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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140821/retarding-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease-use-of-modalities-that-counter-acid-retention
#1
Jeffrey A Kraut, Nicolaos E Madias
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acid retention because of chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases tissue acidity and accelerates progression of CKD, whereas reduction in acid retention slows progression of CKD. Herein, we describe the mechanisms through which increased tissue acidity worsens CKD, modalities for countering acid retention and their impact on progression of CKD, and current recommendations for therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in animals and humans show that increased tissue acidity raises the renal levels of endothelin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, and ammoniagenesis, thereby worsening renal fibrosis and causing progression of CKD...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135217/vitamin-c-conjugated-nanoparticle-protects-cells-from-oxidative-stress-at-low-dose-but-induces-oxidative-stress-and-cell-death-at-high-dose
#2
Atanu Chakraborty, Nikhil R Jana
Although antioxidant property of vitamin C is well known for protecting cells from oxidative stress, recent study shows that it can also generate oxidative stress under high intra-cellular concentration and induce cell death. However, poor chemical stability and low biological concentration (micromolar) of vitamin C restrict their function primarily as antioxidant. Here we report two different nanoparticle forms of vitamin C with its intact chemical stability, glucose responsive release from nanoparticle and efficient cell delivery in micro to millimolar concentration...
November 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130334/pulsed-epr-imaging-applications-in-the-studies-of-tumor-physiology
#3
Shun Kishimoto, Ken-Ichiro Matsumoto, Keita Saito, Ayano Enomoto, Shingo Matsumoto, James Mitchell, Nallathamby Devasahayam, Murali C Krishna
SIGNIFICANCE: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance imaging (EPRI) is a powerful technique capable of generating images of tissue oxygenation using exogenous paramagnetic probes such as trityl radicals or nitroxyl radicals. Using principles similar to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with field gradients, the spatial distribution of the paramagnetic probecan be generatedand,from its spectral features, spatial maps of oxygen can be obtained from live objects. In this review, two methods of signal acquisition, image formation/reconstruction will be described...
November 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129907/balancing-activity-stability-and-conductivity-of-nanoporous-core-shell-iridium-iridium-oxide-oxygen-evolution-catalysts
#4
Yong-Tae Kim, Pietro Papa Lopes, Shin-Ae Park, A-Yeong Lee, Jinkyu Lim, Hyunjoo Lee, Seoin Back, Yousung Jung, Nemanja Danilovic, Vojislav Stamenkovic, Jonah Erlebacher, Joshua Snyder, Nenad M Markovic
The selection of oxide materials for catalyzing the oxygen evolution reaction in acid-based electrolyzers must be guided by the proper balance between activity, stability and conductivity-a challenging mission of great importance for delivering affordable and environmentally friendly hydrogen. Here we report that the highly conductive nanoporous architecture of an iridium oxide shell on a metallic iridium core, formed through the fast dealloying of osmium from an Ir25Os75 alloy, exhibits an exceptional balance between oxygen evolution activity and stability as quantified by the activity-stability factor...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128224/effect-of-2-hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoate-hmtba-on-risk-of-biohydrogenation-induced-milk-fat-depression
#5
M Baldin, G I Zanton, K J Harvatine
Diet-induced milk fat depression (MFD) is a multifactorial condition resulting from the interaction of numerous risk factors, including diet fermentability and unsaturated fatty acids concentration, feed additives, and individual cow effects. 2-Hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoate (HMTBa) is a methionine analog that has been observed to increase milk fat in some cases, and interactions with MFD risk factors may exist. The objective was to evaluate the effect of HMTBa supplementation on milk fat synthesis in cows with different levels of milk production and fed diets with increasing risk of biohydrogenation-induced MFD...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127457/the-promise-and-challenges-of-exploiting-the-proton-coupled-folate-transporter-for-selective-therapeutic-targeting-of-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Larry H Matherly, Zhanjun Hou, Aleem Gangjee
This review considers the "promise" of exploiting the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) for selective therapeutic targeting of cancer. PCFT was discovered in 2006 and was identified as the principal folate transporter involved in the intestinal absorption of dietary folates. The recognition that PCFT was highly expressed in many tumors stimulated substantial interest in using PCFT for cytotoxic drug targeting, taking advantage of its high level transport activity under the acidic pH conditions that characterize many tumors...
November 10, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123085/airway-surface-liquid-ph-is-not-acidic-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#7
André Schultz, Ramaa Puvvadi, Sergey M Borisov, Nicole C Shaw, Ingo Klimant, Luke J Berry, Samuel T Montgomery, Thien Nguyen, Silvia M Kreda, Anthony Kicic, Peter B Noble, Brian Button, Stephen M Stick
Modulation of airway surface liquid (ASL) pH has been proposed as a therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF). However, evidence that ASL pH is reduced in CF is limited and conflicting. The technical challenges associated with measuring ASL pH in vivo have precluded accurate measurements in humans. In order to address this deficiency, ASL pH was measured in vivo in children using a novel luminescent technology integrated with fibre-optic probes. Here we show that ASL pH in children with CF is similar to that of children without CF...
