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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748178/community-based-prescribing-for-impetigo-in-remote-australia-an-opportunity-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#1
Stefanie Jane Oliver, James Cush, Jeanette E Ward
BACKGROUND: To support antibiotic prescribing for both hospital and community-based health professionals working in remote North Western Australia, a multidisciplinary Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) Committee was established in 2013. This Committee is usually focused on hospital-based prescribing. A troubling increase in sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim resistance in Staphylococcus aureus antibiograms from 9 to 18% over 1 year prompted a shift in gaze to community prescribing. WHAT WE DID: Finding a paucity of relevant research, we first investigated contextual factors influencing local prescribing...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746352/eyes-versus-hands-how-perceived-stimuli-influence-motor-actions
#2
Alexander Geiger, Eva Niessen, Gary Bente, Kai Vogeley
Many studies showed that biological (e.g., gaze-shifts or hand movements) and non-biological stimuli (e.g., arrows or moving points) redirect attention. Biological stimuli seem to be more suitable than non-biological to perform this task. However, the question remains if biological stimuli do have different influences on redirecting attention and if this property is dependent on how we react to those stimuli. In two separate experiments, participants interact either with a biological or a non-biological stimulus (experiment 1), or with two biological stimuli (gaze-shifts, hand movements)(experiment 2) to which they responded with two different actions (saccade, button press), either in a congruent or incongruent manner...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745471/visual-control-in-basketball-shooting-under-exertion-conditions
#3
Teresa Zwierko, Marek Popowczak, Jarosław Woźniak, Andrzej Rokita
BACKGROUND: This study examined the effect of physical exertion on gaze behavior during basketball shooting in both stationary and dynamic conditions. METHODS: Thirteen skilled basketball players performed two-point shooting during a 60 second fatigue protocol. Before and after a jump shot test, players performed two free throws. Eye movements were registered using an SMI Mobile EyeTracker. The frequency of all fixation points (number) and fixation duration during the motor phases of shooting were determined using frame-by- frame analysis...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742873/orienting-towards-social-features-in-naturalistic-scenes-is-reflexive
#4
Lara Rösler, Albert End, Matthias Gamer
Saliency-based models of visual attention postulate that, when a scene is freely viewed, attention is predominantly allocated to those elements that stand out in terms of their physical properties. However, eye-tracking studies have shown that saliency models fail to predict gaze behavior accurately when social information is included in an image. Notably, gaze pattern analyses revealed that depictions of human beings are heavily prioritized independent of their low-level physical saliency. What remains unknown, however, is whether the prioritization of such social features is a reflexive or a voluntary process...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737664/smap3d-corneo-scleral-topographer-repeatability-in-scleral-lens-patients
#5
Gregory DeNaeyer, Donald R Sanders
OBJECTIVES: To determine repeatability of measurements using the sMap3D Corneo-Scleral Topographer in patients presenting for scleral lens fitting. METHODS: As part of our standard clinical evaluation, 25 eyes of 23 patients who presented for scleral lens fitting were examined twice in the same day with the sMap3D in this retrospective study. Sagittal height (SAG), sMap3D principal toricity magnitude (as calculated by the instrument software), and steep axis location were measured at a 16-mm chord diameter...
July 21, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736915/anxiety-symptoms-and-children-s-eye-gaze-during-fear-learning
#6
Kalina J Michalska, Laura Machlin, Elizabeth Moroney, Daniel S Lowet, John M Hettema, Roxann Roberson-Nay, Bruno B Averbeck, Melissa A Brotman, Eric E Nelson, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S Pine
BACKGROUND: The eye region of the face is particularly relevant for decoding threat-related signals, such as fear. However, it is unclear if gaze patterns to the eyes can be influenced by fear learning. Previous studies examining gaze patterns in adults find an association between anxiety and eye gaze avoidance, although no studies to date examine how associations between anxiety symptoms and eye-viewing patterns manifest in children. The current study examined the effects of learning and trait anxiety on eye gaze using a face-based fear conditioning task developed for use in children...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735177/the-visual-system-encodes-others-direction-of-gaze-in-a-first-person-frame-of-reference
#7
Colin J Palmer, Colin W G Clifford
The primate visual system contains specialised neural mechanisms for encoding the direction of others' gaze. A foundational question that we can ask in this domain concerns the frame of reference in which another person's gaze is represented. Electrophysiological recordings in macaque monkeys suggest that direction of gaze might be encoded relative to the observer (i.e., in a first person reference frame) or relative to the head or body of the stimulus (i.e., in a second person reference frame). Here we use sensory adaptation to gaze direction as a psychophysical tool to probe how this property of the environment is represented in the human visual system...
