exists about the impact of the type of calcineurin inhibitor on PTTB. METHODS: In this retrospective study, all adult patients on calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression were included. Patients receiving TB chemoprophylaxis were excluded...
October 24, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
K S Weber, K Strassburger, G Pacini, B Nowotny, K Müssig, J Szendroedi, C Herder, M Roden
AIMS: To examine the hypothesis that changes in serum adiponectin concentration inversely relate to changes in glucose tolerance and β-cell function already during the early stage of disease progression in recently diagnosed Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Participants in the prospective observational German Diabetes Study (Type 2 diabetes, n = 94; Type 1 diabetes, n =42) underwent i.v. glucose tolerance and glucagon stimulation testing to assess pre-hepatic β-cell function, glucose tolerance index and C-peptide secretion within the first year of diabetes diagnosis and 2 years later...
October 22, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Morten Asser Karsdal, Kim Henriksen, Mette Juul Nielsen, Inger Byrjalsen, Diana Julie Leeming, Stephen Gardner, Zachary Goodman, Keyur Patel, Aleksander Krag, Claus Christiansen, Detlef Schuppan
BACKGROUND: There are no approved treatments for liver fibrosis. To aid development of anti-fibrotic therapies, non-invasive biomarkers that can identify patients with progressive fibrosis and that permit monitoring of the response to anti-fibrotic therapy are much needed. METHODS: Samples from a phase II anti-fibrotic trial of the glitazone farglitazar in patients with advanced hepatitis C, with matched follow-up liver biopsies, and from a phase III study of balaglitazone in late stage type 2 diabetics (BALLET study), were analysed for serological Pro-C3 levels in conjunction with other disease parameters...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Yi Shen, Sheng Zhang, Xulin Wang, Yuanyuan Wang, Jian Zhang, Gang Qin, Wenchao Li, Kun Ding, Lei Zhang, Feng Liang
BACKGROUND: Because whether hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been a controversial topic, pair-wise and network meta-analyses of published literature were carried out to accurately evaluate the association between different phases of HBV infection and the risk of T2DM. METHODS: A comprehensive literature retrieval was conducted from the Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Chinese Database to identify epidemiological studies on the association between HBV infection and the risk of T2DM that were published from 1999 to 2015...
October 18, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Ming Gu, Ping Zhao, Jinwen Huang, Yuanyuan Zhao, Yahui Wang, Yin Li, Yifei Li, Shengjie Fan, Yue-Ming Ma, Qingchun Tong, Li Yang, Guang Ji, Cheng Huang
Background and purpose: Silymarin, a standardized extract of the milk thistle seeds, has been widely used to treat chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and other types of toxic liver damage. Despite increasing studies on the action of silymarin and its major active constituent, silybin in their therapeutic properties against insulin resistance, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia in vitro and in vivo, the mechanism underlying silymarin action remains unclear. Experimental approach: C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 months to induce obesity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidaemia, and fatty liver...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
P G F Quaresma, L Weissmann, T M Zanotto, A C Santos, A H B de Matos, I C Furigo, F M Simabuco, J D Junior, J C Bittencourt, I Lopes-Cendes, P O Prada
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the Cdc2-like Kinase 2 (CLK2) is expressed in hypothalamic neurons and if it is, whether the hypothalamic CLK2 has a role in the regulation of energy balance. SUBJECTS: Swiss mice on chow or high fat diet (HFD) and db/db mice on chow diet were used to address the role of CLK2 in the hypothalamus. RESULTS: Hypothalamic CLK2(Thr343) phosphorylation, which induces CLK2 activity, is regulated in vivo by refeeding, insulin and leptin, in a PI3K dependent manner...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Jennifer Chi Lo, Anne E O'Connor, Zane B Andrews, Camden Lo, Tony Tiganis, Matthew J Watt, Moira K O'Bryan
Fatty liver, or hepatic steatosis, is an alarmingly common pathology in western societies, in large part because if left unheaded it can lead to life-threatening forms of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. As such, it is essential that we attain a greater understanding of the pathways that control energy partitioning in the liver, and ultimately how they are impacted by environmental factors. Herein, we define the essential requirement for a member of the RAB-like clade of small GTPases, RABL2, in fatty acid metabolism including in microtubule-associated mitochondrial movement within the liver...