November 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122209/choice-of-fluids-in-the-perioperative-period-of-kidney-transplantation
#8
Alejandro Gonzalez-Castro, María Ortiz-Lasa, Yhivian Peñasco, Camilo González, Carmen Blanco, Juan Carlos Rodriguez-Borregan
Normal saline has traditionally been the resuscitation fluid of choice in the perioperative period of kidney transplantation over balanced potassium solutions. However, the problems arising from hyperchloraemia triggered by the infusion of normal saline have led to studies being conducted that compare this solution with balanced solutions. From this narrative review it can be concluded that the use of balanced crystalloids containing potassium in the perioperative period of kidney transplantation can be considered safe...
November 2017: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120634/double-layered-composite-methods-extrapolating-to-complete-basis-set-limit-for-the-systems-involving-more-than-ten-heavy-atoms-application-to-the-reaction-of-heptafluoroisobutyronitrile-with-hydroxyl-radical
#9
Xiaojuan Yu, Hua Hou, Baoshan Wang
Two versions of the double-layered composite methods, including the restricted open-shell model chemistry based on the complete basis set quadratic mode (DL-ROCBS-Q) and the extrapolated CBS limit of electronic energy on the basis of the coupled cluster with single, double, and noniterative triple excitations with the hierarchical sequence of the correlation-consistent basis sets (DL-RCCSD(T)/CBS), were developed to calculate the energetic reaction routes for the systems involving 13/14 heavy atoms with good balance between efficiency and accuracy...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115382/resveratrol-prevents-osteoporosis-by-upregulating-foxo1-transcriptional-activity
#10
Yan-Ling Feng, Xiao-Tong Jiang, Fang-Fang Ma, Jie Han, Xu-Lei Tang
Resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene, RES), a natural antioxidant, prevents bone loss by attenuating damage caused by oxidative stress. Our previous research revealed that the forkhead box O1 (FoxO1)/β-catenin signaling pathway affected the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts through its regulation of redox balance, and RES regulated the expression of FoxO1 to control white adipose tissue and then ameliorate an overweight condition. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that RES regulates FoxO1 transcriptional activity through the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway to achieve an antioxidative effect on osteoporosis and then we confirmed this hypothesis in the present study...
October 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112104/cardiogenic-shock-due-to-end-stage-heart-failure-and-acute-myocardial-infarction-characteristics-and-outcome-of-temporary-mechanical-circulatory-support
#11
Hoong Sern Lim, Neil Howell
BACKGROUND: Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) is increasingly used in cardiogenic shock, but outcomes may differ between patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or end-stage heart failure (ESHF). This study aimed to describe the characteristics of patients with cardiogenic shock due to AMI and ESHF. METHODS: Single centre study of consecutive patients with cardiogenic shock due to AMI (n = 26) and ESHF (n = 42) who underwent MCS (extracorporeal life support, Impella or temporary ventricular assist devices)...
November 3, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109689/molecular-plasticity-under-ocean-warming-proteomics-and-fitness-data-provides-clues-for-a-better-understanding-of-the-thermal-tolerance-in-fish
#12
Diana Madeira, José E Araújo, Rui Vitorino, Pedro M Costa, José L Capelo, Catarina Vinagre, Mário S Diniz
Ocean warming is known to alter the performance and fitness of marine organisms albeit the proteome underpinnings of species thermal tolerance are still largely unknown. In this 1-month experiment we assessed the vulnerability of the gilt-head sea bream Sparus aurata, taken here as a biological model for some key fisheries species, to ocean warming (control 18°C, nursery ground temperature 24°C and heat wave 30°C). Survival was impaired after 28 days, mainly at 30°C although fishes' condition was unaltered...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097310/design-and-application-of-genetically-encoded-malonyl-coa-biosensors-for-metabolic-engineering-of-microbial-cell-factories
#13
REVIEW
Abayomi Oluwanbe Johnson, Miriam Gonzalez-Villanueva, Lynn Wong, Alexander Steinbüchel, Kang Lan Tee, Peng Xu, Tuck Seng Wong
Malonyl-CoA is the basic building block for synthesizing a range of important compounds including fatty acids, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids and non-ribosomal polyketides. Centering around malonyl-CoA, we summarized here the various metabolic engineering strategies employed recently to regulate and control malonyl-CoA metabolism and improve cellular productivity. Effective metabolic engineering of microorganisms requires the introduction of heterologous pathways and dynamically rerouting metabolic flux towards products of interest...
