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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031236/inhibitory-effect-of-probiotic-lactobacilli-supernatants-on-single-and-mixed-non-albicans-candida-species-biofilm
#1
Yulong Tan, Matthias Leonhard, Doris Moser, Su Ma, Berit Schneider-Stickler
OBJECTIVES: Oral candidiasis is one of the most common human fungal infections. While most cases of the Candida species isolated from the oral cavity are Candida albicans, a large number of candidiasis is attributed to non-albicans Candida species. In this study, we aim to evaluate the in vitro inhibition of supernatants of Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus rhamnosus on the single and mixed species biofilm of non-albicans Candida species, including Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis...
October 6, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031040/-treatment-refusal-in-pediatric-oncology
#2
A Špótová, K Husáková, A Hrašková, M Mikesková, J Puškáčová, S Hederová, M Jamárik, E Rabenseifertová, Z Jalovecká, A Kolenová, Z Šubová
BACKGROUND: Pediatric oncologists are often faced with situations in which parents or guardians refuse recommended treatment for curable childhood cancer. Deciding how to proceed in such situations is an ethical dilemma. The aim of this article is to consider optimal approaches when parents are strongly against oncological treatment, potentially compromising their childrens rights for health care and to the chance for cure. CASES: In this paper, we report two cases of treatment refusal from our department and the impact of such decisions on the children themselves...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031037/-evaluation-of-anti-cancer-therapies-with-reimbursement-limited-to-comprehensive-cancer-centres-using-the-european-society-for-medical-oncology-magnitude-of-clinical-benefit-scale
#3
T Büchler, B Melichar, D Vrána, R Lemstrová, J Fínek, L Dušek, K Petráková, J Prausová
BACKGROUND: The costs of oncology treatments are increasing, due to the rising prevalence of malignant diseases and the introduction of expensive novel anti-cancer agents. The new European Society for Clinical Oncology (ESMO) has recently developed a new parametric system to evaluate the clinical benefit of drugs. The Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO-MCBS) compares the contribution of a novel drug based on overall and progression-free survival and quality of life with those of current treatment options...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031028/risk-factors-for-death-in-dogs-treated-for-esophageal-foreign-body-obstruction-a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-222-cases-1998-2017
#4
A G Burton, C T Talbot, M S Kent
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist describing risk factors for death, and long-term outcomes in dogs with esophageal foreign body (EFB) obstruction. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate short- and long-term outcomes, and analyze risk factors for death in dogs with EFB obstruction. We hypothesized duration of entrapment and treatment type would affect outcome. ANIMALS: A total of 222 dogs were treated for EFB obstruction at an emergency and referral hospital between March 1998 and March 2017...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029359/a-probabilistic-network-for-the-diagnosis-of-acute-cardiopulmonary-diseases
#5
Alessandro Magrini, Davide Luciani, Federico M Stefanini
In this paper, the development of a probabilistic network for the diagnosis of acute cardiopulmonary diseases is presented in detail. A panel of expert physicians collaborated to specify the qualitative part, which is a directed acyclic graph defining a factorization of the joint probability distribution of domain variables into univariate conditional distributions. The quantitative part, which is a set of parametric models defining these univariate conditional distributions, was estimated following the Bayesian paradigm...
October 13, 2017: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029341/an-increased-concentration-of-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-ligand-pre-dates-the-onset-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#6
Linda Johansson, Lisbeth Ärlestig, Heidi Kokkonen, Mikael Brink, Solbritt Rantapää-Dahlqvist
Objectives: RANK ligand (RANKL) is involved in destruction and osteoporosis in RA. In this study, the relationships between RANKL and ACPA, anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (anti-CarP), cytokines and chemokines were analysed in individuals before the onset of RA symptoms, and their associations with radiological findings at disease onset were assessed. Methods: This was a case-control study performed within the Medical Biobank of Northern Sweden that included 470 pre-symptomatic individuals [334 women and 136 men; mean (s...
September 25, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029182/overlapping-surgeries-are-not-associated-with-worse-patient-outcomes-retrospective-multivariate-analysis-of-14-872-neurosurgical-cases-performed-at-a-single-institution
#7
Michael A Bohl, Michael A Mooney, John P Sheehy, Abigail M Cantwell, Steve W Chang, Kristina M Chapple, U Kumar Kakarla, Robert F Spetzler
BACKGROUND: Overlapping surgeries have recently become a controversial topic. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of overlapping surgeries on patient outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all neurosurgical procedures performed at a single institution from July 2013 to May 2016 was conducted. Variables extracted from the electronic medical records included sex, age, procedure type, resident years of training, evening case, emergency case, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Score, illness severity, mortality risk, and percentage of case overlap...
