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MR Plaque

Changwu Zhou, Huiyu Qiao, Le He, Chun Yuan, Huijun Chen, Qiang Zhang, Rui Li, Wei Wang, Fang Du, Cheng Li, Xihai Zhao
PURPOSE: To investigate the characteristics of plaque in the thoracic aorta using three dimensional multicontrast magnetic resonance imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Elderly subjects (≥60years) were recruited in this study. Thoracic aorta was imaged on a 3.0T MR scanner by acquiring multicontrast sequences. The plaque burden was evaluated by measuring lumen area, wall area, wall thickness, and normalized wall index. The presence or absence of plaque and intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH)/mural thrombus (MT) were identified...
November 2016: European Journal of Radiology
Ammara Usman, Umar Sadat, Zhongzhao Teng, Martin J Graves, Jonathan R Boyle, Kevin Varty, Paul D Hayes, Jonathan H Gillard
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of atheroma using contrast media enables assessment of the systemic severity of atherosclerosis in different arterial beds. Whether black-blood imaging has similar ability remains widely unexplored. In this study, we evaluate whether black-blood imaging can differentiate carotid plaques of patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) in terms of morphological and biomechanical features of plaque vulnerability, thereby allowing assessment of the systemic severity nature of atherosclerosis in different arterial beds...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Diego D B Carvalho, Andres Mauricio Arias Lorza, Wiro J Niessen, Marleen de Bruijne, Stefan Klein
An automated method for registering B-mode ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the carotid arteries is proposed. The registration uses geometric features, namely, lumen centerlines and lumen segmentations, which are extracted fully automatically from the images after manual annotation of three seed points in US and MRI. The registration procedure starts with alignment of the lumen centerlines using a point-based registration algorithm. The resulting rigid transformation is used to initialize a rigid and subsequent non-rigid registration procedure that jointly aligns centerlines and segmentations by minimizing a weighted sum of the Euclidean distance between centerlines and the dissimilarity between segmentations...
October 13, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
F Z Mokrane, R Colleter, S Duchesne, P Gerard, F Savall, E Crubezy, C Guilbeau-Frugier, R Moreno, A Sewonu, H Rousseau, N Telmon, F Dedouit
INTRODUCTION: Among 800 burials dated between the 15th and 18th centuries and found in the center of Rennes (Brittany, France), a collection of five heart-shaped lead urns was discovered. This material was studied using classical methods (external study, autopsy and histology), and also modern imaging like computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) before and after coronary opacification. The aim of this manuscript is to describe different steps of ancient soft tissues study, especially using imaging techniques...
September 14, 2016: Forensic Science International
Markus Schwaiger, Karl Kunze, Christoph Rischpler, Stephan G Nekolla
After the successful introduction of PET/CT as a multimodality imaging technique, PET/MR has subsequently emerged as an attractive instrumentation for applications in neurology, oncology, and cardiology. Simultaneous data acquisition combining structural, functional, and molecular imaging provides a unique platform to link various aspects of cardiac performance for the non-invasive characterization of cardiovascular disease phenotypes. Specifically, tissue characterization by MR techniques with and without contrast agents allows for functional parameters such as LGE, myocardial perfusion, and T1 maps as well as an estimate of extracellular volume...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Thomas Hellmut Schindler
With the recent advent of PET/MRI scanners, the combination of molecular imaging with a variety of known and novel PET radiotracers, the high spatial resolution of MRI, and its potential for multi-parametric imaging are anticipated to increase the diagnostic accuracy in cardiovascular disease detection, while providing novel mechanistic insights into the initiation and progression of the disease state. For the time being, cardiac PET/MRI emerges as potential clinical tool in the identification and characterization of infiltrative cardiac diseases, such as sarcoidosis, acute or chronic myocarditis, and cardiac tumors, respectively...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Trisha Roy, Garry Liu, Noor Shaikh, Andrew D Dueck, Graham A Wright
PURPOSE: To test and validate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences for peripheral artery lesion characterization and relate the MRI characteristics to the amount of force required for a guidewire to puncture peripheral chronic total occlusions (CTOs) as a surrogate for immediate failure of endovascular therapy. METHODS: Diseased superficial femoral, popliteal, and tibial artery segments containing 55 atherosclerotic lesions were excised from the amputated limbs of 7 patients with critical limb ischemia...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
