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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431845/infection-prevention-and-control-and-the-refugee-population-experiences-from-the-university-of-louisville-global-health-center
#1
Ruth M Carrico, Linda Goss, Timothy L Wiemken, Rahel S Bosson, Paula Peyrani, William A Mattingly, Allison Pauly, Rebecca A Ford, Stanley Kotey, Julio A Ramirez
BACKGROUND: During 2016, approximately 140,000 individuals entered the United States as part of the federal government refugee resettlement program and established themselves in communities in virtually every state. No national database regarding refugee health currently exists; therefore, little is known about existing infectious diseases, conditions, and cultural practices that impact successful acculturation. The objective of this report is to identify what is currently known about refugees and circumstances important to infection prevention and control with respect to their roles as new community members, employees, and consumers of health care...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429187/curcumin-reverses-the-depressive-like-behavior-and-insulin-resistance-induced-by-chronic-mild-stress
#2
Ji-Duo Shen, Yu Wei, Yu-Jie Li, Jing-Yi Qiao, Yu-Cheng Li
Increasing evidence has demonstrated that patients with depression have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance has been identified as the key mechanism linking depression and diabetes. The present study established a rat model of depression complicated by insulin resistance using a 12-week exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS) and investigated the therapeutic effects of curcumin. Sucrose intake tests were used to evaluate depressive-like behaviors, and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests (IPITT) were performed to evaluate insulin sensitivity...
April 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424190/odd-chain-fatty-acids-as-a-biomarker-for-dietary-fiber-intake-a-novel-pathway-for-endogenous-production-from-propionate
#3
Karolin Weitkunat, Sara Schumann, Daniela Nickel, Silke Hornemann, Klaus J Petzke, Matthias B Schulze, Andreas Fh Pfeiffer, Susanne Klaus
Background: The risk of type 2 diabetes is inversely correlated with plasma concentrations of odd-chain fatty acids [OCFAs; pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0)], which are considered as biomarkers for dairy fat intake in humans. However, rodent studies suggest that OCFAs are synthesized endogenously from gut-derived propionate. Propionate increases with dietary fiber consumption and has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity.Objective: We hypothesized that OCFAs are produced in humans from dietary fibers by a novel endogenous pathway...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423031/comorbidities-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-results-from-the-korean-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#4
Hyemin Jeong, Sun Young Baek, Seon Woo Kim, Yeong Hee Eun, In Young Kim, Hyungjin Kim, Jaejoon Lee, Eun-Mi Koh, Hoon-Suk Cha
This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of comorbidities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with the non-RA population. The 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), which assesses the general health status of populations in South Korea using interviews and basic health assessment, was analyzed retrospectively. Weighted prevalence and odds ratio (OR) of comorbidities were analyzed in patients with RA compared with the non-RA population. The overall weighted (n = 37,453,158) prevalence of RA was 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422289/dietary-tuna-dark-muscle-protein-attenuates-hepatic-steatosis-and-increases-serum-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-in-obese-type-2-diabetic-obese-kk-a-y-mice
#5
Hayato Maeda, Ryota Hosomi, Mari Fukuda, Yuki Ikeda, Munehiro Yoshida, Kenji Fukunaga
Tuna muscle consists of light and dark muscle in approximately equal proportions. However, besides for the light muscle of tuna, cod, sardine, and salmon, few researches have assessed the health-promoting functions of fish protein. Therefore, we evaluated the mechanisms underlying the alteration of lipid storage and cholesterol metabolism following the intake of tuna dark muscle protein (TDMP) by obese type-2 diabetic/obese mice. Four-week-old male KK-A(y) mice were separated into 2 dietary groups, with one group receiving a casein-based diet and the other receiving a diet with the substitution of part of the protein (50%, w/w) by TDMP (TDMP diet) for 4 wk...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419828/hypoglycemic-and-hypolipidemic-effects-of-a-polysaccharide-from-flower-buds-of-lonicera-japonica-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#6
Dongying Wang, Xiangmei Zhao, Yulan Liu
Hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia are classic features for diabetes mellitus (DM). In this study, one fraction of the crude polysaccharides extracted from Lonicera japonica flower buds (LJP) were investigated for its hypolipidaemic and hypoglycaemic activities by means of streptozotocin (STZ)-inducd diabetic rats. Interestingly, after orally administrated with 800mg/kg body weight (B.W.) LJP for 42 days, the food and water intake and the levels of sugar and insulin in blood for the diatebic rats were drastically decreased, while the contents of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen and the concentrations of hepatic pyruvate kinase and hexokinase were obviously increased (p<0...
