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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213690/anticipatory-postural-adjustments-associated-with-reaching-movements-are-programmed-according-to-the-availability-of-visual-information
#1
Roberto Esposti, Carlo Bruttini, Francesco Bolzoni, Paolo Cavallari
During goal-directed arm movements, the eyes, head, and arm are coordinated to look at and reach the target. We examined whether the expectancy of visual information about the target modifies Anticipatory Postural Adjustments (APAs). Ten standing subjects had to (1) move the eyes, head and arm, so as to reach, with both gaze and index-finger, a target of known position placed outside their visual field (Gaze-Reach); (2) look at the target while reaching it (Reach in Full Vision); (3) keep the gaze away until having touched it (Reach then Gaze) and (4) just Gaze without Reach the target...
February 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211136/from-prioritizing-objects-to-prioritizing-cues-a-developmental-shift-for-cognitive-control
#2
Nicolas Chevalier, Bruno Dauvier, Agnès Blaye
Emerging cognitive control supports increasingly adaptive behaviors and predicts life success, while low cognitive control is a major risk factor during childhood. It is therefore essential to understand how it develops. The present study provides evidence for an age-related shift in the type of information that children prioritize in their environment, from objects that can be directly acted upon to cues signaling how to act. Specifically, gaze patterns recorded while 3- to 12-year-olds and adults engaged in a cognitive control task showed that whereas younger children fixated on targets that they needed to respond to before gazing at task cues signaling how to respond, older children and adults showed the opposite pattern (which yielded better performance)...
February 16, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210826/stranger-fear-and-early-risk-for-social-anxiety-in-preschoolers-with-fragile-x-syndrome-contrasted-to-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Jessica F Scherr, Abigail L Hogan, Deborah Hatton, Jane E Roberts
This study investigated behavioral indicators of social fear in preschool boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS) with a low degree of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms (FXS-Low; n = 29), FXS with elevated ASD symptoms (FXS-High; n = 25), idiopathic ASD (iASD; n = 11), and typical development (TD; n = 36). Gaze avoidance, escape behaviors, and facial fear during a stranger approach were coded. Boys with elevated ASD symptoms displayed more avoidant gaze, looking less at the stranger and parent than those with low ASD symptoms across etiologies...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208099/the-impact-of-walking-while-using-a-smartphone-on-pedestrians-awareness-of-roadside-events
#4
Ming-I Brandon Lin, Yu-Ping Huang
Previous studies have shown that using a cell phone to talk or text while walking changes gait kinematics and encourages risky street-crossing behaviors. However, less is known about how the motor-cognitive interference imposed by smartphone tasks affects pedestrians' situational awareness to environmental targets relevant to pedestrian safety. This study systematically investigated the influence of smartphone use on detection of and responses to a variety of roadside events in a semi-virtual walking environment...
February 13, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208076/how-does-gaze-direction-affect-facial-processing-in-social-anxiety-an-erp-study
#5
Dan Li, Fengqiong Yu, Rong Ye, Xingui Chen, Xinhui Xie, Chunyan Zhu, Kai Wang
Previous behavioral studies have demonstrated an effect of eye gaze direction on the processing of emotional expressions in adults with social anxiety. However, specific brain responses to the interaction between gaze direction and facial expressions in social anxiety remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore the time course of such interaction using event-related potentials (ERPs) in participants with social anxiety. High socially anxious individuals and low socially anxious individuals were asked to identify the gender of angry or neutral faces with direct or averted gaze while their behavioral performance and electrophysiological data were monitored...
February 9, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205365/paratesticular-rhabdomyosarcoma-in-children-and-adolescents-outcome-and-patterns-of-relapse-when-utilizing-a-nonsurgical-strategy-for-lymph-node-staging-report-from-the-international-society-of-paediatric-oncology-siop-malignant-mesenchymal-tumour-89-and-95
#6
Timothy Rogers, Veronique Minard-Colin, Nathalie Cozic, Meriel Jenney, Johannes H M Merks, Soledad Gallego, Christine Devalck, Mark N Gaze, Anna Kelsey, Odile Oberlin, Mike Stevens, Richard D Spicer, Christophe Bergeron, Helene Martelli
PURPOSE: To report the results from International Society of Pediatric Oncology (SIOP) Malignant Mesenchymal Tumors studies (MMT 89 and 95) of males with nonmetastatic paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma. METHODS: From 1989 to 2003, 159 patients were included. Radical inguinal orchidectomy was recommended, but retroperitoneal lymph node (LN) assessment was based on imaging alone. The treatment was stratified by stage (SIOP tumor-node-metastasis staging system) and histology...
