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Emergency, trauma, toxicology

Uma N Srivatsa, K Swaminathan, K Sithy Athiya Munavarah, Ezra Amsterdam, K Shantaraman
BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major cause of mortality secondary to coronary artery disease (CAD) in the industrialized societies. Although South Asians have a high prevalence of CAD, the frequency and underlying pathology of SCD among this population are unknown. METHODS: Medical records of consecutive patients presenting with unexplained sudden death (USD) in a tertiary care center were reviewed. Patients with trauma, violent deaths, positive toxicology and non-cardiac pathology were excluded to determine sudden cardiac death (SCD)...
July 2016: Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal
Veysi Eryigit, Ulas Karaaslan, Melih Yuksel, Caner Saglam, Mehmet Can Girgin, Yoldas Demirtas
INTRODUCTION: There are many academic journals in Turkey and the world. Medical journals have a significant place among those publications. The aim of this study is to examine qualitatively and categorize the scientific studies of the two journals in Turkey. It also aims to contribute the related literature in the area. MATERIAL-METHOD: Academic journals of medical emergencies published in Turkey between January 1, 2003 and December 20, 2014 were investigated in detail...
December 2015: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
Lorin R Browne, Manish I Shah, Jonathan R Studnek, Brittany M Farrell, Linda M Mattrisch, Stacy Reynolds, Daniel G Ostermayer, David C Brousseau, E Brooke Lerner
BACKGROUND: Pediatric prehospital research has been limited, but work in this area is starting to increase particularly with the growth of pediatric-specific research endeavors. Given the increased interest in pediatric prehospital research, there is a need to identify specific research priorities that incorporate the perspective of prehospital providers and other emergency medical services (EMS) stakeholders. OBJECTIVES: To develop a list of specific research priorities that is relevant, specific, and important to the practice of pediatric prehospital care...
May 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
A Bagher, C J Wingren, A Ottosson, L Andersson, S Wangefjord, S Acosta
BACKGROUND: It is rare that epidemiological surveys of patients with major trauma include both those admitted to the emergency department and those sent for medico-legal autopsy. The main aim of the present population-based study of major trauma was to examine the importance of medico-legal autopsy data. METHODS: A new injury severity score (NISS)>15 or lethal outcome was used as criteria for major trauma and to identify patients at the emergency, anaesthesiology and forensic departments and/or being within the jurisdiction of the Malmö police authority and subjected to a medico-legal autopsy between 2011 and 2013...
August 2015: Injury
Bianca Grecu Jacobs, Samuel D Turnipseed, Anna N Nguyen, Edgardo S Salcedo, Daniel K Nishijima
BACKGROUND: Patients often present to the emergency department (ED) as "found down," with limited history to suggest a primary traumatic or medical etiology. OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to describe the characteristics of "found down" adult patients presenting to the ED as trauma, specifically the incidence of acute medical diagnoses and major trauma. METHODS: Using an institutional trauma registry, we reviewed trauma activations with the cause of injury "found down" between January 2008 and December 2012...
December 2015: Journal of Emergency Medicine
J Inkinen, K Kirjasuo, J Gunn, K Kuttila
BACKGROUND: (1) There is lack of epidemiological data on penetrating trauma in European countries. (2) In Finland most acts of violence are performed under the influence of alcohol. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and types of injury, treatment and survival of patients with penetrating injuries to the thorax and abdomen. METHODS: This study includes two trauma centers with combined catchment area of approximately 720,000 patients. Patients were identified from patient records using ICD-10 codes...
August 2015: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Ali Bagher, Lina Andersson, Carl Johan Wingren, Anders Ottosson, Sakarias Wangefjord, Stefan Acosta
AIMS: We applied the new injury severity scoring system and studied mechanisms of injury and risk factors for mortality, in order to find potential preventive measures, in the present Scandinavian trauma cohort triaged through red trauma alarm according to the Medical Emergency Triage and Treatment System. METHODS: Individuals were identified in hospital and forensic records. New injury severity scoring system >15 was defined as major trauma. Inter-rater reliability of new injury severity scoring system was expressed as intra-class correlation coefficient with 95% confidence intervals...
July 2015: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Norman G Nicolson, Patrick M Lank, Marie L Crandall
BACKGROUND: Recent guidelines recommend universal substance abuse screening for all trauma patients aged 12 years and older because brief interventions can help prevent future trauma. However, little is known about actual rates of screening in this setting. METHODS: The Illinois State Trauma Registry was queried for severely injured patients from 1999 to 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used to characterize, according to demographic and physiologic parameters, which patients were screened with blood alcohol and urine toxicology and which screened positive...
October 2014: American Journal of Surgery
J A Chenoweth, R R Gerona, J B Ford, M E Sutter, J S Rose, T E Albertson, S O Clarke, K P Owen
INTRODUCTION: Over the past decade, there has been a sharp increase in the number of newly identified synthetic drugs. These new drugs are often derivatives of previously abused substances but have unpredictable toxicity. One of these drugs is gacyclidine, a derivative of phencyclidine (PCP). Gacyclidine has been studied as a neuroprotective agent in trauma and as a therapy of soman toxicity. There are no previous reports of its use as a drug of abuse. CASE REPORTS: During a two-month period in the summer of 2013, a series of patients with severe agitation and end-organ injury were identified in an urban academic Emergency Department (ED)...
March 2015: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Marcus Oldenburg, Jan Rieger, Christoph Sevenich, Volker Harth
BACKGROUND: On merchant ships, the medical treatment including emergency interventions on the high seas are carried out by nautical officers who have to pass a forty hours medical refresher course every five years in order to meet international requirements. This study aims to show the most frequent kinds of medical emergencies on the high seas and to assess the seafarers' knowledge about their treatment. METHODS: 465 nautical officers who participated in the medical refresher course at the Institute for Occupational and Maritime Medicine in Hamburg, within the period from 2006 to 2013, were interviewed about their experience of serious diseases and accidents on board, which had led to an emergency port call, a course deviation or an evacuation...
