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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148147/altered-n170-and-mood-symptoms-in-bipolar-disorder-an-electrophysiological-study-of-configural-face-processing
#1
Ivy F Tso, Tyler B Grove, Savanna A Mueller, Lisa O'Donnell, Jinsoo Chun, Melvin G McInnis, Patricia J Deldin
OBJECTIVES: Altered social behavior during mood episodes in bipolar disorder often has detrimental and long-lasting interpersonal consequences. Abnormal face processing may play a role in linking brain functions to clinical symptoms and behavior. This study aimed to understand configural face processing in bipolar disorder as a function of basic communicative attributes of the face and mood symptoms using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). METHODS: Forty-two participants with bipolar I disorder (BP) and 43 healthy controls (HC) viewed face stimuli varying in emotion (neutral or fearful), head orientation (forward or deviated), and gaze direction (direct or averted) while ERPs were recorded...
November 17, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147961/spatiotemporal-competition-and-task-relevance-shape-the-spatial-distribution-of-emotional-interference-during-rapid-visual-processing-evidence-from-gaze-contingent-eye-tracking
#2
Briana L Kennedy, Daniel Pearson, David J Sutton, Tom Beesley, Steven B Most
People's ability to perceive rapidly presented targets can be disrupted both by voluntary encoding of a preceding target and by spontaneous attention to salient distractors. Distinctions between these sources of interference can be found when people search for a target in multiple rapid streams instead of a single stream: voluntary encoding of a preceding target often elicits subsequent perceptual lapses across the visual field, whereas spontaneous attention to emotionally salient distractors appears to elicit a spatially localized lapse, giving rise to a theoretical account suggesting that emotional distractors and subsequent targets compete spatiotemporally during rapid serial visual processing...
November 16, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141881/it-s-not-all-black-and-white-visual-scene-parameters-influence-optokinetic-reflex-performance-in-xenopus-laevis-tadpoles
#3
Céline M Gravot, Alexander G Knorr, Stefan Glasauer, Hans Straka
The maintenance of visual acuity during active and passive body motion is ensured by gaze-stabilizing reflexes that aim at minimizing retinal image slip. For the optokinetic reflex (OKR), large-field visual motion of the surround forms the essential stimulus that activates eye movements. Properties of the moving visual world influence cognitive motion perception and the estimation of visual image velocity. Therefore, the performance of brainstem-mediated visuo-motor behaviors might also depend on image scene characteristics...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140781/a-generative-audio-visual-prosodic-model-for-virtual-actors
#4
Adela Barbulescu, Remi Ronfard, Gerard Bailly
An important problem in computer animation of virtual characters is the expression of complex mental states during conversation using the coordinated prosody of voice, rhythm, facial expressions, and head and gaze motion. In this work, the authors propose an expressive conversion method for generating natural speech and facial animation in a variety of recognizable attitudes, using neutral speech and animation as input. Their method works by automatically learning prototypical prosodic contours at the sentence level from an original dataset of dramatic attitudes...
November 2017: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140527/functional-organization-of-face-processing-in-the-human-superior-temporal-sulcus-a-7t-high-resolution-fmri-study
#5
Anne-Kathrin Schobert, Corrado Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Sascha Frühholz, Wietske van der Zwaag, Patrik Vuilleumier
The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is a major component of the human face perception network, implicated in processing dynamic changeable aspects of faces. However, it remains unknown whether STS holds functionally segregated subdivisions for different categories of facial movements. We used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 7T in 16 volunteers to compare STS activation to faces displaying angry or happy expressions, eye-gaze shifts, and lip-speech movements. Combining univariate and multivariate analyses, we show a systematic topological organization within STS, with gaze-related activity predominating in the most posterior and superior sector, speech-related activity in the anterior sector, and emotional expressions represented in the intermediate middle STS...
November 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136516/the-order-of-information-processing-alters-economic-gain-loss-framing-effects
#6
Youngbin Kwak, Scott Huettel
Adaptive decision making requires analysis of available information during the process of choice. In many decisions that information is presented visually - which means that variations in visual properties (e.g., salience, complexity) can potentially influence the process of choice. In the current study, we demonstrate that variation in the left-right positioning of risky and safe decision options can influence the canonical gain-loss framing effect. Two experiments were conducted using an economic framing task in which participants chose between gambles and certain outcomes...
