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Pietro Lungaro, Rickard Sjoberg, Alfredo Jose Fanghella Valero, Ashutosh Mittal, Konrad Tollmar
This paper presents a novel approach to content delivery for video streaming services. It exploits information from connected eye-trackers embedded in the next generation of VR Head Mounted Displays (HMDs). The proposed solution aims to deliver high visual quality, in real time, around the users' fixations points while lowering the quality everywhere else. The goal of the proposed approach is to substantially reduce the overall bandwidth requirements for supporting VR video experiences while delivering high levels of user perceived quality...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Henry Zhao, Lauren Pesavento, Skye Coote, Edrich Rodrigues, Patrick Salvaris, Karen Smith, Stephen Bernard, Michael Stephenson, Leonid Churilov, Nawaf Yassi, Stephen M Davis, Bruce C V Campbell
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinical triage scales for prehospital recognition of large vessel occlusion (LVO) are limited by low specificity when applied by paramedics. We created the 3-step ambulance clinical triage for acute stroke treatment (ACT-FAST) as the first algorithmic LVO identification tool, designed to improve specificity by recognizing only severe clinical syndromes and optimizing paramedic usability and reliability. METHODS: The ACT-FAST algorithm consists of (1) unilateral arm drift to stretcher <10 seconds, (2) severe language deficit (if right arm is weak) or gaze deviation/hemineglect assessed by simple shoulder tap test (if left arm is weak), and (3) eligibility and stroke mimic screen...
March 14, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Pilar Tejero, Beatriz Insa, Javier Roca
A group of adult individuals with dyslexia and a matched group of normally reading individuals participated in a driving simulation experiment. Participants were asked to read the word presented on every direction traffic sign encountered along a route, as far as possible from the sign, maintaining driving performance. Word frequency and word length were manipulated as within-subject factors. We analyzed (a) reading accuracy, (b) how far the sign was when the participant started to give the response, (c) where the participant looked during the time leading up to the response, and (d) the variability of the vehicle's speed during that time and during driving on similar segments of the route that did not present the traffic signs...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Mathis Jording, Arne Hartz, Gary Bente, Martin Schulte-Rüther, Kai Vogeley
Humans substantially rely on non-verbal cues in their communication and interaction with others. The eyes represent a "simultaneous input-output device": While we observe others and obtain information about their mental states (including feelings, thoughts, and intentions-to-act), our gaze simultaneously provides information about our own attention and inner experiences. This substantiates its pivotal role for the coordination of communication. The communicative and coordinative capacities - and their phylogenetic and ontogenetic impacts - become fully apparent in triadic interactions constituted in its simplest form by two persons and an object...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Sabrina Baldofski, Patrick Lüthold, Ingmar Sperling, Anja Hilbert
Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by excessive evening and/or nocturnal eating episodes. Studies indicate an attentional bias towards food in other eating disorders. For NES, however, evidence of attentional food processing is lacking. Attention towards food and non-food stimuli was compared using eye-tracking in 19 participants with NES and 19 matched controls without eating disorders during a free exploration paradigm and a visual search task. In the free exploration paradigm, groups did not differ in initial fixation position or gaze duration...
March 2018: Behavior Therapy
Anne F C Leonard, Andrew Singer, Obioha C Ukoumunne, William H Gaze, Ruth Garside
Background: Numerous illnesses are associated with bathing in natural waters, although it is assumed that the risk of illness among bathers exposed to relatively clean waters found in high-income countries is negligible. A systematic review was carried out to quantify the increased risk of experiencing a range of adverse health outcomes among bathers exposed to coastal water compared with non-bathers. Methods: In all 6919 potentially relevant titles and abstracts were screened, and from these 40 studies were eligible for inclusion in the review...