July 20, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734565/topical-brinzolamide-in-congenital-nystagmus-a-retrospective-study
#8
M Nieves-Moreno, L Morales Fernández, B Domingo Gordo, E Maillo, E Diaz, R Gómez-de-Liaño
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of treatment with topical brinzolamide on visual acuity and nystagmus intensity in patients with congenital nystagmus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study was designed in which the clinical records of 14 patients with congenital nystagmus were reviewed. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination and a Perea video-oculography (VOG) before, and three days after, initiation of treatment with topical brinzolamide (Azopt)...
July 19, 2017: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729022/boldness-psychopathic-traits-predict-reduced-gaze-toward-fearful-eyes-in-men-with-a-history-of-violence
#9
Steven M Gillespie, Pia Rotshtein, Anthony R Beech, Ian J Mitchell
Research with developmental and adult samples has shown a relationship of psychopathic traits with reduced eye gaze. However, these relationships remained to be investigated among forensic samples. Here we examined the eye movements of male violent offenders during an emotion recognition task. Violent offenders performed similar to non-offending controls, and their eye movements varied with the emotion and intensity of the facial expression. In the violent offender group Boldness psychopathic traits, but not Meanness or Disinhibition, were associated with reduced dwell time and fixation counts, and slower first fixation latencies, on the eyes compared with the mouth...
July 17, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728924/strabismus-measurements-with-novel-video-goggles
#10
Konrad P Weber, Daniel Rappoport, Muriel Dysli, Tanja Schmückle Meier, Guy B Marks, Christopher J Bockisch, Klara Landau, Hamish G MacDougall
PURPOSE: To assess the validity of a novel, simplified, noninvasive test for strabismus using video goggles. DESIGN: Cross-sectional method comparison study in which the new test, the strabismus video goggles, is compared with the existing reference standard, the Hess screen test. PARTICIPANTS: We studied 41 adult and child patients aged ≥6 years with ocular misalignment owing to congenital or acquired paralytic or comitant strabismus and 17 healthy volunteers...
July 17, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728290/-advances-in-research-of-divergence-insufficiency
#11
Y P Li, W Zhang
Divergence insufficiency is acquired esotropia at distance fixation with symptomatic uncrossed diplopia but fusion at near. It can be divided into two forms: primary isolated form and secondary form associated with neurologic abnormalities, also called divergence palsy. The clinical features of divergence insufficiency include small esotropia only at distance but orthotropia or small esophoria at near, comitant deviation at lateral gaze, reduced divergence fusion, full abduction and normal saccadic velocities in abduction...
July 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726292/-in-visibility-online-the-benefits-of-online-patient-forums-for-people-with-a-hidden-illness-the-case-of-multiple-chemical-sensitivities-mcs
#12
Tarryn Phillips, Tyson Rees
Sufferers of medically unexplained conditions that are not observable in the clinic can experience multiple layers of invisibility: a lack of biomedical diagnosis; legal skepticism; political disinterest; and a loss of their prior social identity. For those with environmental sensitivities, this is compounded by literal hiddenness due to often being housebound. Drawing on an online survey of people with multiple chemical sensitivity, this article examines how the everyday experience of invisibility is mitigated by engaging with other patients online...
July 20, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726063/gaze-based-assessments-of-vigilance-and-avoidance-in-social-anxiety-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Nigel T M Chen, Patrick J F Clarke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A broad base of research has sought to identify the biases in selective attention which characterize social anxiety, with the emergent use of eye tracking-based methods. This article seeks to provide a review of eye tracking studies examining selective attention biases in social anxiety. RECENT FINDINGS: Across a number of contexts, social anxiety may be associated with a mix of both vigilant and avoidant patterns of attention with respect to the processing of emotional social stimuli...
