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Acid-base balance

Sridhar Sanyasi, Satish Kumar, Arijit Ghosh, Rakesh Kumar Majhi, Navneet Kaur, Priyanka Choudhury, Udai P Singh, Chandan Goswami, Luna Goswami
Bone related problems are increasing as a consequence of increased life expectancy, disorders in life style, and other medical conditions enforcing the need for functional bones prepared in vitro at affordable cost. Lack of suitable surface which promotes growth of both osteogenic and nonosteogenic cells is a major limitation. Here a novel biomaterial is reported that is synthesized from natural polysaccharide, namely, tamarind kernel polysaccharide (TKP), which is grafted with hydrophilic acrylic acid (AA) by radical polymerization...
October 21, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Caitlin B O'Hara, Alexandra Keyes, Bethany Renwick, Katrin E Giel, Iain C Campbell, Ulrike Schmidt
In anorexia nervosa (AN), motivational salience is attributed to illness-compatible cues (e.g., underweight and active female bodies) and this is hypothesised to involve dopaminergic reward circuitry. We investigated the effects of reducing dopamine (DA) transmission on the motivational processing of AN-compatible cues in women recovered from AN (AN REC, n = 17) and healthy controls (HC, n = 15). This involved the acute phenylalanine and tyrosine depletion (APTD) procedure and a startle eye-blink modulation (SEM) task...
2016: PloS One
Stefan W Metz, Shaomin Tian, Gabriel Hoekstra, Xianwen Yi, Michelle Stone, Katie Horvath, Michael J Miley, Joseph DeSimone, Chris J Luft, Aravinda M de Silva
Dengue virus (DENV) is the causative agent of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. The virus is endemic in over 120 countries, causing over 350 million infections per year. Dengue vaccine development is challenging because of the need to induce simultaneous protection against four antigenically distinct DENV serotypes and evidence that, under some conditions, vaccination can enhance disease due to specific immunity to the virus. While several live-attenuated tetravalent dengue virus vaccines display partial efficacy, it has been challenging to induce balanced protective immunity to all 4 serotypes...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Márcio Viegas, Cristina Cândido, Joana Felgueiras, José Clemente, Sara Barros, Rostislav Farbota, Filipa Vera, Antero Matos, Francisco Sousa
Introduction The dialysate bicarbonate (DB) influences the acid-base balance in dialysis patients. Very low and high serum bicarbonate (SB) have been related with a higher mortality. Acid-base balance also has been associated with hemodynamic effects in these patients. The trial aim was to compare the effect of DB concentration variation on SB levels in maintenance hemodiafiltration (HDF) patients and the effect on intradialytic hypotension and interdialytic weight gain. Methods  A prospective study, with 9 months of follow-up, involving 93 patients, divided in two groups: group 1 and group 2 with a DB of 34 mmol/L and 30 mmol/L, respectively, with monitoring of pre and post HDF SB, intradialytic hypotension, and interdialytic weight gain...
October 20, 2016: Hemodialysis International
Amit Ghosh, David Ando, Jennifer Gin, Weerawat Runguphan, Charles Denby, George Wang, Edward E K Baidoo, Chris Shymansky, Jay D Keasling, Héctor García Martín
Efficient redirection of microbial metabolism into the abundant production of desired bioproducts remains non-trivial. Here, we used flux-based modeling approaches to improve yields of fatty acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We combined (13)C labeling data with comprehensive genome-scale models to shed light onto microbial metabolism and improve metabolic engineering efforts. We concentrated on studying the balance of acetyl-CoA, a precursor metabolite for the biosynthesis of fatty acids. A genome-wide acetyl-CoA balance study showed ATP citrate lyase from Yarrowia lipolytica as a robust source of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA and malate synthase as a desirable target for downregulation in terms of acetyl-CoA consumption...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
P Sławuta, G Sapikowski, B Sobieraj
: Buffer systems of blood and tissues, which have the ability to bind with and give up hydrogen ions, participate in maintaining the acid-base balance (ABB) of the organism. According to the classic model, the system of carbonic acid and bicarbonates, where the first component serves the role of an acid and the second a base, determines plasma pH. The so-called Stewart model, which assumes that ions in blood serum can be separated into completely dissociated - nonbuffer and not dissociated - buffer ions which may give up or accept H+ions, also describes the ABB of the organism...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Mengjing Wang, Jason Chou, Yongen Chang, Wei L Lau, Uttam Reddy, Connie M Rhee, Jing Chen, Chuanming Hao, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
In the management of patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD), a low-protein diet usually refers to a diet with protein intake of 0.6 to 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight per day (g/kg/day) and should include at least 50% high-biologic-value protein. It may be supplemented with essential acids or nitrogen- free ketoanalogues if <0.6 g/kg/d. Low-protein diet can reduce proteinuria especially in non-diabetic CKD patients. In hypoalbuminemic patients it may lead to an increase in serum albumin level...