Prabhakar Rajiah, Mojgan Hojjati, Ziang Lu, Vijaya Kosaraju, Sasan Partovi, James K O'Donnell, Christopher Longenecker, Grace A McComsey, Jackelyn B Golden, Fuad Muakkassa, Scott Santilli, Thomas S McCormick, Kevin D Cooper, Neil J Korman
We report our initial experience of performing integrated PET/MR imaging of the carotid arteries in psoriatic patients. Eleven patients with psoriasis and ten controls underwent carotid PET/MRI. Following injection of the FDG tracer, 3d T1w gradient echo sequence (atMR) was obtained for attenuation correction of PET data. High resolution images of carotid artery were then obtained, including pre-and post-contrast T1-w, T2-w and proton-density images as well as TOF images followed by PET imaging of the torso...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Yongming Li, Xueru Zhu, Pin Wang, Jie Wang, Shujun Liu, Fan Li, Mingguo Qiu
BACKGROUND: Amyloid β-protein (Aβ) plaque deposition is an important prevention and treatment target for Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a noninvasive, nonradioactive and highly cost-effective clinical imaging method, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the perfect imaging technology for the clinical diagnosis of AD, but it cannot display the plaque deposition directly. This paper resolves this problem based on pixel feature selection algorithms at the image level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Firstly, the brain region was segmented from mouse model brain MR images...
2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Rasmus Sejersten Ripa, Sune Folke Pedersen, Andreas Kjær
For imaging of atherosclerotic disease, lumenography using computed tomography, ultrasonography, or invasive angiography is still the backbone of evaluation. However, these methods are less effective to predict the likelihood of future thromboembolic events caused by vulnerability of plaques. PET and MR imaging have been used separately with success for plaque characterization. Where MR imaging has the ability to reveal plaque composition, PET has the ability to visualize plaque activity. Together this leads to a comprehensive evaluation of plaque vulnerability...
October 2016: PET Clinics
Lucia Patriarca, Silvia Torlone, Fabiana Ferrari, Caterina Di Carmine, Rocco Totaro, Ernesto di Cesare, Alessandra Splendiani
Tumefactive multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It has recently been described as a rare subtype of multiple sclerosis (MS) characterised by the appearance of solitary or multiple space-occupying lesions associated with imaging characteristics mimicking neoplasm. Atypical features include plaque size >2 cm with mass effect, oedema, and/or ring enhancement on magnetic resonance (MR) images.This study is a retrospective review designed to evaluate the prevalence of tumefactive plaques in a selected population of 440 MS patients referred to our MS centre in Southern Italy between 2005 and 2014...
October 2016: Neuroradiology Journal
Monica de Gaetano, Daniel Crean, Mary Barry, Orina Belton
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease caused by endothelial injury, lipid deposition, and oxidative stress. This progressive disease can be converted into an acute clinical event by plaque rupture and thrombosis. In the context of atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, macrophages uniquely possess a dual functionality, regulating lipid accumulation and metabolism and sustaining the chronic inflammatory response, two of the most well-documented pathways associated with the pathogenesis of the disease...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Shoichi Ehara, Kenji Matsumoto, Kenei Shimada
Over the past several decades, significant progress has been made in the pathohistological assessment of vulnerable plaques and in invasive intravascular imaging techniques. However, the assessment of plaque morphology by invasive modalities is of limited value for the detection of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and the subsequent prediction or prevention of acute cardiovascular events. Recently, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technology has reached a sufficient level of spatial resolution, which allowed the plaque visualization of large and static arteries such as the carotids and aorta...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Bernard Swynghedauw
Mechanotransduction, MT, is an ancient evolutionary legacy existing in every living species and involving complex rearrangements of multiple proteins in response to a mechanical stress. MT includes three different interrelated processes: mechanosensation, mechanotransmission, and mechanoresponse. Each process is specifically adapted to a given tissue and stress. Both cardiac and arterial remodeling involve MT. Physiological or pathological cardiac remodeling, CR, is firstly a beneficial mechanoresponse, MR, which allows the heart to recover to a normal economy, better adapted to the new working conditions...