November 11, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132975/a-novel-temporal-pattern-of-childhood-cerebral-x-linked-adrenoleukodystrophy
#7
Emanuela C Turco, Francesca Ormitti, Anna Andreolli, Marina Barsacchi, Carlotta Facini, Francesco Pisani
We report a 9-year-old boy, with childhood cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (CCALD), presenting with an episode of loss of consciousness, fixed gaze, hypotonia and vomit with spontaneous resolution and post-ictal sleep. Behavioural impairment has been observed since the previous five months. Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) revealed isolated bilateral, symmetric, confluent temporal white matter lesions involving also corticospinal tracts, with sparing of the parieto-occipital and frontal white matter. This report outlines an atypical neuroradiological localization of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy and neuropsychological findings not specifically related to the brain involvement seen at the MRI...
November 10, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131516/performance-in-a-collaborative-search-task-the-role-of-feedback-and-alignment
#8
Moreno I Coco, Rick Dale, Frank Keller
When people communicate, they coordinate a wide range of linguistic and non-linguistic behaviors. This process of coordination is called alignment, and it is assumed to be fundamental to successful communication. In this paper, we question this assumption and investigate whether disalignment is a more successful strategy in some cases. More specifically, we hypothesize that alignment correlates with task success only when communication is interactive. We present results from a spot-the-difference task in which dyads of interlocutors have to decide whether they are viewing the same scene or not...
November 13, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129535/genetic-influence-on-eye-movements-to-complex-scenes-at-short-timescales
#9
Daniel P Kennedy, Brian M D'Onofrio, Patrick D Quinn, Sven Bölte, Paul Lichtenstein, Terje Falck-Ytter
Where one looks within their environment constrains one's visual experiences, directly affects cognitive, emotional, and social processing [1-4], influences learning opportunities [5], and ultimately shapes one's developmental path. While there is a high degree of similarity across individuals with regard to which features of a scene are fixated [6-8], large individual differences are also present, especially in disorders of development [9-13], and clarifying the origins of these differences is essential to understand the processes by which individuals develop within the complex environments in which they exist and interact...
November 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129037/eye-movement-abnormalities-in-middle-cerebellar-peduncle-strokes
#10
Sung-Hee Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
The middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) is a major conduit for cortico-ponto-cerebellar fibers that convey information related to eye movements. This study aims to elucidate eye movement abnormalities that arise from lesions confined to the MCP. In 23 patients with acute strokes restricted to unilateral MCPs, we investigated the clinical features and ocular motor findings including spontaneous nystagmus, saccades, smooth pursuit, ocular tilt reaction, and head impulse tests. Bithermal caloric tests and audiometry were also performed...
November 11, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127576/skipping-of-chinese-characters-does-not-rely-on-word-based-processing
#11
Nan Lin, Bernhard Angele, Huimin Hua, Wei Shen, Junyi Zhou, Xingshan Li
Previous eye-movement studies have indicated that people tend to skip extremely high-frequency words in sentence reading, such as "the" in English and "/de" in Chinese. Two alternative hypotheses have been proposed to explain how this frequent skipping happens in Chinese reading: one assumes that skipping happens when the preview has been fully identified at the word level (word-based skipping); the other assumes that skipping happens whenever the preview character is easy to identify regardless of whether lexical processing has been completed or not (character-based skipping)...
November 10, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126962/your-attention-makes-me-smile-direct-gaze-elicits-affiliative-facial-expressions
#12
Jari K Hietanen, Terhi M Helminen, Helena Kiilavuori, Anneli Kylliäinen, Heidi Lehtonen, Mikko J Peltola
Facial electromyographic responses and skin conductance responses were measured to investigate whether, in a neutral laboratory environment, another individual's direct gaze elicits a positive or negative affective reaction in the observer. The results showed that greater zygomatic responses associated with positive affect were elicited by seeing another person with direct as compared to averted gaze. The zygomatic responses were greater in response to another person's direct gaze both when the participant's own gaze was directed towards the other and when the participant was not looking directly towards the other...
November 7, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126930/white-matter-integrity-mediates-decline-in-age-related-inhibitory-control
#13
Peipei Li, Angeliki Tsapanou, Razlighi R Qolamreza, Yunglin Gazes
Previous DTI studies have reported associations between white matter integrity and performance on the Stroop interference task. The current study aimed to add to these studies of inhibitory control by investigating how the differences in age and in white matter integrity relate to Stroop performance, and to examine whether the effect of age on Stroop performance is mediated by white matter integrity. 179 healthy adults from 20 to 80 years old were recruited in the study. DTI data were processed through TRACULA and the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) of 18 major white matter tracts were extracted and used for statistical analysis...