October 12, 2016: Endocrinology
J E Nelson, P Handa, B Aouizerat, L Wilson, L A Vemulakonda, M M Yeh, K V Kowdley
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complex, multifactorial disease affected by diet, lifestyle and genetics. Proinflammatory cytokines like IL-1β and IL-6 have been shown to be elevated in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). AIM: To investigate the relationship between IL1B and IL6 gene polymorphisms and histological features of NAFLD in the NASH CRN cohort. METHODS: A total of 604 adult (≥18 years) non-Hispanic Caucasians with biopsy-proven NAFLD were genotyped for the following SNPs: IL1B, rs16944, rs1143634; IL6, rs1800795, rs10499563...
October 11, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
James R Dotimas, Austin W Lee, Angela B Schmider, Shannon H Carroll, Anu Shah, Julide Bilen, Kayla R Elliott, Ronald B Myers, Roy J Soberman, Jun Yoshioka, Richard T Lee
Metabolic studies suggest that the absorptive capacity of the small intestine for fructose is limited, though the molecular mechanisms controlling this process remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip), which regulates glucose homeostasis in mammals, binds to fructose transporters and promotes fructose absorption by the small intestine. Deletion of Txnip in mice reduced fructose transport into the peripheral bloodstream and liver, as well as the severity of adverse metabolic outcomes resulting from long-term fructose consumption...
October 11, 2016: ELife
Petr Husa
Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) are very common. The most common of these is mixed cryoglobulinaemia. Anti-HCV antibodies and viral ribonucleic acid, HCV RNA, can be found in the cryoprecipitates, together with the rheumatoid factor. Cryoglobulins consist of a complex of immunoglobulins that in vitro precipitate upon the cooling bellow the human body temperature. Vasculitis is caused by the deposition of such immune complexes in the small blood vessels. A link with the HCV infection is considered to be established with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, lymphoproliferative disorders (in particular B cell lymphoma), Sjögren and sicca syndrome, lichen planus, porfyria cutanea tarda and diabetes mellitus...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Narendra Kumar Narahari, Paramjyothi K Gongati, Shantveer G Uppin, Anu Kapoor, Bhaskar Kakarla, Ramakrishna Dev Tella
A 66-year-old man presented with dry cough and shortness of breath on exertion of 6 months' duration. There were no complaints of fever and hemoptysis. His history was significant for recurrent episodes of respiratory tract infections over the previous 4 years. He had also had episodes of recurrent otitis media and pus discharge from the left ear for 3 years, with progressive loss of hearing. There was no history of recurrent skin infections or diarrhea. He was treated symptomatically with antibiotics by local general practitioners...
October 2016: Chest
Ramith Ramu, Prithvi S Shirahatti, Shivasharanappa Nayakavadi, Vadivelan R, Farhan Zameer, Bhadrapura Lakkappa Dhananjaya, Nagendra Prasad Mn
Banana is an extensively cultivated plant worldwide, mainly for its fruit, while its ancillary product, the banana pseudostem, is consumed as a vegetable and is highly recommended for diabetics in the traditional Indian medicine system. The present study was aimed at elucidating the mechanism of antihyperglycaemia exerted by the ethanol extract of banana pseudostem (EE) and its isolated compounds viz., stigmasterol (C1) and β-sitosterol (C2), in an alloxan-induced diabetic rat model. Diabetic rats which were administered with C1, C2 and EE (100 and 200 mg per kg b...