February 16, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205131/what-to-expect-from-your-remote-eye-tracker-when-participants-are-unrestrained
#7
Diederick C Niehorster, Tim H W Cornelissen, Kenneth Holmqvist, Ignace T C Hooge, Roy S Hessels
The marketing materials of remote eye-trackers suggest that data quality is invariant to the position and orientation of the participant as long as the eyes of the participant are within the eye-tracker's headbox, the area where tracking is possible. As such, remote eye-trackers are marketed as allowing the reliable recording of gaze from participant groups that cannot be restrained, such as infants, schoolchildren and patients with muscular or brain disorders. Practical experience and previous research, however, tells us that eye-tracking data quality, e...
February 15, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203582/indifference-to-chaotic-motion-may-be-related-to-social-disinterest-in-children-with-autism
#8
Joshua Haworth, Anastasia Kyvelidou, Wayne Fisher, Nicholas Stergiou
Children with autism spectrum disorder tend to have little interest in the presence, actions, and motives of other persons. In addition, these children tend to present with a limited and overly redundant movement repertoire, often expressing hyperfixation and aversion to novelty. We explore whether this is related to a more fundamental lack of appreciation for various temporal dynamics, including periodic, chaotic, and aperiodic motion structures. Seven children with ASD (age, gender, and height matched with children without ASD) were asked to stand and watch the motion of a visual stimulus displayed on a large (55″) video monitor...
December 2016: Journal of Motor Learning and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203355/who-is-the-usual-suspect-evidence-of-a-selection-bias-toward-faces-that-make-direct-eye-contact-in-a-lineup-task
#9
Jessica Taubert, Celine van Golde, Frans A J Verstraten
The speed and ease with which we recognize the faces of our friends and family members belies the difficulty we have recognizing less familiar individuals. Nonetheless, overconfidence in our ability to recognize faces has carried over into various aspects of our legal system; for instance, eyewitness identification serves a critical role in criminal proceedings. For this reason, understanding the perceptual and psychological processes that underlie false identification is of the utmost importance. Gaze direction is a salient social signal and direct eye contact, in particular, is thought to capture attention...
January 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202573/alteration-of-the-microsaccadic-velocity-amplitude-main-sequence-relationship-after-visual-transients-implications-for-models-of-saccade-control
#10
Antimo Buonocore, Chih-Yang Chen, Xiaoguang Tian, Saad Idrees, Thomas Muench, Ziad M Hafed
Microsaccades occur during gaze fixation in order to correct for miniscule foveal motor errors. The mechanisms governing such fine oculomotor control are still not fully understood. In this study, we explored microsaccade control by analyzing the impacts of transient visual stimuli on these movements' kinematics. We found that such kinematics can be altered in systematic ways depending on the timing and spatial geometry of visual transients relative to the movement goals. In two male rhesus macaques, we presented peripheral or foveal visual transients during an otherwise stable period of fixation...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199914/controlling-attention-to-gaze-and-arrows-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#11
Andrea Marotta, Augusto Pasini, Erica Menotti, Alessia Pasquini, Maria Bernarda Pitzianti, Maria Casagrande
The aim of this research was to assess implicit processing of social and non-social distracting cues in children with ADHD. Young people with ADHD and matched controls were asked to classify target words (LEFT/RIGHT) which were accompanied by a distracter eye-gaze or arrow. Typically developing participants showed evidence of interference effects from both eye-gaze and arrow distracters. In contrast, the ADHD group showed evidence of interference effects from arrow but failed to show interference from eye-gaze...
February 9, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198356/a-comparison-study-of-visually-stimulated-brain-computer-and-eye-tracking-interfaces
#12
Kaori Suefusa, Toshihisa Tanaka
OBJECTIVE: Brain--computer interfacing (BCI) based on visual stimuli detects the target on a screen on which a user is focusing. The detection of the gazing target can be achieved by tracking gaze positions with a video camera, which is called eye tracking or eye tracking interfaces (ETIs). Both types of interfaces have been developed in different communities. Thus, little work on the comprehensive comparison between these two types of interfaces has been reported. This paper quantitatively compares the performance of these two interfaces on the same experimental platform...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196753/temporal-and-spatial-occlusion-of-advanced-visual-information-constrains-movement-re-organization-in-one-handed-catching-behaviors
#13
J A Stone, I W Maynard, J S North, D Panchuk, K Davids
Dynamic interceptive actions are performed under severe spatial and temporal constraints. Here, behavioral processes underpinning anticipation in one-handed catching were examined using novel technology to implement a spatial and temporal occlusion design. Video footage of an actor throwing a ball was manipulated to create four temporal and five spatial occlusion conditions. Data from twelve participants' hand kinematics and gaze behaviors were recorded while attempting to catch a projected ball synchronized with the video footage...
