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Sarah J White, Denis Drieghe, Simon P Liversedge, Adrian Staub
The effect of word frequency on eye movement behaviour during reading has been reported in many experimental studies. However, the vast majority of these studies compared only two levels of word frequency (high and low). Here we assess whether the effect of log word frequency on eye movement measures is linear, in an experiment in which a critical target word in each sentence was at one of three approximately equally spaced log frequency levels. Separate analyses treated log frequency as a categorical or a continuous predictor...
October 20, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Jonathan Denniss, Andrew T Astle
Purpose: To demonstrate methods that enable visual field sensitivities to be compared with normative data without restriction to a fixed test pattern. Methods: Healthy participants (n = 60, age 19-50) undertook microperimetry (MAIA-2) using 237 spatially dense locations up to 13° eccentricity. Surfaces were fit to the mean, variance, and 5th percentile sensitivities. Goodness-of-fit was assessed by refitting the surfaces 1000 times to the dataset and comparing estimated and measured sensitivities at 50 randomly excluded locations...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Renfeng Xu, Huachun Wang, Feng Jiang, Chunyan Xue, Zhenping Huang, Arthur Bradley
PURPOSE: We hypothesize that the typically narrower palpebral apertures of East Asian eyes in combination with the narrowing of this aperture during down-gaze combine to reduce light levels and image contrast in the inferior retina during near work, thus creating peripheral deprivation in these eyes that could generate deprivation myopia in children culturally encouraged to perform near work. METHODS: We photographed the right eyes of 53 Chinese children during down-gaze (from 10 to 40 degrees) from the fixation point and the primary gaze position...
October 18, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Mylène Quervel-Chaumette, Gaëlle Mainix, Friederike Range, Sarah Marshall-Pescini
Pro-social behaviors are defined as voluntary actions that benefit others. Comparative studies have mostly focused on investigating the presence of pro-sociality across species in an intraspecific context. Taken together, results on both primates and non-primate species indicate that reliance on cooperation may be at work in the selection and maintenance of pro-social sentiments. Dogs appear to be the ideal model when investigating a species' propensity for pro-sociality in an interspecific context because it has been suggested that as a consequence of domestication, they evolved an underlying temperament encouraging greater propensity to cooperate with human partners...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Inês Mares, Marie L Smith, Mark H Johnson, Atsushi Senju
Direct gaze is a crucial signal in human social communication, which is known to attract visual attention and modulate a wide range of behaviours. The present study investigated whether direct gaze facilitates rapid orienting to faces, which is important for adaptive on-line communication, and its neural correlates. Fifteen participants performed a rapid orienting task, in which they were instructed to saccade to peripherally presented buildings or faces containing direct or averted gaze as quickly as possible...
October 15, 2016: Biological Psychology
Jinyong Cho, Jaeyoung Ryu
Blow-in fracture of the zygomaticomaxillary complex that was displaced into the orbital cavity could be associated with ophthalmologic injuries, ranging from visual acuity to ocular motility limitation. Appropriate reduction and realignment of the fractured bone is necessary as early as possible for recovery of function and esthetics. However, limitation of accessibility and visibility makes it difficult for delicate surgery and increases the risk of damage of adjacent anatomic structures, such as optic nerve and extraocular muscles...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Ritch C Savin-Williams, Brian M Cash, Mark McCormack, Gerulf Rieger
This exploratory study assessed physiological, behavioral, and self-report measures of sexual and romantic indicators of sexual orientation identities among young men (mean age = 21.9 years) with predominant same-sex sexual and romantic interests: those who described themselves as bisexual leaning gay (n = 11), mostly gay (n = 17), and gay (n = 47). Although they were not significantly distinguishable based on physiological (pupil dilation) responses to nude stimuli, on behavioral and self-report measures a descending linear trend toward the less preferred sex (female) was significant regarding sexual attraction, fantasy, genital contact, infatuation, romantic relationship, sex appeal, and gazing time to the porn stimuli...
October 17, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Melinda Y Chang, Andrew Shin, Joseph Park, Aaron Nagiel, Robert A Lalane, Steven D Schwartz, Joseph L Demer
PURPOSE: To ascertain deformation of the optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary tissues caused by horizontal duction. DESIGN: Prospective, experimental study. METHODS: Optical coherence tomography of the ONH region was performed in 23 eyes of twelve normal volunteers in central gaze and increasing (10, 20, and 30°) adduction and abduction. Main outcome measures were changes from central gaze in the configuration of the ONH and peripapillary tissues in eccentric gazes...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Nadine B P S Mendes Marques, Sandra R Barros, Ana F Miranda, João Nobre Cardoso, Sónia Parreira, Teresa Fonseca, Nelvia M Donaire, Nuno Campos
Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) is a rare and autosomal recessive syndrome. We describe 2 cases of HGPPS which are the first documented in patients of African ancestry from an isolated population in Cape Verde. They demonstrated typical findings on neuro-ophthalmic examination and brain magnetic resonance imaging. One patient had novel heterozymous mutations of the ROB0 3 gene.
