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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549354/the-facespan-the-perceptual-span-for-face-recognition
#1
Michael Papinutto, Junpeng Lao, Meike Ramon, Roberto Caldara, Sébastien Miellet
In reading, the perceptual span is a well-established concept that refers to the amount of information that can be read in a single fixation. Surprisingly, despite extensive empirical interest in determining the perceptual strategies deployed to process faces and an ongoing debate regarding the factors or mechanism(s) underlying efficient face processing, the perceptual span for faces-the Facespan-remains undetermined. To address this issue, we applied the gaze-contingent Spotlight technique implemented in an old-new face recognition paradigm...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546784/doing-laboratory-ethnography-reflections-on-method-in-scientific-workplaces
#2
Neil Stephens, Jamie Lewis
Laboratory ethnography extended the social scientist's gaze into the day-to-day accomplishment of scientific practice. Here we reflect upon our own ethnographies of biomedical scientific workspaces to provoke methodological discussion on the doing of laboratory ethnography. What we provide is less a 'how to' guide and more a commentary on what to look for and what to look at. We draw upon our empirical research with stem cell laboratories and animal houses, teams producing robotic surgical tools, musicians sonifying data science, a psychiatric genetics laboratory, and scientists developing laboratory grown meat...
April 2017: Qualitative Research: QR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546641/why-study-eu-foreign-policy-at-all-a-response-to-keuleers-fonck-and-keukeleire
#3
Hylke Dijkstra, Sophie Vanhoonacker
In an important article on the state of European Union (EU) foreign policy research, Keuleers, Fonck and Keukeleire show that academics excessively focus on the study of the EU foreign policy system and EU implementation rather than the consequences of EU foreign policy for recipient countries. While the article is empirical, based on a dataset of 451 published articles on EU foreign policy, the normative message is that it is time to stop 'navel-gazing' and pay more attention to those on the receiving end of EU foreign policy...
June 2017: Cooperation and Conflict
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544256/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-alterations-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-differential-effects-in-frontal-cortex-motor-and-midbrain-networks
#4
Johannes Rosskopf, Martin Gorges, Hans-Peter Müller, Dorothée Lulé, Ingo Uttner, Albert C Ludolph, Elmar Pinkhardt, Freimut D Juengling, Jan Kassubek
BACKGROUND: The topography of functional network changes in progressive supranuclear palsy can be mapped by intrinsic functional connectivity MRI. The objective of this study was to study functional connectivity and its clinical and behavioral correlates in dedicated networks comprising the cognition-related default mode and the motor and midbrain functional networks in patients with PSP. METHODS: Whole-brain-based "resting-state" functional MRI and high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data together with neuropsychological and video-oculographic data from 34 PSP patients (22 with Richardson subtype and 12 with parkinsonian subtype) and 35 matched healthy controls were subjected to network-based functional connectivity and voxel-based morphometry analysis...
May 22, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542112/effects-of-vestibular-rehabilitation-on-gait-performance-in-poststroke-patients-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Tsubasa Mitsutake, Maiko Sakamoto, Kozo Ueta, Shinichiro Oka, Etsuo Horikawa
The effects of vestibular rehabilitation on poststroke patients are unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether or not vestibular rehabilitation would improve both the vestibulo-ocular reflex and gait performance of patients with poststroke hemiparesis. Twenty-eight patients with stroke were assigned randomly to either an experimental group (N=14) or a control group (N=14). The experimental group performed the conventional physical therapy for 40 min and vestibular rehabilitation for 20 min, as a 60 min session, during the first 3 weeks and then completed only the conventional intervention for 60 min for the following 3 weeks...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541084/the-feasibility-of-automated-eye-tracking-with-the-early-childhood-vigilance-test-of-attention-in-younger-hiv-exposed-ugandan-children
#6
Michael J Boivin, Jonathan Weiss, Ronak Chhaya, Victoria Seffren, Jorem Awadu, Alla Sikorskii, Bruno Giordani
OBJECTIVE: Tobii eye tracking was compared with webcam-based observer scoring on an animation viewing measure of attention (Early Childhood Vigilance Test; ECVT) to evaluate the feasibility of automating measurement and scoring. Outcomes from both scoring approaches were compared with the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), Color-Object Association Test (COAT), and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function for preschool children (BRIEF-P). METHOD: A total of 44 children 44 to 65 months of age were evaluated with the ECVT, COAT, MSEL, and BRIEF-P...