November 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124002/three-dimensional-reconstruction-of-late-post-traumatic-orbital-wall-defects-by-customized-implants-using-cad-cam-3d-stereolithographic-models-a-case-report
#14
Vignesh U, Divya Mehrotra, Dichen, Vaibhav Anand, Debraj Howlader
Aim: Purpose of this case report is to highlight the precision and accuracy obtained with patient specific implants for orbital reconstruction designed on the basis of volumetric analysis of orbital computed tomographic scan (CT) scans using virtual planning, computerised designing and manufacturing and stereolithographic models to correct late post-traumatic orbital deformities such as enophthalmos and diplopia. Material and methods: This case report describes a patient who visited our outpatient clinic for correction of enophthalmos and persistent diplopia in upward gaze, seven months post trauma...
September 2017: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123495/likability-s-effect-on-interpersonal-motor-coordination-exploring-natural-gaze-direction
#15
Zhong Zhao, Robin N Salesse, Ludovic Marin, Mathieu Gueugnon, Benoît G Bardy
Although existing studies indicate a positive effect of interpersonal motor coordination (IMC) on likability, no consensus has been reached as for the effect of likability back onto IMC. The present study specifically investigated the causal effect of likability on IMC and explored, by tracking the natural gaze direction, the possible underlying mechanisms. Twenty-two participants were engaged in an interpersonal finger-tapping task with a confederate in three likability conditions (baseline, likable, and unlikable), while wearing an eye tracker...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123215/observer-s-anxiety-facilitates-magnocellular-processing-of-clear-facial-threat-cues-but-impairs-parvocellular-processing-of-ambiguous-facial-threat-cues
#16
Hee Yeon Im, Reginald B Adams, Jasmine Boshyan, Noreen Ward, Cody A Cushing, Kestutis Kveraga
Facial expression and eye gaze provide a shared signal about threats. While a fear expression with averted gaze clearly points to the source of threat, direct-gaze fear renders the source of threat ambiguous. Separable routes have been proposed to mediate these processes, with preferential attunement of the magnocellular (M) pathway to clear threat, and of the parvocellular (P) pathway to threat ambiguity. Here we investigated how observers' trait anxiety modulates M- and P-pathway processing of clear and ambiguous threat cues...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122203/accident-ahead-difficulties-of-drivers-with-and-without-reading-impairment-recognising-words-and-pictograms-in-variable-message-signs
#17
J Roca, P Tejero, B Insa
A timely and accurate acquisition of the information provided by variable message signs (VMS) can be crucial while driving. In the current study, we assess the difficulties of adults with dyslexia acquiring the information shown in VMS and provide evidence to discuss the controversial use of pictograms as potential countermeasures. Twenty-two adults with dyslexia and 22 matched controls completed a simulated driving session. The legibility of 12 VMS was assessed, including six text messages (e.g. "ACCIDENT") and six single pictograms (e...
February 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122195/how-we-can-measure-the-non-driving-task-engagement-in-automated-driving-comparing-flow-experience-and-workload
#18
Sang Min Ko, Yong Gu Ji
In automated driving, a driver can completely concentrate on non-driving-related tasks (NDRTs). This study investigated the flow experience of a driver who concentrated on NDRTs and tasks that induce mental workload under conditional automation. Participants performed NDRTs under different demand levels: a balanced demand-skill level (fit condition) to induce flow, low-demand level to induce boredom, and high-demand level to induce anxiety. In addition, they performed the additional N-Back task, which artificially induces mental workload...
February 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121827/gaze-cueing-with-crossed-eyes-asymmetry-between-nasal-and-temporal-shifts
#19
Saki Takao, Aiko Murata, Katsumi Watanabe
A person's direction of gaze (and visual attention) can be inferred from the direction of the parallel shift of the eyes. However, the direction of gaze is ambiguous when there is a misalignment between the eyes. The use of schematic drawings of faces in a previous study demonstrated that gaze-cueing was equally effective, even when one eye looked straight and the other eye was averted. In the current study, we used more realistic computer-generated face models to re-examine if the diverging direction of the eyes affected gaze-cueing...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121587/social-attention-directs-working-memory-maintenance
#20
Qi-Yang Nie, Xiaowei Ding, Jianyong Chen, Markus Conci
Visual working memory (vWM) performance is enhanced when a memorized object is cued after encoding. This so-called retro-cue effect is typically observed with a predictive (80% valid), retrospective cue. The current study examined whether a nonpredictive (50% valid) retro-cue can similarly enhance internal memory representations in cases where the cue conveys social signals. To this end, gaze cues were presented during the retention interval of a change-detection task, which are capable to engender a mutual attentional focus of two individuals towards one location...
November 6, 2017: Cognition
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