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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159059/triangulation-of-language-cognitive-impairments-naming-errors-and-their-neural-bases-post-stroke
#1
Ajay D Halai, Anna M Woollams, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
In order to gain a better understanding of aphasia one must consider the complex combinations of language impairments along with the pattern of paraphasias. Despite the fact that both deficits and paraphasias feature in diagnostic criteria, most research has focused only on the lesion correlates of language deficits, with minimal attention on the pattern of patients' paraphasias. In this study, we used a data-driven approach (principal component analysis - PCA) to fuse patient impairments and their pattern of errors into one unified model of chronic post-stroke aphasia...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158981/fitness-implications-of-sex-specific-catch-up-growth-in-nephila-senegalensis-a-spider-with-extreme-reversed-ssd
#2
Rainer Neumann, Nicole Ruppel, Jutta M Schneider
Background: Animal growth is often constrained by unfavourable conditions and divergences from optimal body size can be detrimental to an individual's fitness, particularly in species with determinate growth and a narrow time-frame for life-time reproduction. Growth restriction in early juvenile stages can later be compensated by means of plastic developmental responses, such as adaptive catch-up growth (the compensation of growth deficits through delayed development). Although sex differences regarding the mode and degree of growth compensation have been coherently predicted from sex-specific fitness payoffs, inconsistent results imply a need for further research...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158943/depression-in-parkinson-s-disease-the-contribution-from-animal-studies
#3
REVIEW
Jéssica Lopes Fontoura, Camila Baptista, Flávia de Brito Pedroso, José Augusto Pochapski, Edmar Miyoshi, Marcelo Machado Ferro
Besides being better known for causing motor impairments, Parkinson's disease (PD) can also cause many nonmotor symptoms, like depression and anxiety, which can cause significant loss of life quality and may not respond to regular drugs treatment. In this review, we discuss the depression in PD, based on data from studies in humans and rodents. Depression frequency seems higher in PD patients than in general population, despite high variation in data due to diagnosis disparities. Development of depression in PD seems more likely to be caused by the nigrostriatal pathway degeneration than as a consequence of the awareness of disease prognostic, and it seems to be related to dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and serotoninergic synapses deficits...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158206/pulmonary-rehabilitation-with-balance-training-for-fall-reduction-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Marla K Beauchamp, Dina Brooks, Cindy Ellerton, Annemarie Lee, Jennifer Alison, Pat G Camp, Gail Dechman, Kimberley Haines, Samantha L Harrison, Anne E Holland, Alda Marques, Rahim Moineddin, Elizabeth H Skinner, Lissa Spencer, Michael K Stickland, Feng Xie, Roger S Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A growing body of evidence shows that individuals with COPD have important deficits in balance control that may be associated with an increased risk of falls. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is a key therapeutic intervention for individuals with COPD; however, current international guidelines do not include balance training and fall prevention strategies. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this trial is to determine the effects of PR with balance training compared to PR with no balance training on the 12-month rate of falls in individuals with COPD...
November 20, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157667/a-case-of-multiple-system-atrophy-parkinsonian-type-with-stuttering-and-palilalia-like-dysfluencies-and-putaminal-atrophy
#5
Yoshikazu Kikuchi, Toshiro Umezaki, Taira Uehara, Hiroo Yamaguchi, Koji Yamashita, Akio Hiwatashi, Motohiro Sawatsubashi, Kazuo Adachi, Yumi Yamaguchi, Daisuke Murakami, Jun-Ichi Kira, Takashi Nakagawa
Both developmental and acquired stuttering are related to the function of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop, which includes the putamen. Here, we present a case of stuttering- and palilalia-like dysfluencies that manifested as an early symptom of multiple system atrophy-parkinsonian type (MSA-P) and bilateral atrophy of the putamen. The patient was a 72-year-old man with no history of developmental stuttering who presented with a stutter for consultation with our otorhinolaryngology department. The patient was diagnosed with MSA-P based on parkinsonism, autonomic dysfunction, and bilateral putaminal atrophy revealed by T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157515/legal-capacity-of-persons-with-disabilities-in-ethiopia-the-need-to-reform-existing-legal-frameworks
#6
Mohammed Hamza Marishet
The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) prohibited deprivation legal capacity of persons with disability based on assessment of mental capacity. The assertion is that, persons with disabilities shall exercise their legal capacity in all aspects of life without any restrictions that are based on mental incapacity (such as, unsoundness of mind, deficit in mental capacity, dotage, etc. This approach signifies a shift from substituted decision making, where another person act on behalf of persons with mental disabilities, to supported decision making where the person with mental disability is assisted in decision making...