February 26, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Alban Lemasson, Hugo Pereira, Florence Levréro
Authors have raised the possibility of identifying primitive forms of conversational rules in monkeys: temporally ruled vocal interactions, call overlap avoidance, and socially based calling partner preferences. The question as to how these abilities have evolved in the primate lineage remains open to debate, particularly because studies based on apes are scarce and controversial. We studied a captive group of western lowland gorillas and tested the influence of caller characteristics and the type of bond between calling partners on vocal behavior based on the following: age, dominance, spatial proximity, sociopositive contact, and gaze...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Silje Havrevold Henni, Marit Kirkevold, Konstantinos Antypas, Christina Foss
BACKGROUND: Care of older adults in the community is becoming increasingly complex. However, nursing staff often has insufficient knowledge and skills to adequately address the needs of frail older adults. There is therefore a need for nurses with advanced qualifications. To meet this need, advanced geriatric nursing has been introduced in Norway. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the experiences of nurses with their new role as advanced geriatric nurses in care of older adults and to determine what strategies the nurses considered important in the development of their new role...
March 11, 2018: International Journal of Older People Nursing
Jon Cavanaugh, Aaryn Mustoe, Jeffrey A French
While separation from significant social partners produces a host of neurobiological and behavioral perturbations, including behavioral distress and increased glucocorticoid production, positive social interactions upon reunion are critical for the reestablishment of normative relationship dynamics and the attenuation of the biobehavioral stress response. The hormone oxytocin has critical and pervasive roles in reproductive and behavioral processes across the lifespan, and plays a particularly prominent role in social bonding...
March 11, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Emilia Thorup, Pär Nyström, Gustaf Gredebäck, Sven Bölte, Terje Falck-Ytter
In typical development, infants often alternate their gaze between their interaction partners and interesting stimuli, increasing the probability of joint attention toward surrounding objects and creating opportunities for communication and learning. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have been found to engage less in behaviors that can initiate joint attention compared to typically developing children, but the role of such atypicalities in the development of ASD during infancy is not fully understood...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Annie Lannuzel, Régine Edragas, Angéla Lackmy, Benoit Tressières, Véronique Pelonde, Mireille Edimo Nana Kaptué, Sylvie Mécharles, Alexis Demas, Billy François, Eavan McGovern, Marie Vidailhet, Bertrand Gaymard, Emmanuel Roze
BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of an atypical levodopa-resistant parkinsonism has been reported in the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe. These seminal observations have not been replicated or extended to neighbouring populations who share genetic and environmental characteristics. METHODS: To further characterise this atypical parkinsonism we prospectively investigated 305 consecutive patients with neurodegenerative parkinsonism in a community-based population from Guadeloupe and Martinique, a neighbouring French Caribbean island where the population has similar environmental and genetic backgrounds...
February 6, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Sarah D McCrackin, Roxane J Itier
Most face processing research has investigated how we perceive faces presented by themselves, but we view faces everyday within a rich social context. Recent ERP research has demonstrated that context cues, including self-relevance and valence, impact electrocortical and emotional responses to neutral faces. However, the time-course of these effects is still unclear, and it is unknown whether these effects interact with the face gaze direction, a cue that inherently contains self-referential information and triggers emotional responses...
March 7, 2018: Biological Psychology
Shane L Rogers, Craig P Speelman, Oliver Guidetti, Melissa Longmuir
We report the personal eye gaze patterns of people engaged in face-to-face getting acquainted conversation. Considerable differences between individuals are underscored by a stability of eye gaze patterns within individuals. Results suggest the existence of an eye-mouth gaze continuum. This continuum includes some people showing a strong preference for eye gaze, some with a strong preference for mouth gaze, and others distributing their gaze between the eyes and mouth to varying extents. Additionally, we found evidence of within-participant consistency not just for location preference but also for the duration of fixations upon the eye and mouth regions...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hee Yeon Im, Reginald B Adams, Cody A Cushing, Jasmine Boshyan, Noreen Ward, Kestutis Kveraga
During face perception, we integrate facial expression and eye gaze to take advantage of their shared signals. For example, fear with averted gaze provides a congruent avoidance cue, signaling both threat presence and its location, whereas fear with direct gaze sends an incongruent cue, leaving threat location ambiguous. It has been proposed that the processing of different combinations of threat cues is mediated by dual processing routes: reflexive processing via magnocellular (M) pathway and reflective processing via parvocellular (P) pathway...