October 19, 2016: Panminerva Medica
Justin A Lemkul, Alexander D MacKerell
Mg2+ ions are important in biological systems, particularly in stabilizing compact RNA folds. Mg2+ is strongly polarizing, and representing its interactions in heterogeneous environments is a challenge for empirical force field development. To date, the most commonly used force fields in molecular dynamics simulations utilize a pairwise-additive approximation for electrostatic interactions, which cannot account for the significant polarization response in systems containing Mg2+. In the present work, we refine the interactions of Mg2+ with water, Cl- ions, and nucleic acid moieties using a polarizable force field based on the classical Drude oscillator model...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Nicolas Lefèvre, Benjamin Noyon, Dominique Biarent, Francis Corazza, Jean Duchateau, Georges Casimir
PURPOSE AND METHODS: The severity and prognosis of various acute inflammatory conditions, such as sepsis, differ between males and females. The mechanisms underlying these sex differences probably involve both hormonal and genetic factors. In order to evaluate a possible genetic influence, we reviewed clinical signs and biological inflammatory markers of prepubertal children with severe sepsis admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). FINDINGS: A total of 142 prepubertal children, 66 girls and 76 boys, suffering from severe sepsis and admitted to the PICU were included...
October 17, 2016: Shock
Martin Kimmel, Mark Dominik Alscher
The regulation of the acid-base balance and pH is critical for the organism. The most important buffer system is CO2 / HCO3(-). The kidney controls systemic bicarbonate and therefore the metabolic regulation and the lung is relevant for respiratory regulation by an effective CO2 elimination. There are four acid-base disorders with two metabolic and two respiratory disorders (acidosis and alkalosis). The anion gap enables a further workup of metabolic acidosis.
October 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Teresa F Mastropietro, Nadia Marino, Giovanni De Munno, Francesc Lloret, Miguel Julve, Emilio Pardo, Donatella Armentano
The preparation and structural characterization of four novel oxalate-based iron(III) compounds of formulas {(MeNH3)2[Fe2(ox)2Cl4]·2.5H2O}n (1), K(MeNH3)[Fe(ox)Cl3(H2O)] (2), {MeNH3[Fe2(OH)(ox)2Cl2]·2H2O}n (3), and {(H3O)(MeNH3)[Fe2O(ox)2Cl2]·3H2O}n (4) (MeNH3(+) = methylammonium cation and H2ox = oxalic acid) are reported here. 1 is an anionic waving chain of oxalato-bridged iron(III) ions with peripheral chloro ligands, the charge balance being ensured by methylammonium cations. 2 is a mononuclear complex with a bidentate oxalate, three terminal chloro ligands, and a coordinated water molecule achieving the six-coordination around each iron(III) ion...
October 17, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Robert Sümpelmann, Karin Becke, Sebastian Brenner, Christian Breschan, Christoph Eich, Claudia Höhne, Martin Jöhr, Franz-Josef Kretz, Gernot Marx, Lars Pape, Markus Schreiber, Jochen Strauss, Markus Weiss
This consensus- based S1 Guideline for perioperative infusion therapy in children is focused on safety and efficacy. The objective is to maintain or re-establish the child's normal physiological state (normovolemia, normal tissue perfusion, normal metabolic function, normal acid- base- electrolyte status). Therefore, the perioperative fasting times should be as short as possible to prevent patient discomfort, dehydration, and ketoacidosis. A physiologically composed balanced isotonic electrolyte solution (BS) with 1-2...