April 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416195/pitavastatin-versus-pravastatin-in-adults-with-hiv-1-infection-and-dyslipidaemia-intrepid-12-week-and-52-week-results-of-a-phase-4-multicentre-randomised-double-blind-superiority-trial
#7
Judith A Aberg, Craig A Sponseller, Douglas J Ward, Vladimir A Kryzhanovski, Stuart E Campbell, Melanie A Thompson
BACKGROUND: People living with HIV-1 infection are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease than seronegative adults. Treatment of dyslipidaemia with statins has been challenging in people with HIV because of an increased potential for drug interactions due to competing cytochrome P450 metabolism between statins and commonly used antiretroviral agents. Neither pitavastatin nor pravastatin depend on cytochrome P450 for primary metabolism. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of pitavastatin versus pravastatin in adults with HIV and dyslipidaemia...
April 13, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395890/frequency-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-subclinical-atherosclerosis-among-young-mexican-americans
#8
Clarence Gill, Kristina P Vatcheva, Jen-Jung Pan, Beverly Smulevitz, David D McPherson, Michael Fallon, Joseph B McCormick, Susan P Fisher-Hoch, Susan T Laing
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered as the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, whose criteria are risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of NAFLD, its association with subclinical atherosclerosis, and factors that may account for this association in Mexican Americans. In a population-based cross-sectional sample drawn from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort in Texas, carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), an indicator of subclinical atherosclerosis, was measured...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381382/the-association-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-a-chinese-population
#9
Shou-Wu Lee, Teng-Yu Lee, Sheng-Shun Yang, Yen-Chun Peng, Hong-Zen Yeh, Chi-Sen Chang
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with features of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between NAFLD and metabolic syndrome in a Chinese population. METHODS: Data from subjects were retrospectively collected from 2006 to 2009. The exclusion criteria included significant consumption of alcohol and chronic hepatitis B and C. The patients were assigned to two groups according to ultrasound findings: normal group and fatty liver group...
April 2017: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377401/cyp8b1-ablation-prevents-western-diet-induced-weight-gain-and-hepatic-steatosis-due-to-impaired-fat-absorption
#10
Enrico Bertaggia, Kristian K Jensen, Jose Castro-Perez, Yimeng Xu, Gilbert Di Paolo, Robin B Chan, Liangsu Wang, Rebecca A Haeusler
Bile acids (BAs) are cholesterol derivatives that regulate lipid metabolism, through their dual abilities to promote lipid absorption and activate BA receptors. However, different BA species have varying abilities to perform these functions. Eliminating 12α-hydroxy BAs in mice via Cyp8b1 knockout causes low body weight and improved glucose tolerance. The goal of this study was to determine mechanisms of low body weight in Cyp8b1(-/-) mice. We challenged Cyp8b1(-/-) mice with western type diet and assessed body weight and composition...
April 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371155/treatment-with-ly2409021-a-glucagon-receptor-antagonist-increases-liver-fat-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#11
Cristina B Guzman, Xiaotian Michelle Zhang, Rong Liu, Arie Regev, Sudha Shankar, Parag Garhyan, Sreekumar G Pillai, Christof Kazda, Naga Chalasani, Thomas A Hardy
AIMS: Glucagon receptor antagonists (GRAs) represent a clinically validated new class of molecules for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) however these molecules are associated with increases in hepatic aminotransferases. We evaluated whether treatment with LY2409021, a novel, selective GRA, is associated with changes in hepatic fat and other safety parameters related to the benefit-risk profile for chronic use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Safety and efficacy were assessed in patients with T2D taking metformin and sulfonylurea randomized to LY2409021 20mg (N=65), placebo (N=68), or sitagliptin 100mg (N=41)...
March 31, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364599/flavonoids-from-enicostema-littorale-blume-enhances-glucose-uptake-of-cells-in-insulin-resistant-human-liver-cancer-hepg2-cell-line-via-irs-1-pi3k-akt-pathway
#12
Priyanka Mokashi, Aparna Khanna, Nancy Pandita
Diabetes mellitus has spread over the world with 347 million people affected. Insulin resistance is a main pathogenic event in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) leading to a reduction in glucose uptake by peripheral tissue and increased hepatic glucose output. In this study, we have isolated four flavonoid rich fractions fraction A (FA), fraction B (FB), fraction C (FC) and fraction D (FD) from Enicostema littorale. All the fractions were preliminary screened for TLC fingerprinting, total flavonoid content. Total eight flavonoids were identified by LC/MS...
March 29, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345790/metabolic-responses-to-exogenous-ghrelin-in-obesity-and-early-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-in-humans
#13
Robyn A Tamboli, Joseph Antoun, Reem M Sidani, B Austin Clements, Emily A Eckert, Pam Marks-Shulman, Bruce D Gaylinn, D Brandon Williams, Ronald H Clements, Vance L Albaugh, Naji N Abumrad
AIMS: Ghrelin is a gastric-derived hormone that stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion and has a multi-faceted role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, including glucose metabolism. Circulating ghrelin concentrations are modulated in response to nutritional status, but responses to ghrelin in altered metabolic states are poorly understood. We investigated the metabolic effects of ghrelin in obesity and early after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed central and peripheral metabolic responses to acyl ghrelin infusion (1 pmol kg(-1) min(-1) ) in healthy, lean subjects (n = 9) and non-diabetic, obese subjects (n = 9) before and two weeks after RYGB...