July 20, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
Masami Yoneyama, Masanobu Nakamura, Makoto Obara, Tomoyuki Okuaki, Ryuji Sashi, Seishi Sawano, Satoshi Tatsuno, Marc Van Cauteren
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the usefulness of hyperecho and PROPELLER (HEP) for carotid arterial vessel wall imaging by using a quantitative comparison with conventional methods. PROPELLER is a motion-insensitive turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence and has recently been utilized in magnetic resonance (MR) plaque imaging instead of double inversion recovery TSE (DIR-TSE). Wider blade-width, higher k-space density, and an improved blood suppression effect result in better image quality. In this study we introduce a new combination of HEP...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Xingyu Nie, Richard Laforest, Andrew Elvington, Gwendalyn J Randolph, Jie Zheng, Tom Voller, Dana R Abendschein, Suzanne Lapi, Pamela K Woodard
: The macrophage-rich core of advanced human atheroma has been demonstrated to be hypoxic, which may have implications in plaque stability. The goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of the hypoxia positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agent (64)Cu-ATSM to detect hypoxia in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis imaged on a simultaneous positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) scanner, using MR for both attenuation correction and depiction of lesion location METHODS: New Zealand White rabbits fed a Western diet for 4-6 wk underwent endothelial denudation of the right femoral artery by air desiccation to induce an atherosclerotic-like lesion, and underwent a sham operation on the left femoral artery...
July 7, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Masanori Tsujimoto, Yukiko Enomoto, Jouji Kokuzawa, Toru Iwama
BACKGROUND: Increased platelet reactivity after carotid artery stenting (CAS) may cause thromboembolic complications. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the incidence of increased platelet reactivity after CAS and to determine the factors related to it. METHODS: Patients who underwent CAS were recruited prospectively. They received pre-procedural antiplatelet therapy comprising some combination of aspirin (100 mg/day), clopidogrel (75 mg/day), and/or cilostazol (200 mg/day) for a minimum of 7 days...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Eung Ju Kim, Sungeun Kim, Hong Seog Seo, Yong Jik Lee, Jae Seon Eo, Jae Min Jeong, Boeun Lee, Jae Young Kim, Young Mi Park, Myeongsook Jeong
: Activated macrophages take up 2-deoxy-2-(18)F-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) via glucose transporters, so this compound is useful for atherosclerosis imaging by positron emission tomography (PET). However, FDG application is limited for imaging of the heart and brain, where glucose uptake is high, and in patients with aberrant glucose metabolism. The aims of this study were to confirm that mannosylated human serum albumin (MSA) specifically binds to the mannose receptor (MR) on macrophages and to test the feasibility of (68)Ga-labeled NOTA-MSA for PET imaging of atherosclerotic plaques...
June 23, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
J S McNally, T M Burton, B W Aldred, S-E Kim, M S McLaughlin, L B Eisenmenger, G J Stoddard, J J Majersik, D V Miller, G S Treiman, D L Parker
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging-detected carotid intraplaque hemorrhage indicates vulnerable plaque with high stroke risk. Angiotensin II stimulates intraplaque hemorrhage in animal models, and the angiotensin system is highly regulated by vitamin D. Our purpose was to determine whether low vitamin D levels predict carotid intraplaque hemorrhage in humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 65 patients with carotid disease underwent carotid MR imaging and blood draw...
June 16, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Zhensen Chen, Ao-Fei Liu, Huijun Chen, Chun Yuan, Le He, Yandong Zhu, Maobin Guan, Wei-Jian Jiang, Xihai Zhao
PURPOSE: Basilar artery (BA) atherosclerosis is an important cause of perforator stroke in the brainstem due to plaque involvement of the perforator ostia in BA dorsal or lateral walls. Therefore, to acquire information on plaque distribution is important to better understand and prevent the perforator stroke. This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate BA plaque distribution with 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) vessel wall imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with cerebrovascular symptoms and stenosis or irregular luminal surface of BA were recruited and underwent BA 3D proton density-weighted volume isotropic turbo spin echo acquisition (VISTA) imaging at 3T...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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