October 3, 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Sebastian Halder, Kouji Takano, Hiroki Ora, Akinari Onishi, Kota Utsumi, Kenji Kansaku
Gaze-independent brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are a possible communication channel for persons with paralysis. We investigated if it is possible to use auditory stimuli to create a BCI for the Japanese Hiragana syllabary, which has 46 Hiragana characters. Additionally, we investigated if training has an effect on accuracy despite the high amount of different stimuli involved. Able-bodied participants (N = 6) were asked to select 25 syllables (out of fifty possible choices) using a two step procedure: First the consonant (ten choices) and then the vowel (five choices)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Marcus Nyström, Diederick C Niehorster, Tim Cornelissen, Henrik Garde
Technological advancements in combination with significant reductions in price have made it practically feasible to run experiments with multiple eye trackers. This enables new types of experiments with simultaneous recordings of eye movement data from several participants, which is of interest for researchers in, e.g., social and educational psychology. The Lund University Humanities Laboratory recently acquired 25 remote eye trackers, which are connected over a local wireless network. As a first step toward running experiments with this setup, demanding situations with real time sharing of gaze data were investigated in terms of network performance as well as clock and screen synchronization...
October 14, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Martijn J Schut, Jasper H Fabius, Nathan Van der Stoep, Stefan Van der Stigchel
One of the factors contributing to a seamless visual experience is object correspondence-that is, the integration of pre- and postsaccadic visual object information into one representation. Previous research had suggested that before the execution of a saccade, a target object is loaded into visual working memory and subsequently is used to locate the target object after the saccade. Until now, studies on object correspondence have not taken previous fixations into account. In the present study, we investigated the influence of previously fixated information on object correspondence...
October 14, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Yixiu Wang, Bin Wang, Xiaofeng Wu, Liming Zhang
The estimation of gaze shift has been an important research area in saliency modeling. Gaze movement is a dynamic progress, yet existing estimation methods are limited to estimating scanpaths within only one saliency map, providing results with unsatisfactory accuracy. A bio-inspired method for gaze shift prediction is thus proposed. We take the effect of foveation into account in the proposed model, which plays an important role in the search for dynamic salient regions. The saccadic bias of gaze shifts and the mechanism of inhibition of return in short-term memory are also considered...
October 14, 2016: Cognitive Processing
Atsushi Takagi, Carlo Bagnato, Etienne Burdet
Many studies in psychology have documented how the behaviour of verbally communicating pairs is affected by social factors such as the partner's gaze. However, few studies have examined whether physically interacting pairs are influenced by social factors. Here, we asked two partners to exchange forces with one another, where the goal was to accurately replicate the force back onto the other. We first measured an individual's accuracy in reproducing a force from a robot. We then tested pairs who knowingly exchanged forces whilst separated by a curtain...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mustafa Özçetin, Mehmet Karacı, Ertuğ Toroslu, Nurullah Edebali
Pituitary adenomas usually arise from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and are manifested with hormonal disorders or mass effect. Mass effect usually occurs in nonfunctional tumors. Pituitary adenomas may be manifested with visual field defects or rarely in the form of total oculomotor palsy. Visual field defect is most frequently in the form of bitemporal hemianopsia and superior temporal defect. Sudden loss of vision, papilledema and ophthalmoplegia may be observed. Pituitary apoplexy is defined as an acute clinical syndrome characterized with headache, vomiting, loss of vision, ophthalmoplegia and clouding of consciousness...
September 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Saara Khalid, Jason C Deska, Kurt Hugenberg
Eye gaze is a potent source of social information with direct eye gaze signaling the desire to approach and averted eye gaze signaling avoidance. In the current work, we proposed that eye gaze signals whether or not to impute minds into others. Across four studies, we manipulated targets' eye gaze (i.e., direct vs. averted eye gaze) and measured explicit mind ascriptions (Study 1a, Study 1b, and Study 2) and beliefs about the likelihood of targets having mind (Study 3). In all four studies, we find novel evidence that the ascription of sophisticated humanlike minds to others is signaled by the display of direct eye gaze relative to averted eye gaze...
October 13, 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Akitsugu Konno, Teresa Romero, Miho Inoue-Murayama, Atsuko Saito, Toshikazu Hasegawa
Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have developed a close relationship with humans through the process of domestication. In human-dog interactions, eye contact is a key element of relationship initiation and maintenance. Previous studies have suggested that canine ability to produce human-directed communicative signals is influenced by domestication history, from wolves to dogs, as well as by recent breed selection for particular working purposes. To test the genetic basis for such abilities in purebred dogs, we examined gazing behavior towards humans using two types of behavioral experiments: the 'visual contact task' and the 'unsolvable task'...
2016: PloS One
Emmanuel Ducrocq, Mark Wilson, Sam Vine, Nazanin Derakshan
Attentional control is a necessary function for the regulation of goal-directed behavior. In three experiments we investigated whether training inhibitory control using a visual search task could improve task specific measures of attentional control and performance. In experiment 1 results revealed that training elicited a near-transfer effect; improving performance on a cognitive (antisaccade) task assessing inhibitory control. In Experiment 2 an initial far-transfer effect of training was observed on an index of attentional control validated for tennis...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Satoko Hisanaga, Kaoru Sekiyama, Tomohiko Igasaki, Nobuki Murayama
Several behavioural studies have shown that the interplay between voice and face information in audiovisual speech perception is not universal. Native English speakers (ESs) are influenced by visual mouth movement to a greater degree than native Japanese speakers (JSs) when listening to speech. However, the biological basis of these group differences is unknown. Here, we demonstrate the time-varying processes of group differences in terms of event-related brain potentials (ERP) and eye gaze for audiovisual and audio-only speech perception...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Susannah Freebody, Gustav Kuhn
Joint attention forms an essential part of language development and human interaction. Several previous studies have reported own-age biases in younger and older adults in gaze following. We investigated own-age biases in social attentional processes between adults and children by focusing on two aspects of the joint attention process, namely the extent to which people attend towards an individual's face, and the extent to which they fixate objects that are looked at by this person (i.e. gaze following). Participants viewed images that always contained a child and an adult who either looked towards each other or they each looked at an object located to their side...
October 13, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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