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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728852/in%C3%A2-vitro-characteristics-of-an-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-hind-gut-microbial-community-in-relation-to-different-dietary-treatments
#1
Kamarul Zaman Zarkasi, Richard S Taylor, Brett D Glencross, Guy C J Abell, Mark L Tamplin, John P Bowman
In this study, microbial community dynamics were assessed within a simple in vitro model system in order to understand those changes influenced by diet. The abundance and diversity of bacteria were monitored within different treatment slurries inoculated with salmon faecal samples in order to mimic the effects of dietary variables. A total of five complete diets and two ingredients (plant meal) were tested. The total viable counts (TVCs) and sequencing data revealed that there was very clear separation between the complete diets and the plant meal treatments, suggesting a dynamic response by the allochthonous bacteria to the treatments...
July 17, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727799/atlantic-salmon-cardiac-primary-cultures-an-in-vitro-model-to-study-viral-host-pathogen-interactions-and-pathogenesis
#2
Patricia A Noguera, Bianka Grunow, Matthias Klinger, Katherine Lester, Bertrand Collet, Jorge Del-Pozo
Development of Salmon Cardiac Primary Cultures (SCPCs) from Atlantic salmon pre-hatch embryos and their application as in vitro model for cardiotropic viral infection research are described. Producing SCPCs requires plating of trypsin dissociated embryos with subsequent targeted harvest from 24h up to 3 weeks, of relevant tissues after visual identification. SCPCs are then transferred individually to chambered wells for culture in isolation, with incubation at 15-22°. SCPCs production efficiency was not influenced by embryo's origin (0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727643/improving-early-adolescent-girls-motor-skill-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Natalie Lander, Philip J Morgan, Jo Salmon, Lisa M Barnett
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) levels decline substantially during adolescence, and are consistently lower in girls. Competency in a range of fundamental movement skills (FMS) may serve as a protective factor for the decline in PA typically observed in adolescent girls; yet, girls' mastery in FMS is low. Whilst interventions can improve FMS, there is a lack of interventions targeting girls, and very few are conducted in high schools. Additionally, interventions are usually conducted by researchers, not teachers, and thus have little chance of being embedded into curricula...
July 19, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726807/when-genotype-is-not-predictive-of-phenotype-implications-for-genetic-counseling-based-on-21-594-chromosomal-microarray-analysis-examinations
#4
Idit Maya, Reuven Sharony, Shiri Yacobson, Sarit Kahana, Josepha Yeshaya, Tamar Tenne, Ifaat Agmon-Fishman, Lital Cohen-Vig, Yael Goldberg, Racheli Berger, Lina Basel-Salmon, Mordechai Shohat
PurposeTo compare the frequency of copy-number variants (CNVs) of variable penetrance in low-risk and high-risk prenatal samples and postnatal samples.MethodsTwo cohorts were categorized according to chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) indication: group I, low-risk prenatal-women with uneventful pregnancy (control group); group II, high-risk prenatal-women whose fetuses had congenital malformations; and group III, postnatal-individuals with unexplained developmental delay/intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders, or multiple congenital anomalies...
July 20, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725358/grandparentage-assignments-identify-unexpected-adfluvial-life-history-tactic-contributing-offspring-to-a-reintroduced-population
#5
Nicholas M Sard, Dave P Jacobson, Michael A Banks
Diversity in life history tactics contributes to the persistence of a population because it helps to protect against stochastic environments by varying individuals in space and time. However, some life history tactics may not be accounted for when assessing the demographic viability of a population. One important factor in demographic viability assessments is cohort replacement rate (CRR), which is defined as the number of future adults produced by an adult. We assessed if precocial resident males (<age-3) and adfluvial Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), adults that reside in freshwater their entire lives, contributed offspring to a reintroduced population from 2008 to 2013...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723802/tocilizumab-for-uncontrollable-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-complicating-adult-onset-still-disease-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#6
Asami Masui-Ito, Ryuji Okamoto, Kaoru Ikejiri, Mika Fujimoto, Muneyoshi Tanimura, Shiro Nakamori, Tomohiro Murata, Eiji Ishikawa, Norikazu Yamada, Hiroshi Imai, Masaaki Ito
RATIONALE: Adult-onset Still disease (AOSD) is a rare systemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology characterized by evanescent salmon-pink rash, fever spikes, arthralgia, and lymphadenopathy. AOSD usually has a good prognosis, but it can sometimes be fatal, especially when it is complicated by systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ failure. PATIENT CONCERNS: A previously healthy 26-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for persistent high fever and mild systemic edema...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721583/microbial-and-genetically-engineered-oils-as-replacements-for-fish-oil-in-aquaculture-feeds
#7
REVIEW
M Sprague, M B Betancor, D R Tocher
As the global population grows more of our fish and seafood are being farmed. Fish are the main dietary source of the omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, but these cannot be produced in sufficient quantities as are now required for human health. Farmed fish have traditionally been fed a diet consisting of fishmeal and fish oil, rich in n-3 LC-PUFA. However, the increase in global aquaculture production has resulted in these finite and limited marine ingredients being replaced with sustainable alternatives of terrestrial origin that are devoid of n-3 LC-PUFA...
