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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640006/poor-gait-performance-is-influenced-with-decreased-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-in-poststroke-patients
#1
Tsubasa Mitsutake, Maiko Sakamoto, Kozo Ueta, Shinichiro Oka, Etsuo Horikawa
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) exerts a significant influence on gait performance. Therefore, a decrease in VOR function could worsen gait impairments in patients with poststroke hemiparesis. The effects of decreased VOR function on gait performance could be further exacerbated by aging-related physical weakness and impaired motor function of the hemiparetic lower limb. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible synergistic effect of aging and impairment in lower extremity function and the VOR on walking ability of poststroke hemiplegic patients...
June 21, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638055/pupil-response-hazard-rates-predict-perceived-gaze-durations
#2
Nicola Binetti, Charlotte Harrison, Isabelle Mareschal, Alan Johnston
We investigated the mechanisms for evaluating perceived gaze-shift duration. Timing relies on the accumulation of endogenous physiological signals. Here we focused on arousal, measured through pupil dilation, as a candidate timing signal. Participants timed gaze-shifts performed by face stimuli in a Standard/Probe comparison task. Pupil responses were binned according to "Longer/Shorter" judgements in trials where Standard and Probe were identical. This ensured that pupil responses reflected endogenous arousal fluctuations opposed to differences in stimulus content...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634598/previously-unrecognized-behavioral-phenotype-in-gaucher-disease-type-3
#3
Magy Abdelwahab, Michael Potegal, Elsa G Shapiro, Igor Nestrasil
OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive description of abnormal behaviors in patients with Gaucher disease type 3 (GD3) and relate these behaviors to demographic, neurodevelopmental, and neurologic characteristics. METHODS: Thirty-four Egyptian patients with GD3 (mean age of 7.9 years) were enrolled in the study. They were selected based on parent report and/or physician observation of one or more abnormal behaviors documented in 2 settings and by 2 different individuals and/or by video recording...
June 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632466/neuropsychological-profiles-of-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#4
Kristine Stadskleiv, Reidun Jahnsen, Guro L Andersen, Stephen von Tetzchner
PURPOSE: To explore factors contributing to variability in cognitive functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD: A geographical cohort of 70 children with CP was assessed with tests of language comprehension, visual-spatial reasoning, attention, working memory, memory, and executive functioning. Mean age was 9;9 years (range 5;1-17;7), 54.3% were girls, and 50.0% had hemiplegic, 25.7% diplegic, 12.9% quadriplegic, and 11.4% dyskinetic CP. For the participants with severe motor impairments, assessments were adapted for gaze pointing...
February 21, 2017: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629778/posture-and-gaze-tracking-of-a-vertically-moving-target-reveals-age-related-constraints-in-visuo-motor-coupling
#5
H Sotirakis, A Kyvelidou, N Stergiou, V Hatzitaki
Previously we have demonstrated that the effect of aging on posture and gaze active tracking of a visual target moving in the horizontal direction is dependent on target's complexity. In this study, we asked whether a similar phenomenon is present when tracking a visual target moving with varying complexity in the vertical direction. Ten young (22.98±2.9years) and 10 older adults (72.45±4.72years) tracked for 120s, a visual target moving vertically by shifting their bodyweight in the anterior-posterior direction...
June 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627901/cone-of-gaze-in-positive-schizotypy-relationship-to-referential-thinking-and-social-functioning
#6
Heather M Wastler, Mark F Lenzenweger
Eye contact is an essential means of nonverbal communication, providing information about attention, emotion, mental state, facial expressions, and identity/gender (Itier & Batty, 2009). Although studies suggest that patients with schizophrenia endorse direct gaze more often than controls in ambiguous gaze circumstances, gaze perception in schizotypy remains unstudied. This study investigated whether individuals with positive schizotypic features incorrectly perceive that others are looking at them and whether this is related to referential thinking and psychosocial functioning...