February 11, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196268/three-cases-of-exotropic-moebius-syndrome
#14
Abbas Bagheri, Mohaddese Feizi
Moebius syndrome is characterized by congenital facial palsy and limitation in horizontal gaze. The surgical results of the exotropic pattern are rare and have not been published before. The authors report three cases of exotropic Moebius syndrome. Maximal weakening of the lateral rectus muscles followed by strengthening of the medial recti in exotropic Moebius syndrome can improve exotropia significantly. Most of these cases also need some measures to relieve the often associated severe dry eye. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195427/oculomotor-deficits-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3-potential-biomarkers-of-preclinical-detection-and-disease-progression
#15
Chao Wu, Ding-Bang Chen, Li Feng, Xiang-Xue Zhou, Ji-Wei Zhang, Hua-Jing You, Xiu-Ling Liang, Zhong Pei, Xun-Hua Li
AIMS: To detect specific oculomotor deficits in preclinical stage of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) and evaluate whether these abnormalities prove useful as potential biomarkers of disease progression. METHODS: A Chinese cohort of 56 patients with SCA3, including 12 preclinical carriers of SCA3 (pre-SCA3) and 44 manifest SCA3, and 26 healthy control individuals were recruited. We performed a detailed investigation on central oculomotor performance including fixation, gaze, smooth pursuit, prosaccade, and antisaccade using video-oculography...
February 13, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194350/changes-in-eyebrow-position-and-movement-with-aging
#16
Jeongseob Park, Sangho Yun, Daegu Son
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated dynamic changes in eyebrow position related to aging. METHODS: Female participants were recruited and separated into two groups aged 20-30 years (the younger group, n=20; mean age, 24.8 years) and 50-70 years (the older group, n=20; mean age, 55.8 years). Photogrammetry was used to determine the eyebrow position at the medial canthus (MC), lateral limbus, lateral canthus, and lateral end point (EP) for 6 actions: smooth opening (the reference action) and closing of the eye, forward gaze, maximum opening and closing of the eye, and maximum frown...
January 2017: Archives of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194321/extranodal-natural-killer-t-cell-lymphoma-presenting-as-orbital-cellulitis
#17
Hanis Zuhaimy, Hayati Abdul Aziz, Suresh Vasudevan, Siah Hui Hui
Objective: To report an aggressive case of extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) of the ethmoid sinus presenting as orbital cellulitis Method: Case report Results: A 56-year-old male presented with right eye redness, reduced vision, and periorbital swelling for 5 weeks duration associated with a two-month history of blocked nose. The visual acuity of the right eye was 6/18. The eye was proptosed with periorbital oedema and conjunctival chemosis. The pupil was mid-dilated but there was no relative afferent pupillary defect...
2017: GMS Ophthalmology Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194135/inaccurate-saccades-and-enhanced-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-suppression-during-combined-eye-head-movements-in-patients-with-chronic-neck-pain-possible-implications-for-cervical-vertigo
#18
Janine L Johnston, Pierre M Daye, Glen T D Thomson
BACKGROUND: The primate ocular motor system is designed to acquire peripheral targets of interest by coordinating visual, vestibular, and neck muscle activation signals. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is greatly reduced at the onset of large eye-head (gaze) saccades and resumes before the end of the saccades to stabilize eye-in-orbit and ensure accurate target acquisition. Previous studies have relied on manipulating head movements in normal individuals to study VOR suppression and gaze kinematics...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193871/optimizing-virtual-reality-for-all-users-through-gaze-contingent-and-adaptive-focus-displays
#19
Nitish Padmanaban, Robert Konrad, Tal Stramer, Emily A Cooper, Gordon Wetzstein
From the desktop to the laptop to the mobile device, personal computing platforms evolve over time. Moving forward, wearable computing is widely expected to be integral to consumer electronics and beyond. The primary interface between a wearable computer and a user is often a near-eye display. However, current generation near-eye displays suffer from multiple limitations: they are unable to provide fully natural visual cues and comfortable viewing experiences for all users. At their core, many of the issues with near-eye displays are caused by limitations in conventional optics...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193545/gaze-cueing-requires-intact-face-processing-insights-from-acquired-prosopagnosia
#20
Nicolas Burra, Dirk Kerzel, Meike Ramon
Gaze-cueing is the automatic spatial orienting of attention in the direction of perceived gaze. Participants respond faster to targets located at positions congruent with the direction of gaze, compared to incongruent ones (gaze cueing effect, GCE). However, it still remains unclear whether its occurrence depends on intact integration of information from the entire eye region or face, rather than simply the presence of the eyes per se. To address this question, we investigated the GCE in PS, an extensively studied case of pure acquired prosopagnosia...
February 10, 2017: Brain and Cognition
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