September 27, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029157/stings-of-the-ant-wasmannia-auropunctata-hymenoptera-formicidae-as-cause-of-punctate-corneal-lesions-in-humans-and-other-animals
#8
Diego Rosselli, James K Wetterer
Numerous researchers have observed a form of punctate corneal lesions causing leukomas (corneal opacities) in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals in different parts of the world. This condition has been reported under different names, including West Indian (or Caribbean) punctate keratopathy, West Indian dots, tropical punctate keratopathy, Rice's keratopathy, Florida keratopathy, and Florida spots. Many of these cases, appear to have a common cause, the stings of a small red ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), originally from the Neotropics, but spread to other parts of the world through human commerce...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029106/iatrogenic-cushing-syndrome-in-a-child-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-erroneous-compounding-of-hydrocortisone
#9
Julia E Barillas, Daniel Eichner, Ryan Van Wagoner, Phyllis W Speiser
Context: Patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) require lifelong treatment with glucocorticoids. In growing children the drug of choice is hydrocortisone. Commercially available hydrocortisone tablets do not conform to very low doses prescribed to infants and toddlers, and compounded hydrocortisone is often dispensed to meet therapeutic needs. However, safety, efficacy and uniformity of compounded products are not tested. We report a case of Cushing syndrome in a child with CAH who was inadvertently receiving excessive hydrocortisone in compounded form...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029103/cardiovascular-disease-prevention-policy-in-hiv-recommendations-from-a-modelling-study
#10
Mikaela Smit, Rosan A van Zoest, Brooke E Nichols, Ilonca Vaartjes, Colette Smit, Marc van der Valk, Ard van Sighem, Ferdinand W Wit, Timothy B Hallett, Peter Reiss
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is expected to contribute a large non-communicable disease burden amongst HIV-positive people. We quantify the impact of prevention interventions on annual CVD burden and costs amongst HIV-positive people in The Netherlands. Methods: We constructed an individual-based model of CVD in HIV-positive people using national ATHENA cohort data on 8,791 patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The model follows patients as they age, develop CVD (by incorporating a CVD risk equation) and start cardiovascular medication...
October 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029064/2015-2016-vaccine-effectiveness-of-live-attenuated-and-inactivated-influenza-vaccines-in-children-in-the-united-states
#11
Katherine A Poehling, Herve Caspard, Timothy R Peters, Edward A Belongia, Blaise Congeni, Manjusha Gaglani, Marie R Griffin, Stephanie A Irving, Poornima K Kavathekar, Huong Q McLean, Allison L Naleway, Kathleen Ryan, H Keipp Talbot, Christopher S Ambrose
Background: In the 2015-2016 season, quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) and both trivalent and quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) were available in the United States. Methods: This study, conducted according to a test-negative case-control design, enrolled children aged 2-17 years presenting to outpatient settings with fever and respiratory symptoms for <5 days at 8 sites across the United States between November 30, 2015 and April 15, 2016...
October 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028965/tuberculin-skin-test-conversions-and-occupational-exposure-risk-in-us-healthcare-workers
#12
Claudia C Dobler, Wigdan H Farah, Mouaz Alsawas, Khaled Mohammed, Laura E Breeher, M Hassan Murad, Robin G Molella
Background: Health care workers (HCWs) undergo occupational tuberculosis (TB) screening at regular intervals. However, the risk of contracting TB at the workplace in a setting with a low background TB incidence is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the risk of tuberculin skin test (TST) conversion and the risk of occupational TB infection among HCWs in such a setting. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of employees of a large tertiary medical center in the US Midwest who had undergone TST screening during the study period January 1, 1998 to May 31, 2014...
October 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028741/fundamental-epidemiology-terminology-and-measures-it-really-is-all-in-the-name
#13
Thomas R Vetter, Christine A Jesser
Epidemiology is the study of how disease is distributed in populations and the factors that influence or determine this distribution. Clinical epidemiology denotes the application of epidemiologic methods to questions relevant to patient care and provides a highly useful set of principles and methods for the design and conduct of quantitative clinical research. Validly analyzing, correctly reporting, and successfully interpreting the findings of a clinical research study often require an understanding of the epidemiologic terms and measures that describe the patterns of association between the exposure of interest (treatment or intervention) and a health outcome (disease)...