June 19, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626619/african-penguins-follow-the-gaze-direction-of-conspecifics
#7
Christian Nawroth, Egle Trincas, Livio Favaro
Gaze following is widespread among animals. However, the corresponding ultimate functions may vary substantially. Thus, it is important to study previously understudied (or less studied) species to develop a better understanding of the ecological contexts that foster certain cognitive traits. Penguins (Family Spheniscidae), despite their wide interspecies ecological variation, have previously not been considered for cross-species comparisons. Penguin behaviour and communication have been investigated over the last decades, but less is known on how groups are structured, social hierarchies are established, and coordination for hunting and predator avoidance may occur...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626443/eye-movements-reveal-optimal-strategies-for-analogical-reasoning
#8
Michael S Vendetti, Ariel Starr, Elizabeth L Johnson, Kiana Modavi, Silvia A Bunge
Analogical reasoning refers to the process of drawing inferences on the basis of the relational similarity between two domains. Although this complex cognitive ability has been the focus of inquiry for many years, most models rely on measures that cannot capture individuals' thought processes moment by moment. In the present study, we used participants' eye movements to investigate reasoning strategies in real time while solving visual propositional analogy problems (A:B::C:D). We included both a semantic and a perceptual lure on every trial to determine how these types of distracting information influence reasoning strategies...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626436/judgments-at-gaze-value-gaze-cuing-in-banner-advertisements-its-effect-on-attention-allocation-and-product-judgments
#9
Johanna Palcu, Jennifer Sudkamp, Arnd Florack
Banner advertising is a popular means of promoting products and brands online. Although banner advertisements are often designed to be particularly attention grabbing, they frequently go unnoticed. Applying an eye-tracking procedure, the present research aimed to (a) determine whether presenting human faces (static or animated) in banner advertisements is an adequate tool for capturing consumers' attention and thus overcoming the frequently observed phenomenon of banner blindness, (b) to examine whether the gaze of a featured face possesses the ability to direct consumers' attention toward specific elements (i...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624708/individual-differences-in-object-processing-explain-the-relationship-between-early-gaze-following-and-later-language-development
#10
Yuko Okumura, Yasuhiro Kanakogi, Tessei Kobayashi, Shoji Itakura
Gaze-following behaviors play an important role in language development. However, the way in which gaze-following contributes to language development remains unclear. By focusing on two abilities, namely following the gaze direction of others and processing a cued object, the present study investigated how these two influences work together to promote language development in a longitudinal approach on infants from 9 to 18months of age. The results demonstrated that infants who spent more time following the gaze direction toward an object were more efficient in processing the cued object at 9months and had larger vocabularies by 18months...
June 15, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619652/frontal-temporal-and-parietal-systems-synchronize-within-and-across-brains-during-live-eye-to-eye-contact
#11
Joy Hirsch, Xian Zhang, J Adam Noah, Yumie Ono
Human eye-to-eye contact is a primary source of social cues and communication. In spite of the biological significance of this interpersonal interaction, the underlying neural processes are not well-understood. This knowledge gap, in part, reflects limitations of conventional neuroimaging methods, including solitary confinement in the bore of a scanner and minimal tolerance of head movement that constrain investigations of natural, two-person interactions. However, these limitations are substantially resolved by recent technical developments in functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), a non-invasive spectral absorbance technique that detects changes in blood oxygen levels in the brain by using surface-mounted optical sensors...
June 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619523/affective-associations-with-negativity-why-popular-peers-attract-youths-visual-attention
#12
Tessa A M Lansu, Wendy Troop-Gordon
Visual attention to high-status peers is well documented, but whether this attentional bias is due to high-status individuals' leadership and prosocial characteristics or due to their more agonistic behaviors has yet to be examined. To identify the affective associations that may underlie visual attention for high-status versus low-status peers, 122 early adolescents (67 girls; Mage=11.0years, SD=0.7) completed a primed attention paradigm. Visual attention was measured using eye tracking as participants looked simultaneously at photographs of two classmates: one nominated by peers as popular and one nominated by peers as unpopular...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617652/a-comparative-evaluation-of-in-vehicle-side-view-displays-layouts-in-critical-lane-changing-situation
#13
Donghyun Beck, Minho Lee, Woojin Park
This study conducted a driving simulator experiment to comparatively evaluate three in-vehicle side-view displays layouts for camera monitor systems (CMS) and the traditional side-view mirror arrangement. The three layouts placed two electronic side-view displays near the traditional mirrors positions, on the dashboard at each side of the steering wheel and on the centre fascia with the two displays joined side-by-side, respectively. Twenty-two participants performed a time- and safety-critical driving task that required rapidly gaining situation awareness through the side-view displays/mirrors and making a lane change to avoid collision...