2014: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
F A Elrouby
Forensic Medicine is fast growing and important branch of medicine. Some subdivisions of this subject like Thanatology, Toxicology are taking their shape separately. Forensic Ophthalmology is one of the newly emerging dimensions of the subject.

A forensic pathologist can gather a lot of medico-legal information by examining the eye both in antemortem and postmortem cases.
Various characteristics of the eye have also been thought to be useful in determination of PMI (postmortem interval). Specifically, authors have proposed measurement of vitreous humor analyses and intraocular pressure studies as a useful tool for this purpose...
October 2013: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
Gerard O'Connor, Tara McGinty, Sarah Jane Yeung, Daire O'Shea, Alan Macken, Eamon Brazil, Patrick Mallon
BACKGROUND: The affliction of injecting drug use (IDU) has resulted in the emergence of a subgroup of people with a unique set of medical issues. We aimed to describe the emergency department (ED) presentations of IDUs. METHODS: In a prospective observational study over a 3-month period, we identified characteristics of patients with a history of active IDU presenting to the ED. RESULTS: From 1 January 2010 to 31 March 2010, 146 patients with a history of IDU were identified...
August 2014: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Hyung Jun Moon, Jung Won Lee
Acute Endosulfan poisoning is associated with a high mortality rate in humans, and can exceed 30% [Moon JM, Chun BJ. Acute endosulfan poisoning: a retrospective study. Hum Exp Toxicol 2009;28:309-16]. Prophylactic anticonvulsant therapy for symptomatic patients and aggressive treatment for seizures may limit morbidity, but, no effective antidote is available [Moses V, Peter JV. Acute intentional toxicity: endosulfan and other organochlorines. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2010;48:539-44]. However, endosulfan poisoning is often completely reversible with the appropriate management [Karatas AD, Aygun D, Baydin A...
May 2013: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Orhan Cınar, Mehmet Dokur, Onur Tezel, Ibrahim Arzıman, Yahya Ayhan Acar
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to present characteristics of internationally published articles originating from Turkish Emergency Medicine (EM) departments over the last 15 years. METHODS: The PubMed database was searched for all articles published from 1995 to 2010 that originated from Turkish EM departments. RESULTS A total of 514 articles were included. Of all articles, 77% (n=396) were published in the last five years. Publications were detected to increase at a rate of 6...
May 2011: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
Shawn P Vorce, Barry Levine, Pamela C McDonough, Marilyn R Past
Two cases are reported involving the abuse of extended-release oxymorphone hydrochloride tablets (Opana® ER) in combination with alprazolam (Xanax®). Two juvenile females were discovered unresponsive and hypoxic by a male acquaintance. The trio had reportedly crushed and snorted Opana ER tablets and consumed Xanax for recreational purposes. Emergency personnel were able to stabilize one female. The second female was pronounced dead at the scene. Blood and urine samples from the surviving female were collected at the trauma center between 48 and 96 h post incident...
October 2010: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Tiago Cataldo Breitenbach, Flavio Pechansky, Daniela Benzano, Raquel De Boni
BACKGROUND: Although the fleet of motorcycles and the number of traffic accidents (TA) is increasing in the world, few studies have evaluated intoxication by alcohol and/or drugs in this group of drivers. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of motorcycle riders among drivers who are victims of TA, and ascertain factors associated with drug and alcohol use. METHODS: All TA victims admitted on a 24/7 routine between October and November 2008 to two trauma hospitals of Porto Alegre, Brazil were invited to participate, then submitted to an interview, breathalysed and had their saliva collected for drugs...
March 2012: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Edward J Waller
Medical response to a radiological emergency involves first assessing, triaging and treating trauma, followed by determining potential hazard from radiological intake. A combined hardware-software strategy is required for this mission. The hardware strategy should consist of a dedicated detector suite capable of alpha, beta and gamma radiation detection, identification and quantification suitable for order of magnitude dose assessment. The hardware platform should provide a simple user interface suitable for field deployment...
November 2010: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Deborah L Zvosec, Stephen W Smith, Trinka Porrata, A Quinn Strobl, Jo Ellen Dyer
γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its prodrugs are drugs of abuse that were also sold as "dietary supplements." Users present to emergency departments with overdose, impaired driving, withdrawal, and associated trauma. We compiled a series of GHB-associated deaths to elucidate lethal risks, GHB concentrations, cointoxicants, products, uses, and medical interventions. Death records were reviewed for toxicology, autopsy findings, and history. Inclusion cutoffs were as follows: 5/10 mg/L of GHB (antemortem blood/urine) and 50/20/7 mg/L of GHB (postmortem blood/urine/vitreous)...
March 2011: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Hiroyuki Miyagi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2009: Chūdoku Kenkyū: Chūdoku Kenkyūkai Jun Kikanshi, the Japanese Journal of Toxicology
A Boucher, A Zine, F Jaziri, N Bernard, P Jeannoël, J Descotes
UNLABELLED: We describe an accidental ecstasy poisoning in a 10-month-old girl. CASE REPORT: A 10-month-old infant suddenly exhibited behavior disorders with restlessness, hypertonia, and repetitive movements. She was immediately taken to the Emergency Department. Cardiovascular (tachycardia and hypertension) and neurological disorders (major agitation, mydriasis, and nystagmus) were the predominating clinical features. The most common differential diagnoses including febrile convulsion, cranial trauma, or encephalitis were progressively ruled out...
October 2009: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
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