September 14, 2016: Food & Function
Haiyan Zhang, Wen-Jun Shen, Yihang Li, Alex Bittner, Stefanie Bittner, Juveria Tabassum, Yuan F Cortez, Fredric B Kraemer, Salman Azhar
Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), the main metabolite of Creosote Bush, has been shown to have profound effects on the core components of metabolic syndrome, including lowering of blood glucose, free fatty acids and triglyceride levels, attenuating elevated blood pressure in several rodent models of dyslipidemia, and improving body weight, insulin resistance, diabetes and hypertension. In the present study, a high-fructose diet fed rat model of hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis was employed to investigate the global transcriptional changes in the lipid metabolizing pathways in three insulin sensitive tissues: liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in response to chronic dietary administration of NDGA...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Sheo B Singh, Ling Kang, Andrea R Nawrocki, Dan Zhou, Margaret Wu, Stephen Previs, Corey Miller, Haiying Liu, Catherine D G Hines, Maria Madeira, Jin Cao, Kithsiri Herath, Liangsu Wang, David E Kelley, Cai Li, Hong-Ping Guan
OBJECTIVES: Platensimycin (PTM) is a natural antibiotic produced by Streptomyces platensis that selectively inhibits bacterial and mammalian fatty acid synthase (FAS) without affecting synthesis of other lipids. Recently, we reported that oral administration of PTM in mouse models (db/db and db/+) with high de novo lipogenesis (DNL) tone inhibited DNL and enhanced glucose oxidation, which in turn led to net reduction of liver triglycerides (TG), reduced ambient glucose, and improved insulin sensitivity...
2016: PloS One
Amalie Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus Ribel-Madsen, Charlotte Brøns, Christopher B Newgard, Allan A Vaag, Lars I Hellgren
We hypothesized that an increased, incomplete fatty acid beta-oxidation in mitochondria could be part of the metabolic events leading to insulin resistance and thereby an increased type 2 diabetes risk in low birth weight (LBW) compared with normal birth weight (NBW) individuals. Therefore, we measured fasting plasma levels of 45 acylcarnitine species in 18 LBW and 25 NBW men after an isocaloric control diet and a 5-day high-fat, high-calorie diet. We demonstrated that LBW men had higher C2 and C4-OH levels after the control diet compared with NBW men, indicating an increased fatty acid beta-oxidation relative to the tricarboxylic acid cycle flux...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
W-K Seto, J Fung, K-S Cheung, L-Y Mak, R W H Hui, K S H Liu, C-L Lai, M-F Yuen
BACKGROUND: Factors influencing changes in liver stiffness measurements during long-term nucleoside analogue therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) have not been thoroughly investigated. AIM: To identify determinants of on-treatment fibrosis regression in CHB. METHODS: We performed follow-up liver stiffness and controlled attenuation parameter measurements on nucleoside analogue-treated CHB patients with severe liver fibrosis, according to EASL-ALEH criteria, diagnosed by transient elastography in 2006-2008...
November 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
S Cheng, W Y So, D Zhang, Q Cheng, B J Boucher, P S Leung
OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to investigate the effects of calcitriol (the active hormonal metabolite of vitamin D) on hepatic metabolic abnormalities in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Type 2 diabetic db/db mice were used to investigate the effects of calcitriol on hepatic and systemic metabolic disorders. HepG2 cells cultured in insulin-resistant conditions were used to examine the potential mechanisms for calcitriol-induced changes in hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism...
September 20, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
Irene Cacciola, Riccardo Scoglio, Angela Alibrandi, Giovanni Squadrito, Giovanni Raimondo
The evaluation of serum liver enzyme levels is the most used surrogate marker of liver injury in clinical practice. The prevalence and association of abnormal enzyme values with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, and with other major causes of liver damage (obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and alcohol abuse) were evaluated in individuals attending the surgeries of 14 general practitioners (GPs) working in Messina. Alanine-amino-transferase, aspartate-amino-transferase, and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase measurements were measured in 7816 individuals consecutively attending the GP surgeries between January 1, 2011 and June 30, 2012...
September 19, 2016: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Sutheera Intajarurnsan, Narong Khuntikeo, Nittaya Chamadol, Bandit Thinkhamrop, Supannee Promthet
BACKGROUND: The population in northeast Thailand continues to present with hepatobiliary abnormalities, particularly periductal fibrosis (PDF) which is the result of chronic infection with liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverini; OV) and may lead to the development of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Although the prevalence of OV infection has been decreased due to a liver fluke control program over decades, the prevalence of PDF remains high. This study aimed to investigate demographic factors associated with PDF risk based on ultrasonography (US) screening...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
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