October 17, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Ashima Sharma, Monu Yadav, B Rajesh Kumar, P Sai Lakshman, Raju Iyenger, Gopinath Ramchandran
BACKGROUND: A major change in anesthesia practice as regards to intraoperative infusion therapy is the present requirement. Switching over to balanced fluids can substantially decrease the incidence of lactic acidosis and hyperchloremic acidosis. The deleterious effects of unbalanced fluids are more recognizable during major surgeries. We prospectively studied the influence of Sterofundin (SF) and Ringer lactate (RL) on acid-base changes, hemodynamics, and readiness for extubation during scoliosis surgery...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Chris M Moody, Timothy G Townsend
Samples of leachate were collected from fourteen landfills in the state of Florida, United States that contained primarily putrescible waste (municipal solid waste, MSW, and yard waste), MSW incinerator (MSWI) ash, or a combination of both. Assessment of leachates included trace metals, anions, and nutrients in order to create a mass balance of total dissolved solids (TDS). As expected from previously literature, MSW leached a complex matrix of contaminants while MSWI ash leachate TDS was more than 98% metallic salts...
October 11, 2016: Waste Management
Kambiz Masoumi, Arash Forouzan, Ali Asgari Darian, Alireza Rafaty Navaii
BACKGROUND: Appropriate fluid therapy affects morbidity and mortality rates. A conclusion is yet to be reached on the role of crystalloids and colloids in immediate fluid therapy. This study was done to determine the suitable solution in immediate resuscitation of patients with hemorrhagic shock caused by tissue trauma. METHODS: One hundred trauma patients with hemorrhagic shock, who underwent fluid therapy in the emergency unit, were assigned randomly to two groups of hydroxyethyl starch (Voluven) and normal saline...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Dong-Hyuk Jeong, Jeong-Jin Yang, Seong-Hoon Seok, Dong-Joo Song, Seong-Chan Yeon
The objective of this study was to determine the dose-dependent effects of isoflurane on various cardiovascular parameters and the stable range of isoflurane concentrations in Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus). Seven Asiatic black bears were intramuscularly injected with medetomidine, zolazepam, and tiletamine (MZT) to induce anesthesia and anesthesia was maintained by administering isoflurane in 100% oxygen (4 l/min) without mechanical ventilation. Several cardiovascular parameters were measured at five end-tidal isoflurane concentrations (0...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
M-C Horny, M Lazerges, J-M Siaugue, A Pallandre, D Rose, F Bedioui, C Deslouis, A-M Haghiri-Gosnet, J Gamby
Here, we describe the transposition of an ultramicroelectrode (UME) setup into a microfluidic chip configuration for DNA biosensors. The hydrodynamic properties of the fluidic channel microelectrode were screened with an [Fe(iii)(CN)6](3-)/[Fe(ii)(CN)6](4-) redox couple by cyclic voltammetry to provide a basis for further biological processes. A 23-base DNA probe was self-assembled into a monolayer on gold microelectrodes both in classical configuration and integrated in a microfluidic setup. Special interest was focused on the DNA target mimicking the liver-specific micro-ribonucleic acid 122 (miRNA122)...
October 10, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Na Liu, Eric Erquan Zhang
The core circadian oscillator in mammals is composed of transcription/translation feedback loop, in which cryptochrome (CRY) proteins play critical roles as repressors of their own gene expression. Although post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation of CRY1, are crucial for circadian rhythm, little is known about how phosphorylated CRY1 contributes to the molecular clockwork. To address this, we created a series of CRY1 mutants with single amino acid substitutions at potential phosphorylation sites and performed a cell-based, phenotype-rescuing screen to identify mutants with aberrant rhythmicity in CRY-deficient cells...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Jennifer G Jetton, Mark Sorenson
Both acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are seen more frequently in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) as advances in supportive care improve the survival of critically ill infants as well as those with severe, congenital kidney and urinary tract anomalies. Many aspects of the infant's care, including fluid balance, electrolyte and mineral homeostasis, acid-base balance, and growth and nutrition require close monitoring by and collaboration among neonatologists, nephrologists, dieticians, and pharmacologists...
October 6, 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Agata Kornek, Alicja Kucharska, Katarzyna Kamela
INTRODUCTION: Research increasingly provide evidence that vegetarian diet can have a positive impact on health. The aim of this study was to analyze the fatty acid profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian diet and prove which of them is more optimal in the context of some diet-related diseases prevention. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 83 women (47 vegetarians and 36 non-vegetarians). Estimates of the supply of individual fatty acids in the diet was based on analysis of 3-day dietary records (calculations in a computer program DIETA 5)...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
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