May 25, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540753/learning-from-where-eye-remotely-look-or-point-impact-on-number-line-estimation-error-in-adults
#7
Thomas Gallagher-Mitchell, Victoria Simms, Damien Litchfield
In this paper we present an investigation into the use of visual cues during number line estimation, and their influence on cognitive processes for reducing number line estimation error. Participants completed a 0-1000 number line estimation task pre and post a brief intervention in which they observed static-visual or dynamic-visual cues (control, anchor, gaze cursor, mouse cursor) and also made estimation marks to test effective number-target estimation. Results indicated that a significant pre-test to post-test reduction in estimation error was present for dynamic visual cues of modelled eye-gaze and mouse-cursor...
May 25, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540647/the-integration-of-social-influence-and-reward-computational-approaches-and-neural-evidence
#8
Damon Tomlin, Andrea Nedic, Deborah A Prentice, Philip Holmes, Jonathan D Cohen
Decades of research have established that decision-making is dramatically impacted by both the rewards an individual receives and the behavior of others. How do these distinct influences exert their influence on an individual's actions, and can the resulting behavior be effectively captured in a computational model? To address this question, we employed a novel spatial foraging game in which groups of three participants sought to find the most rewarding location in an unfamiliar two-dimensional space. As the game transitioned from one block to the next, the availability of information regarding other group members was varied systematically, revealing the relative impacts of feedback from the environment and information from other group members on individual decision-making...
May 24, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540427/variation-in-gaze-following-between-two-asian-colobine-monkeys
#9
Tao Chen, Jie Gao, Jingzhi Tan, Ruoting Tao, Yanjie Su
Gaze-following is a basic cognitive ability found in numerous primate and nonprimate species. However, little is known about this ability and its variation in colobine monkeys. We compared gaze-following of two Asian colobines-François' langurs (Trachypithecus francoisi) and golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana). Although both species live in small polygynous family units, units of the latter form multilevel societies with up to hundreds of individuals. François' langurs (N = 15) were less sensitive to the gaze of a human experimenter than were golden snub-nosed monkeys (N = 12)...
May 24, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537005/active-listening-delays-attentional-disengagement-and-saccadic-eye-movements
#10
Benjamin D Lester, Shaun P Vecera
Successful goal-directed visual behavior depends on efficient disengagement of attention. Attention must be withdrawn from its current focus before being redeployed to a new object or internal process. Previous research has demonstrated that occupying cognitive processes with a secondary cellular phone conversation impairs attentional functioning and driving behavior. For example, attentional processing is significantly impacted by concurrent cell phone use, resulting in decreased explicit memory for on-road information...
May 23, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536434/exploration-and-exploitation-in-natural-viewing-behavior
#11
Ricardo Ramos Gameiro, Kai Kaspar, Sabine U König, Sontje Nordholt, Peter König
Many eye-tracking studies investigate visual behavior with a focus on image features and the semantic content of a scene. A wealth of results on these aspects is available, and our understanding of the decision process where to look has reached a mature stage. However, the temporal aspect, whether to stay and further scrutinize a region (exploitation) or to move on and explore image regions that were yet not in the focus of attention (exploration) is less well understood. Here, we investigate the trade-off between these two processes across stimuli with varying properties and sizes...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532704/the-bright-and-the-dark-sides-of-motor-simulation
#12
Maria Serena Panasiti, Giuseppina Porciello, Salvatore Maria Aglioti
While the acquisition of knowledge about the sensory, emotional, and motor states of others has long been thought to derive from abstract inferential operations, recent theories based on neuroscientific and psychological models emphasize that motor simulation is essential to a variety of complex functions ranging from the monitoring of one's own performance to the understanding of others' actions, and matching self and others' states to optimize social interactions. In this review, we discuss evidence that simulating the actions of others has both bright and dark sides...
May 19, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532317/the-cultural-turn-in-critical-suicidology-what-can-we-claim-and-what-do-we-know
#13
Jason Bantjes, Leslie Swartz
The cultural turn in critical suicidology notes the limitations of dominant acontextual, biomedical, quantitative approaches to suicide prevention. Qualitative methods are idealized within this cultural turn as the only way to advance suicidology. Qualitative methods, however, also have limitations. Drawing on our research with traditional healers in South Africa, we explore tensions associated with making truth claims based on qualitative research. Turning the critical gaze on our work we consider the question of what we can claim to know about suicide prevention when investigating culture using qualitative methods...
May 22, 2017: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532283/the-feasibility-of-an-automated-eye-tracking-modified-fagan-test-of-memory-for-human-faces-in-younger-ugandan-hiv-exposed-children
#14
Ronak Chhaya, Jonathan Weiss, Victoria Seffren, Alla Sikorskii, Paula M Winke, Julius C Ojuka, Michael J Boivin
OBJECTIVE: The Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII) uses longer gaze length for unfamiliar versus familiar human faces to gauge visual-spatial encoding, attention, and working memory in infants. Our objective was to establish the feasibility of automated eye tracking with the FTII in HIV-exposed Ugandan infants. METHOD: The FTII was administered to 31 perinatally HIV-exposed noninfected (HEU) Ugandan children 6-12 months of age (11 boys; M = 0.69 years, SD = 0...