June 15, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616824/detecting-and-identifying-offset-gaze
#14
Tarryn Balsdon, Colin W G Clifford
A number of experiments have demonstrated that observers can accurately identify stimuli that they fail to detect (Rollman and Nachmias, 1972; Harris and Fahle, 1995; Allik et al. 1982, 2014). Using a 2x2AFC double judgements procedure, we demonstrated an analogous pattern of performance in making judgements about the direction of eye gaze. Participants were shown two faces in succession: one with direct gaze and one with gaze offset to the left or right. We found that they could identify the direction of gaze offset (left/right) better than they could detect which face contained the offset gaze...
June 14, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615328/effect-of-eye-position-during-human-visual-vestibular-integration-of-heading-perception
#15
Benjamin Thomas Crane
Visual and inertial stimuli provide heading discrimination cues. Integration of these multisensory stimuli has been demonstrated to depend on their relative reliability. However, the reference frame of visual stimuli is eye centered while inertial is head centered and it remains unclear how these are reconciled with combined stimuli. Seven human subjects completed a heading discrimination task consisting of a 2s translation with a peak velocity of 16 cm/s. Eye position was varied between 0°, and ±25° left/right...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610830/mutual-regulation-between-infant-facial-affect-and-maternal-touch-in-depressed-and-nondepressed-dyads
#16
Ida Egmose, Katharina Cordes, Johanne Smith-Nielsen, Mette Skovgaard Væver, Simo Køppe
The ability to regulate affect is important for later adaptive child development. In the first months of life, infants have limited resources for regulating their own affects (e.g. by gaze aversion), and for this reason they are dependent on external affect regulation from their parents. Previous research suggests that touch is an important means through which parents regulate their infants' affects. Also, previous research has shown that post-partum depressed (PPD) mothers and nonclinical mothers differ in their touching behaviors when interacting with their infants...
June 10, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610445/aversive-eye-gaze-during-a-speech-in-virtual-environment-in-patients-with-social-anxiety-disorder
#17
Haena Kim, Jung Eun Shin, Yeon-Ju Hong, Yu-Bin Shin, Young Seok Shin, Kiwan Han, Jae-Jin Kim, Soo-Hee Choi
OBJECTIVE: One of the main characteristics of social anxiety disorder is excessive fear of social evaluation. In such situations, anxiety can influence gaze behaviour. Thus, the current study adopted virtual reality to examine eye gaze pattern of social anxiety disorder patients while presenting different types of speeches. METHODS: A total of 79 social anxiety disorder patients and 51 healthy controls presented prepared speeches on general topics and impromptu speeches on self-related topics to a virtual audience while their eye gaze was recorded...
June 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606763/application-of-eye-tracking-in-medicine-a-survey-research-issues-and-challenges
#18
Katarzyna Harezlak, Pawel Kasprowski
The performance and quality of medical procedures and treatments are inextricably linked to technological development. The application of more advanced techniques provides the opportunity to gain wider knowledge and deeper understanding of the human body and mind functioning. The eye tracking methods used to register eye movement to find the direction and targets of a person's gaze are well in line with the nature of the topic. By providing methods for capturing and processing images of the eye it has become possible not only to reveal abnormalities in eye functioning but also to conduct cognitive studies focused on learning about peoples' emotions and intentions...
May 30, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604053/are-fixations-in-static-natural-scenes-a-useful-predictor-of-attention-in-the-real-world
#19
Tom Foulsham, Alan Kingstone
Research investigating scene perception normally involves laboratory experiments using static images. Much has been learned about how observers look at pictures of the real world and the attentional mechanisms underlying this behaviour. However, the use of static, isolated pictures as a proxy for studying everyday attention in real environments has led to the criticism that such experiments are artificial. We report a new study that tests the extent to which the real world can be reduced to simpler laboratory stimuli...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604033/how-different-cultures-look-at-faces-depends-on-the-interpersonal-context
#20
Matthias S Gobel, Alyssa Chen, Daniel C Richardson
Culture can influence how we see and experience the world, and recent research shows that it even determines how we look at each other. Yet, most of these laboratory studies use images of faces that are deprived of any social context. In the real world, we not only look at people's faces to perceive who they are, but also to signal information back to them. It is unknown, therefore, within which interpersonal contexts cultural differences in looking at faces emerge. In the current study, we manipulated one aspect of the interpersonal context of faces: whether the target face either established mutual gaze looking directly into the camera as if talking to the viewer or averted gaze slightly to the side as if talking to another person...
June 12, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
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