July 18, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720888/bivalent-dna-vaccine-induces-significant-immune-responses-against-infectious-hematopoietic-necrosis-virus-and-infectious-pancreatic-necrosis-virus-in-rainbow-trout
#8
Liming Xu, Jingzhuang Zhao, Miao Liu, Guangming Ren, Feng Jian, Jiasheng Yin, Ji Feng, Hongbai Liu, Tongyan Lu
Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) are important pathogens of salmon and trout. An active bivalent DNA vaccine was constructed with the glycoprotein gene of Chinese IHNV isolate Sn1203 and VP2-VP3 gene of Chinese IPNV isolate ChRtm213. Rainbow trout (5 g) were vaccinated by intramuscular injection with 1.0 µg of the bivalent DNA vaccine and then challenged with an intraperitoneal injection of IHNV, IPNV, or both, at 30 and 60 days post-vaccination (d...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720215/autoimmune-meningitis-and-encephalitis-in-adult-onset-still-disease-case-report
#9
Bożek Milena, Konopko Magdalena, Wierzba-Bobrowicz Teresa, Witkowski Grzegorz, Makowicz Grzegorz, Sienkiewicz-Jarosz Halina
INTRODUCTION: Adult-onset Still disease (AOSD) is a rare systemic inflammatory disease of unknown cause. Its symptoms usually include persistent fever, fugitive salmon-colored rash, arthritis, sore throat (not specific), but it may also lead to internal organs' involvement, which presents with enlargement of the liver and spleen, swollen lymph nodes, carditis or pleuritis - potentially life-threatening complications. In rare cases, AOSD can cause aseptic meningitis or/and encephalitis...
July 8, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719615/a-human-tissue-based-functional-assay-platform-to-evaluate-the-immune-function-impact-of-small-molecule-inhibitors-that-target-the-immune-system
#10
Cristina St Pierre, Jane Guo, John D Shin, Laura W Engstrom, Hyun-Hee Lee, Alan Herbert, Laura Surdi, James Baker, Michael Salmon, Sanjiv Shah, J Michael Ellis, Hani Houshyar, Michael A Crackower, Melanie A Kleinschek, Dallas C Jones, Alexandra Hicks, Dennis M Zaller, Stephen E Alves, Ravisankar A Ramadas
While the immune system is essential for the maintenance of the homeostasis, health and survival of humans, aberrant immune responses can lead to chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Pharmacological modulation of drug targets in the immune system to ameliorate disease also carry a risk of immunosuppression that could lead to adverse outcomes. Therefore, it is important to understand the 'immune fingerprint' of novel therapeutics as they relate to current and, clinically used immunological therapies to better understand their potential therapeutic benefit as well as immunosuppressive ability that might lead to adverse events such as infection risks and cancer...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718925/a-historical-review-of-the-key-bacterial-and-viral-pathogens-of-scottish-wild-fish
#11
REVIEW
I S Wallace, P McKay, A G Murray
Thousands of Scottish wild fish were screened for pathogens by Marine Scotland Science. A systematic review of published and unpublished data on six key pathogens (Renibacterium salmoninarum, Aeromonas salmonicida, IPNV, ISAV, SAV and VHSV) found in Scottish wild and farmed fish was undertaken. Despite many reported cases in farmed fish, there was a limited number of positive samples from Scottish wild fish, however, there was evidence for interactions between wild and farmed fish. A slightly elevated IPNV prevalence was reported in wild marine fish caught close to Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717387/human-mediated-evolution-in-a-threatened-species-juvenile-life-history-changes-in-snake-river-salmon
#12
Robin S Waples, Anna Elz, Billy D Arnsberg, James R Faulkner, Jeffrey J Hard, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Linda K Park
Evaluations of human impacts on Earth's ecosystems often ignore evolutionary changes in response to altered selective regimes. Freshwater habitats for Snake River fall Chinook salmon (SRFCS), a threatened species in the US, have been dramatically changed by hydropower development and other watershed modifications. Associated biological changes include a shift in juvenile life history: Historically essentially 100% of juveniles migrated to sea as subyearlings, but a substantial fraction have migrated as yearlings in recent years...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717204/a-drug-carrier-for-sustained-zero-order-release-of-peptide-therapeutics
#13
Ya-Nan Zhao, Xiaoyu Xu, Na Wen, Rui Song, Qingbin Meng, Ying Guan, Siqi Cheng, Danni Cao, Yansheng Dong, Jiankun Qie, Keliang Liu, Yongjun Zhang
Peptides have great potential as therapeutic agents, however, their clinic applications are severely hampered by their instability and short circulation half-life. Zero-order release carriers could not only extend the circulation lifetime of peptides, but also maintain the plasma drug level constant, and thus maximize their therapeutic efficacy and minimize their toxic effect. Here using PEGylated salmon calcitonin (PEG-sCT)/tannic acid (TA) film as an example, we demonstrated that hydrogen-bonded layer-by-layer films of a PEGylated peptide and a polyphenol could be a platform for zero-order peptide release...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717201/cognitive-brain-responses-during-circadian-wake-promotion-evidence-for-sleep-pressure-dependent-hypothalamic-activations
#14
Carolin F Reichert, Micheline Maire, Virginie Gabel, Antoine U Viola, Thomas Götz, Klaus Scheffler, Markus Klarhöfer, Christian Berthomier, Werner Strobel, Christophe Phillips, Eric Salmon, Christian Cajochen, Christina Schmidt