October 31, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089216/-causes-consequences-and-treatment-of-hypophosphatemia-a-systematic-review
#14
Maël Padelli, Cyril Leven, Mehdi Sakka, Emmanuelle Plée-Gautier, Jean-Luc Carré
CONTEXT: Although hypophosphatemia is usually very seldom, it can reach two to 3% of hospitalized patients and until 28% of intensive care unit patients. Due to the lack of knowledge, clinical practice regarding seeking or treatment of hypophosphatemia is very heterogenous. However its clinical consequences might be heavy. A better knowledge of its causes, physiopathological effects and treatment should lead to a documented and homogenous care of these patients in clinics. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was a systematic review of littérature, seeking for publications about causes, consequences and treatment of hypophosphatemia...
October 28, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080881/-computational-prediction-of-human-immunodeficiency-resistance-to-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors
#15
O A Tarasova, D A Filimonov, V V Poroikov
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and leads to over one million of deaths annually. Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) is a gold standard in the HIV/AIDS therapy. Nucleoside and non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) are important component of HAART, but their effect depends on the HIV susceptibility/resistance. HIV resistance mainly occurs due to mutations leading to conformational changes in the three-dimensional structure of HIV RT...
October 2017: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077897/in-vivo-oxygen-temperature-and-ph-dynamics-in-the-female-reproductive-tract-and-their-importance-in-human-conception-a-systematic-review
#16
Ka Ying Bonnie Ng, Roel Mingels, Hywel Morgan, Nick Macklon, Ying Cheong
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in ART, implantation and pregnancy rates per embryo transfer still remain low. IVF laboratories strive to ensure that the process of handling gametes in vitro closely mimics the in vivo environment. However, there remains a lack of knowledge regarding the in vivo regulation and dynamic variation in biophysical parameters such as oxygen concentration, pH and temperature within the reproductive tract. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: To undertake a systematic review of the current understanding of the physico-chemical parameters of oxygen tension (pO2), pH and temperature within the female reproductive tract, and their potential implications in clinical and pathological processes related to fertility and those pertaining to limited reproductive capacity...
October 25, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076667/glutamine-augments-neuronal-network-activity-in-rat-hippocampal-slices
#17
Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Muhammad Mushtaq, Muhammad Azhar Sherkheli
BACKGROUND: In recent past, a huge number of in vitro electrophysiological techniques have been developed to explore underlying mechanisms of most complicated functions of brain. Neurophysiologist and neuroscientist use different compositions of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) usually based on ionic and energy demands of neurons but these compositions lack amino acids such as aspartic acid, taurine and glutamine. METHODS: We used in vitro electrophysiological recording technique to estimate the effects of glutamine, an amino acid and precursor of neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA, on hippocampal sharp wave ripple activity (SPW-R) in rats...
July 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076367/maternal-and-fetal-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-infusion-in-pregnant-ewes-anesthetized-with-sevoflurane
#18
Mauricio Loría Lépiz, Rebecca Sayre, Onkar Sawant, James Barr, Medora Pashmakova, Kevin Washburn, Shannon Washburn
OBJECTIVE To characterize the maternal and fetal cardiopulmonary effects of a low-dose infusion of dexmedetomidine without a loading dose in pregnant ewes anesthetized with sevoflurane. ANIMALS 11 pregnant ewes. PROCEDURES Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with sevoflurane. Ewes and fetuses were instrumented with arterial and venous catheters, and thermodilution-pulmonary arterial catheters were placed in the ewes. Baseline measurements were obtained at an end-tidal sevoflurane concentration of 3...
November 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073182/blood-parameters-as-biomarkers-in-a-salmonella-spp-disease-model-of-weaning-piglets
#19
Emili Barba-Vidal, Victor Fernando Buttow Roll, Edgar Garcia Manzanilla, Carlos Torrente, José Antonio Moreno Muñoz, José Francisco Pérez, Susana María Martín-Orúe
BACKGROUND: The weaning pig is used as an experimental model to assess the impact of diet on intestinal health. Blood parameters (BP) are considered a useful tool in humans, but there is very scarce information of such indicators in the weaning pig. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the use of different BP as indicators in an experimental model of salmonellosis. METHODOLOGY: Seventy-two 28-day-old piglets were divided into four groups in a 2x2 factorial arrangement, with animals receiving or not a probiotic combination based on B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072271/inertial-picobalance-reveals-fast-mass-fluctuations-in-mammalian-cells
#20
David Martínez-Martín, Gotthold Fläschner, Benjamin Gaub, Sascha Martin, Richard Newton, Corina Beerli, Jason Mercer, Christoph Gerber, Daniel J Müller
The regulation of size, volume and mass in living cells is physiologically important, and dysregulation of these parameters gives rise to many diseases. Cell mass is largely determined by the amount of water, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids present in a cell, and is tightly linked to metabolism, proliferation and gene expression. Technologies have emerged in recent years that make it possible to track the masses of single suspended cells and adherent cells. However, it has not been possible to track individual adherent cells in physiological conditions at the mass and time resolutions required to observe fast cellular dynamics...
October 25, 2017: Nature
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