March 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Gözde Hondur, Emre Göktaş, Lama Al-Aswad, Gülgün Tezel
Purpose: This pilot cross-sectional study aimed to determine age-related changes of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in retinal periphery by swept-source optical coherence tomography-based analysis. Methods: Forty eyes of 40 healthy subjects were studied in three age groups, group 1 (20-40 years, n=15), group 2 (41-60 years, n=14), and group 3 (≥61 years, n=11). Wide-angle swept-source optical coherence tomography scans, including the optic disc and macula, were montaged with the nasal peripheral optical coherence tomography images acquired with a contralateral gaze...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
Zeng Hai Chen, Hong Fu, Wai Lun Lo, Zheru Chi, Bingang Xu
Strabismus is one of the most common vision disorders in preschool children. It can cause amblyopia and even permanent vision loss. In addition to a vision problem, strabismus brings to both children and adults serious negative impacts in their daily life, education, employment etc. Timely diagnosis of strabismus is thus crucial. However, traditional diagnosis methods conducted by ophthalmologists rely significantly on their experiences, making the diagnosis results subjective. It is also inconvenient for those methods being used for strabismus examination in large communities such as schools...
February 2018: Healthcare Technology Letters
Ben McNaughten, Caroline Hart, Stephen Gallagher, Carol Junk, Patricia Coulter, Andrew Thompson, Thomas Bourke
AIM: Differences in the gaze behaviour of experts and novices are described in aviation and surgery. This study sought to describe the gaze behaviour of clinicians from different training backgrounds during a simulated paediatric emergency. METHODS: Clinicians from four clinical areas undertook a simulated emergency. Participants wore SMI (SensoMotoric Instruments) eye tracking glasses. We measured the fixation count and dwell time on predefined areas of interest and the time taken to key clinical interventions...
March 7, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Yoshiko Izawa, Hisao Suzuki
Focal stimulation in the frontal eye field (FEF) evoked eye movements that were often accompanied by neck movements. Experiments were performed with concurrent recording of both movements in trained monkeys. We recorded neck forces under a head-restrained condition using a force-measuring system. With the system, we measured forces along the x, y, and z axes and torque about the z axis. Torque about the z axis that represented yaw rotation of the head was significantly affected by stimulation. We found that stimulation generated two types of motor actions of the eyes and neck...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Jennie Abbott, Megan Middlemiss, Vicki Bruce, David Smailes, Robert Dudley
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: When asked to evaluate faces of strangers, people with paranoia show a tendency to rate others as less trustworthy. The present study investigated the impact of arousal on this interpersonal bias, and whether this bias was specific to evaluations of trust or additionally affected other trait judgements. The study also examined the impact of eye gaze direction, as direct eye gaze has been shown to heighten arousal. METHODS: In two experiments, non-clinical participants completed face rating tasks before and after either an arousal manipulation or control manipulation...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Inês Mares, Marie L Smith, Mark H Johnson, Atsushi Senju
Direct gaze is a powerful social cue signalling the attention of another person toward oneself. Here we investigated the relevance of low spatial frequency (LSF) and high spatial frequency (HSF) in facial cues for direct gaze processing. We identified two distinct peaks in the ERP response, the N170 and N240 components. These two components were related to different stimulus conditions and influenced by different spatial frequencies. In particular, larger N170 and N240 amplitudes were observed for direct gaze than for averted gaze, but only in the N240 component was this effect modulated by spatial frequency, where it was reliant in LSF information...
March 3, 2018: Biological Psychology
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