The two-process model of sleep-wake regulation posits that sleep-wake-dependent homeostatic processes interact with the circadian timing system to affect human behavior. The circadian timing system is fundamental to maintaining stable cognitive performance, as it counteracts growing homeostatic sleep pressure during daytime. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we explored brain responses underlying working memory performance during the time of maximal circadian wake-promotion under varying sleep pressure conditions...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716558/emmprin-overexpression-in-svz-neural-progenitor-cells-increases-their-migration-towards-ischemic-cortex
#15
Michiko Kanemitsu, Oleg Tsupykov, Gaël Potter, Michael Boitard, Patrick Salmon, Eloisa Zgraggen, Eduardo Gascon, Galina Skibo, Alexandre G Dayer, Jozsef Z Kiss
Stimulation of endogenous neurogenesis and recruitment of neural progenitors from the subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenic site may represent a useful strategy to improve regeneration in the ischemic cortex. Here, we tested whether transgenic overexpression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), the regulator of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression, in endogenous neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) could increase migration towards ischemic injury. For this purpose, we applied a lentivector-mediated gene transfer system...
July 14, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714539/safety-and-efficacy-of-functional-laryngectomy-for-end-stage-dysphagia
#16
Michael C Topf, Linda C Magaña, Kelly Salmon, James Hamilton, William M Keane, Adam Luginbuhl, Joseph M Curry, David M Cognetti, Maurits Boon, Joseph R Spiegel
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate functional outcomes and complication rate after total laryngectomy (TL) for dysfunctional larynx with end-stage dysphagia. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. METHODS: Chart review was performed on all patients who underwent TL from January 2008 to July 2016 at a single tertiary academic medical center. Patients who underwent TL for dysfunctional larynx without preoperative evidence of malignancy were included...
July 17, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714057/population-specific-responses-to-interspecific-competition-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-two-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-populations
#17
Xiaoping He, Subba Rao Chaganti, Daniel D Heath
The gut microbial community in vertebrates plays a role in nutrient digestion and absorption, development of intestine and immune systems, resistance to infection, regulation of bone mass and even host behavior and can thus impact host fitness. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reintroduction efforts into Lake Ontario, Canada, have been unsuccessful, likely due to competition with non-native salmonids. In this study, we explored interspecific competition effects on the gut microbiota of two Atlantic salmon populations (LaHave and Sebago) resulting from four non-native salmonids...
July 16, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711912/identification-of-two-novel-biomarkers-of-rectal-carcinoma-progression-and-prognosis-via-co-expression-network-analysis
#18
Min Sun, Taojiao Sun, Zhongshi He, Bin Xiong
mRNA expression profiles provide important insights on a diversity of biological processes involved in rectal carcinoma (RC). Our aim was to comprehensively map complex interactions between the mRNA expression patterns and the clinical traits of RC. We employed the integrated analysis of five microarray datasets and The Cancer Genome Atlas rectal adenocarcinoma database to identify 2118 consensual differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in RC and adjacent normal tissue samples, and then applied weighted gene co-expression network analysis to parse DEGs and eight clinical traits in 66 eligible RC samples...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711463/modulation-of-atlantic-salmon-mirnome-response-to-sea-louse-infestation
#19
REVIEW
Valentina Valenzuela-Muñoz, Beatriz Novoa, Antonio Figueras, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate
MicroRNAs are non-coding RNA that plays a crucial role in post-transcriptional regulation and immune system regulation. On other hand, sea lice are prevalent parasites that affect salmon farming, generating different degrees of immune suppression depending on the salmon and sea louse species. Caligus rogercresseyi for example, which affects the salmon industry in Chile, decreases Th1 response, macrophage activation, TLR-mediated response and iron regulation in infected fish. In this study, we explore Atlantic salmon miRNome during infestation by C...
July 12, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708095/predictors-of-daily-mobility-of-adults-in-peri-urban-south-india
#20
Margaux Sanchez, Albert Ambros, Maëlle Salmon, Santhi Bhogadi, Robin T Wilson, Sanjay Kinra, Julian D Marshall, Cathryn Tonne
Daily mobility, an important aspect of environmental exposures and health behavior, has mainly been investigated in high-income countries. We aimed to identify the main dimensions of mobility and investigate their individual, contextual, and external predictors among men and women living in a peri-urban area of South India. We used 192 global positioning system (GPS)-recorded mobility tracks from 47 participants (24 women, 23 men) from the Cardiovascular Health effects of Air pollution in Telangana, India (CHAI) project (mean: 4...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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