October 11, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028639/implications-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-for-the-anesthetic-and-perioperative-management-a-case-report-of-spinal-fusion-genetic-confusion-and-a-patient-s-perspective
#14
Linda S Aglio, Brian T Lockhart, Jeantine E Lunshof, Christoph S Nabzdyk
We describe a patient's personal struggle with a symptom complex consisting of profound muscle weakness requiring pyridostigmine, and metabolic abnormalities suggestive of mitochondrial disease. This included a profound sensitivity to opioids, which in the past caused severe respiratory depression during a prior hospital admission. Interestingly, the patient herself is a professor of ethics in genomic sciences, and she and her medical team thus far have not been able to formally diagnose her with mitochondrial disease...
October 12, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028466/is-acute-care-oriented-research-ethical-in-resource-limited-settings
#15
Anwar D Jackson, Harold W Neighbors
In this case scenario, a medical student, Jenny, is conducting congenital heart disease research in a resource-limited setting faced with water insecurity. She has concerns about how ethical it is for her to conduct advanced clinical research in a region with more basic health needs. The first commentary argues that advanced clinical research in resource-limited settings follows the ethical principle of beneficence and interactional justice but violates the principle of distributive justice. The second commentary questions whether beneficence is enough, since the Belmont Report states that beneficence is the obligation to simultaneously reduce harm and increase benefit...
October 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028408/tonic-pupil-in-cytomegalovirus-anterior-uveitis-in-an-immunocompetent-adult-male-a-case-report
#16
Kalpana Babu, Deepika C Parameswarappa, Bhagya Sudheer
PURPOSE: To report an interesting case of development of tonic pupil in an immunocompetent male with cytomegalovirus (CMV) anterior uveitis. METHODS: Retrospective case report Results: A 30-year-old Iranian healthy male was diagnosed to have Posner-Schlossman syndrome (OS). Aqueous tap was positive for CMV by multiplex Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Adequate control of inflammation and Intraocular pressures (IOP) were achieved with topical steroids, ganciclovir gel, and antiglaucoma medications...
October 13, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028226/large-funding-inflows-limited-local-capacity-and-emerging-disease-control-priorities-a-situational-assessment-of-tuberculosis-control-in-myanmar
#17
Mishal S Khan, Sara Schwanke-Khilji, Joanne Yoong, Zaw Myo Tun, Samantha Watson, Richard James Coker
There are numerous challenges in planning and implementing effective disease control programmes in Myanmar, which is undergoing internal political and economic transformations whilst experiencing massive inflows of external funding. The objective of our study-involving key informant discussions, participant observations and linked literature reviews-was to analyse how tuberculosis (TB) control strategies in Myanmar are influenced by the broader political, economic, epidemiological and health systems context using the Systemic Rapid Assessment conceptual and analytical framework...
October 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028157/transthoracic-catheter-drainage-for-large-symptomatic-congenital-pulmonary-airway-malformation
#18
Seong Hee Oh, Chae Young Kim, Byong Sop Lee, Dong Kwan Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan Kim, Ki-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: Surgical resection of large symptomatic congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) in newborns has high risks of mortality and postoperative morbidity. This study aimed to report the clinical outcomes of newborns who underwent percutaneous transthoracic catheter drainage (PTCD) of large symptomatic CPAM before surgical resection. METHODS: This was a retrospective, descriptive study based on review of the medical records of newborn infants who required surgical resection of large symptomatic CPAM at a single tertiary hospital from 2001 to 2017...
October 13, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027866/magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy-as-treatment-for-intractable-insular-epilepsy-in-children
#19
M Scott Perry, David J Donahue, Saleem I Malik, Cynthia G Keator, Angel Hernandez, Rohit K Reddy, Freedom F Perkins, Mark R Lee, Dave F Clarke
OBJECTIVE Seizure onset within the insula is increasingly recognized as a cause of intractable epilepsy. Surgery within the insula is difficult, with considerable risks, given the rich vascular supply and location near critical cortex. MRI-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (LiTT) provides an attractive treatment option for insular epilepsy, allowing direct ablation of abnormal tissue while sparing nearby normal cortex. Herein, the authors describe their experience using this technique in a large cohort of children undergoing treatment of intractable localization-related epilepsy of insular onset...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027858/role-of-the-temporal-pole-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-seizure-networks-an-intracranial-electrode-investigation
#20
Taylor J Abel, Royce W Woodroffe, Kirill V Nourski, Toshio Moritani, Aristides A Capizzano, Patricia Kirby, Hiroto Kawasaki, Matthew Howard, Mary Ann Werz
OBJECTIVE A convergence of clinical research suggests that the temporal pole (TP) plays an important and potentially underappreciated role in the genesis and propagation of seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Understanding its role is becoming increasingly important because selective resections for medically intractable TLE spare temporopolar cortex (TPC). The purpose of this study was to characterize the role of the TPC in TLE after using dense electrocorticography (ECoG) recordings in patients undergoing invasive monitoring for medically intractable TLE...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
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