September 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723947/the-effect-of-order-of-dwells-on-the-first-dwell-gaze-bias-for-eventually-chosen-items
#14
Takuya Onuma, Yuwadee Penwannakul, Jun Fuchimoto, Nobuyuki Sakai
The relationship between choice and eye movement has gained marked interest. The gaze bias effect, i.e., the tendency to look longer at items that are eventually chosen, has been shown to occur in the first dwell (initial cohesion of fixations for an item). In the two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) paradigm, participants would look at one of the items first (defined as first look; FL), and they would then move and look at another item (second look; SL). This study investigated how the order in which the chosen items were looked at modulates the first dwell gaze bias effect...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722199/facial-expression-coding-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-reduced-adaptability-but-intact-norm-based-coding
#15
Gillian Rhodes, Nichola Burton, Linda Jeffery, Ainsley Read, Libby Taylor, Louise Ewing
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can have difficulty recognizing emotional expressions. Here, we asked whether the underlying perceptual coding of expression is disrupted. Typical individuals code expression relative to a perceptual (average) norm that is continuously updated by experience. This adaptability of face-coding mechanisms has been linked to performance on various face tasks. We used an adaptation aftereffect paradigm to characterize expression coding in children and adolescents with autism...
July 19, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720525/motor-resonance-during-action-observation-is-gaze-contingent-a-tms-study
#16
Giorgia D'Innocenzo, Claudia C Gonzalez, Alexander V Nowicky, A Mark Williams, Daniel T Bishop
When we observe others performing an action, visual input to our mirror neuron system is reflected in the facilitation of primary motor cortex (M1), a phenomenon known as 'motor resonance'. However, it is unclear whether this motor resonance is contingent upon our point-of-gaze. In order to address this issue, we collected gaze data from participants as they viewed an intransitive action - thumb abduction/adduction - under four conditions: with natural gaze behaviour (free viewing) and with their gaze fixated on each of three predetermined loci at various distances from the prime mover...
July 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720404/role-of-spatial-contiguity-in-sensory-preconditioning-with-humans
#17
Charlotte Renaux, Vinca Rivière, Paul Craddock, Ralph R Miller
The present study demonstrates the contribution of spatial contiguity in the formation of associations between two neutral stimuli. Using human participants, we used visual conditioned stimuli (CSs) in a sensory preconditioning design in which simultaneous CS2-CS1 pairings and CS4-CS3 pairings were interspersed during Phase 1, followed by sequential CS1-US+ (i.e., CS1-pleasant US) and CS3-US-(-) (i.e., CS3-unpleasant US) pairings during Phase 2. The conditioned response was a shift in the gaze of the participants to the location where the US+ (i...
July 16, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715575/saccadic-suppression-during-voluntary-versus-reactive-saccades
#18
Svenja Gremmler, Markus Lappe
Saccades are fast eye movements that reorient gaze. They can be performed voluntarily-for example, when viewing a scene-but they can also be triggered in reaction to suddenly appearing targets. The generation of these voluntary and reactive saccades have been shown to involve partially different cortical pathways. However, saccades of either type confront the visual system with a major challenge from massive image motion on the retina. Despite the fact that the whole scene is swept across the retina, a saccade usually does not elicit a percept of motion...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715475/free-ranging-dogs-show-age-related-plasticity-in-their-ability-to-follow-human-pointing
#19
Debottam Bhattacharjee, Nikhil Dev N, Shreya Gupta, Shubhra Sau, Rohan Sarkar, Arpita Biswas, Arunita Banerjee, Daisy Babu, Diksha Mehta, Anindita Bhadra
Differences in pet dogs' and captive wolves' ability to follow human communicative intents have led to the proposition of several hypotheses regarding the possession and development of social cognitive skills in dogs. It is possible that the social cognitive abilities of pet dogs are induced by indirect conditioning through living with humans, and studying free-ranging dogs can provide deeper insights into differentiating between innate abilities and conditioning in dogs. Free-ranging dogs are mostly scavengers, indirectly depending on humans for their sustenance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713055/anterior-and-nasal-transposition-of-inferior-oblique-muscle-in-cases-of-superior-oblique-palsy
#20
Rohit Saxena, Medha Sharma, Digvijay Singh, Pradeep Sharma
PURPOSE: To report long-term outcome of inferior oblique anterior and nasal transposition in superior oblique palsy. METHODS: The medical records of patients with superior oblique palsy who underwent inferior oblique anterior nasal transposition were reviewed retrospectively. A comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation, including prism bar cover test and measurement of torsion, was performed for all cases. One-year postoperative results were evaluated for alignment in primary gaze, contralateral gaze, and upgaze; reduction in inferior oblique overaction and changes in fundus torsion to assess long-term outcome of the procedure...
July 13, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
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