May 22, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529498/eyelid-retraction-in-isolated-unilateral-congenital-blepharoptosis
#15
Michael S Salman, Ian H Clark
Isolated unilateral congenital ptosis is encountered relatively infrequently in clinical practice. It typically consists of a unilateral droopy eyelid, weak levator palpebrae superioris muscle function, lid lag, and an absent upper lid crease with no other abnormalities on examination. We present a four-and-a-half-year-old girl with isolated and mild unilateral congenital ptosis who unexpectedly demonstrated a static upper eyelid on downgaze in conjunction with a well-formed upper lid skin crease. We attribute this uncommon sign in congenital ptosis to stiffness and presumed fibrosis of the levator muscle...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528360/a-spiking-neural-network-model-of-the-midbrain-superior-colliculus-that-generates-saccadic-motor-commands
#16
Bahadir Kasap, A John van Opstal
Single-unit recordings suggest that the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) acts as an optimal controller for saccadic gaze shifts. The SC is proposed to be the site within the visuomotor system where the nonlinear spatial-to-temporal transformation is carried out: the population encodes the intended saccade vector by its location in the motor map (spatial), and its trajectory and velocity by the distribution of firing rates (temporal). The neurons' burst profiles vary systematically with their anatomical positions and intended saccade vectors, to account for the nonlinear main-sequence kinematics of saccades...
May 20, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526514/levodopa-has-primarily-negative-influences-on-postural-control-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Cédrick T Bonnet, Arnaud Delval, Sébastien Szaffarczyk, Luc Defebvre
Patients with Parkinson's disease have better functional status and motor performance under on-drug conditions. However, the administration of levodopa leads to greater postural sway. The present study's primary objective was to determine whether this on-drug problem may be related to a lack of adjustment in postural control mechanisms and body segment rotations. Fourteen patients with Parkinson's disease and 14 controls performed two gaze-shift tasks (40° to the left and 40° to the right, at 0.125 and 0...
May 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525577/moving-triadic-gaze-intervention-into-practice-measuring-clinician-attitude-and-implementation-fidelity
#18
Julie Feuerstein, Lesley B Olswang, Kathryn Greenslade, Gay Lloyd Pinder, Patricia Dowden, Jodi Madden
Purpose: This research investigated a first step in implementing the dynamic assessment (DA) component of Triadic Gaze Intervention (Olswang, Feuerstein, Pinder, & Dowden, 2013; Olswang et al., 2014), an evidence-based protocol for teaching early signals of communication to young children with physical disabilities. Clinician attitudes about adopting external evidence into practice and implementation fidelity in DA protocol delivery were examined following training. Method: Seven early intervention clinicians from multiple disciplines were trained to deliver the four essential elements of the DA protocol: (a) provide communication opportunity, (b) recognize child's potentially communicative signal, (c) shape child's signal toward triadic gaze, and (d) reinforce with play...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524755/construction-of-suicidal-ideation-in-medical-records
#19
Dariusz Galasiński, Justyna Ziółkowska
In this paper we are interested in exploring discursive transformation of patients' stories
of suicidal ideation into medical discourses. In other words, we focus on how the narrated experience of suicidal thoughts made during the psychiatric assessment interview is recorded in the patients' medical record. Our data come from recordings of psychiatric interviews, as well as the doctors' notes in the medical records made after the interviews, collected in psychiatric hospitals in Poland. Assuming a constructionist view of discourse, we demonstrate that lived experience of suicide ideation resulting in stories of a complex and homogeneous group of "thoughts" is reduced to brief statements of fact of presence/existence...
May 19, 2017: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523282/comparative-study-of-computational-visual-attention-models-on-two-dimensional-medical-images
#20
Gezheng Wen, Brenda Rodriguez-Niño, Furkan Y Pecen, David J Vining, Naveen Garg, Mia K Markey
Computational modeling of visual attention is an active area of research. These models have been successfully employed in applications such as robotics. However, most computational models of visual attention are developed in the context of natural scenes, and their role with medical images is not well investigated. As radiologists interpret a large number of clinical images in a limited time, an efficient strategy to deploy their visual attention is necessary. Visual saliency maps, highlighting image regions that differ dramatically from their surroundings, are expected to be predictive of where radiologists fixate their gaze...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
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