March 27, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340509/liver-transplant-lt-recipients-with-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-have-lower-risk-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hcc
#14
Sara M Lewin, Neil Mehta, R Kate Kelley, John P Roberts, Francis Y Yao, Danielle Brandman
BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation is a well-established treatment for HCC in carefully selected patients. Risk factors for tumors with poor prognostic features on explant have not been well described in a national cohort. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult LT recipients with HCC transplanted from 4/8/12 (when explant pathology in UNOS became available) until 9/30/2014. We evaluated the association between listing diagnosis and other demographic factors with tumor features on explant using logistic regression...
March 24, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336466/global-trends-and-predictions-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-mortality
#15
Paola Bertuccio, Federica Turati, Greta Carioli, Teresa Rodriguez, Carlo La Vecchia, Matteo Malvezzi, Eva Negri
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been one of the few cancers showing upward trends over recent decades in most countries, and is the third cause of cancer death worldwide. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We updated global trends in HCC mortality to 2014, and predicted trends in rates in the EU, USA and Japan to 2020, using data from the World Health Organization database. RESULTS: In EU men, mortality rates were stable in the last decade around 3...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334048/hepatoprotective-effect-of-sitagliptin-against-methotrexate-induced-liver-toxicity
#16
Hany M Abo-Haded, Mohamed A Elkablawy, Zeyad Al-Johani, Osama Al-Ahmadi, Dina S El-Agamy
Sitagliptin is selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP4-I), used clinically as a new oral anti-diabetic agent. This study explored the underlying mechanisms of the hepatoprotective role of sitagliptin pretreatment against methotrexate (MTX) induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Forty mice were divided into four groups (10 mice each); control, MTX, and two sitagliptin groups (pretreated with sitagliptin 10 and 20 mg/kg/day, respectively) for five consecutive days prior to MTX injection. Results showed that MTX induced marked hepatic injury in the form of cloudy swelling, hydropic degeneration, apoptosis and focal necrosis in all hepatic zones...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330423/geraniol-a-natural-monoterpene-ameliorates-hyperglycemia-by-attenuating-the-key-enzymes-of-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#17
Sukumar Babukumar, Veerasamy Vinothkumar, Chandrasekaran Sankaranarayanan, Subramani Srinivasan
CONTEXT: Geraniol, an acyclic monoterpene alcohol is found in medicinal plants, is used traditionally for several medical purposes including diabetes. OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluates the antihyperglycemic potential of geraniol on key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetes was induced in experimental rats, by a single intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of STZ [40 mg/kg body weight (b...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323868/-waiting-for-daas-a-retrospective-chart-review-of-patients-with-untreated-hepatitis-c-in-rwanda
#18
Neil Gupta, Jules Kabahizi, Constance Mukabatsinda, Timothy David Walker, Emmanuel Musabeyezu, Athanase Kiromera, Jennifer Ilo Van Nuil, Kevin Steiner, Joia Mukherjee, Sabin Nsanzimana, Aimable Mbituyumuremyi
BACKGROUND: Access to treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in sub-Saharan Africa is extremely limited. With the advent of direct acting antivirals (DAAs), highly effective and easy-to-deliver oral regimens are now available on the global market. This study was conducted to understand the background and characteristics of a national cohort of patients with HCV infection enrolled in care and awaiting therapy with DAAs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all adult patients with confirmed HCV infection who were currently enrolled in care and treatment at the four existing hepatitis referral centers in Rwanda...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321170/diabetes-mellitus-insulin-resistance-and-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-contemporary-review
#19
Anne-Claire Desbois, Patrice Cacoub
AIM: To summarise the literature data on hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients concerning the prevalence of glucose abnormalities and associated risk. METHODS: We conducted a PubMed search and selected all studies found with the key words "HCV" or "hepatitis C virus" and "diabetes" or "insulin resistance". We included only comparative studies written in English or in French, published from January 2000 to April 2015. We collected the literature data on HCV-infected patients concerning the prevalence of glucose abnormalities [diabetes mellitus (DM) and insulin resistance (IR)] and associated risk [i...
March 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319104/diabetes-consequences-in-the-fetus-liver-of-the-non-obese-diabetic-mice
#20
M B Aires, A C V Dos Santos, M S Kubrusly, A C de Lima Luna, L A C D'Albuquerque, D A Maria
DM type 1 (T1D) incidence is increasing around 3% every year and represents risks for maternal and fetal health. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of diabetes on fetus liver cells in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Hyperglycemic NOD (HNOD), normoglycemic NOD (NNOD) and BALB/c females were used for mating, and the fetus livers were collected at 19.5 gestation day (gd). HNOD group had reduced fetal weight (989.5±68.32 vs 1290±57.39 mg BALB/c, P<0.05) at 19.5 gd and higher glycemia (516...
March 20, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
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