November 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157066/association-between-small-for-gestational-age-and-low-birth-weight-with-attention-deficit-and-impaired-executive-functions-in-3-6-years-old-children
#7
M Shariat, J Gharaee, H Dalili, Y Mohammadzadeh, Sh Ansari, Z Farahani
BACKGROUND: Behavioral disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are frequently reported among children with history of small body size at birth and disproportionate intrauterine growth retardation. The current study aimed to investigate some factors like executive functions and attention deficit in children with history of Small for gestational age (SGA) and /or Low Birth Weight (LBW) at birth. METHODS: A historical cohort study was done and 3-6 years old preschool children (with past history of SGA/LBW) from some kindergartens and health centers were selected...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156414/schizophrenia-heterogeneity-revisited-clinical-cognitive-and-psychosocial-correlates-of-statistically-derived-negative-symptoms-subgroups
#8
Anthony O Ahmed, Gregory P Strauss, Robert W Buchanan, Brian Kirkpatrick, William T Carpenter
Traditional efforts to delineate the clinical heterogeneity of schizophrenia have been unsuccessful because of the absence of a valid, stable, and meaningful subtyping scheme. A clinically-informed nosology supported by multivariate statistical classification methods may provide a better approach for classifying schizophrenia. The goals of the current study were to 1) use multivariate classification methods to validate a clinical subtyping scheme based on the profile of negative symptoms; and 2) following validation to contrast the statistically-derived subgroups to ascertain distinguishing demographic, clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156389/assessing-working-memory-in-children-with-adhd-minor-administration-and-scoring-changes-may-improve-digit-span-backward-s-construct-validity
#9
Erica L Wells, Michael J Kofler, Elia F Soto, Hillary S Schaefer, Dustin E Sarver
BACKGROUND: Pediatric ADHD is associated with impairments in working memory, but these deficits often go undetected when using clinic-based tests such as digit span backward. AIMS: The current study pilot-tested minor administration/scoring modifications to improve digit span backward's construct and predictive validities in a well-characterized sample of children with ADHD. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: WISC-IV digit span was modified to administer all trials (i...
November 17, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154998/intraoperative-vertebroplasty-during-surgical-decompression-and-instrumentation-for-aggressive-vertebral-hemangiomas-a-retrospective-study-of-39-patients-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Ben Wang, Song Bo Han, Liang Jiang, Xiao Guang Liu, Shao Min Yang, Na Meng, Feng Wei, Zhong Jun Liu
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Aggressive (Enneking Stage 3, S3) vertebral hemangiomas (VHs) are rare, which might require surgery. However, the choice of surgery for S3 VHs remains controversial because of the rarity of these lesions. PURPOSE: We reported our experience of treating S3 VHs, and evaluated the effectiveness and safety of intraoperative vertebroplasty during decompression surgery for S3 VHs. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective study. PATIENT SAMPLE: Thirty-nine patients with a definitive pathological diagnosis of aggressive VHs who underwent primary decompression surgery in our department were included in this study...
November 14, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154509/technology-assisted-rehabilitation-interventions-following-pediatric-brain-injury
#11
Shari L Wade, Megan E Narad, Emily L Shultz, Brad G Kurowski, Aimee E Miley, Jessica M Aguilar, Anna-Lynne R Adlam
INTRODUCTION: Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), children experience a variety of physical, motor, speech, and cognitive deficits that can have a long-term detrimental impact. The emergence and popularity of new technologies has led to research into the development of various apps, gaming systems, websites, and robotics that might be applied to rehabilitation. The objective of this narrative review was to describe the current literature technologically-assisted interventions for the rehabilitation of motor, neurocognitive, behavioral, and family impairments following pediatric TBI...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154230/use-of-kinesiology-taping-in-rehabilitation-after-knee-arthroplasty-a-randomised-clinical-study
#12
Weronika Woźniak-Czekierda, Kamil Woźniak, Anna Hadamus, Dariusz Białoszewski
BACKGROUND: Proprioception and body balance after knee arthroplasty have a considerable impact on restoration of joint function and a normal gait pattern. Kinesiology Taping (KT) is a method that may be able to influence these factors. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of KT application on sensorimotor efficiency, balance and gait in patients undergoing rehabili-ta--tion after knee replacement surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 120 male and female patients (mean age was 69 years) after total knee repla-cement...
October 31, 2017: Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154064/living-with-chronic-pain-evaluating-patient-experiences-with-a-medical-group-visit-focused-on-mindfulness-and-non-pharmacological-strategies
#13
Anna Sophia Lestoquoy, Lance D Laird, Suzanne Mitchell, Katherine Gergen-Barnett, N Lily Negash, Kelly McCue, Racquel Enad, Paula Gardiner
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the acceptance of non-pharmacological group strategies delivered to low income racially diverse patients with chronic pain and depression. This paper examines how the Integrative Medical Group Visit (IMGV) addresses many of the deficits identified with usual care. DESIGN AND SETTING: Six IMGVs cohorts were held at a safety net hospital and two federally funded community health centres. Data was gathered through focus groups. Transcripts were analysed using both a priori codes and inductive coding...
December 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153844/treatment-of-brain-disease-in-the-mucopolysaccharidoses
#14
REVIEW
Maurizio Scarpa, Paul J Orchard, Angela Schulz, Patricia I Dickson, Mark E Haskins, Maria L Escolar, Roberto Giugliani
The mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) disorders are a group of lysosomal storage diseases caused by lysosomal enzyme deficits that lead to glycosaminoglycan accumulation, affecting various tissues throughout the body based on the specific enzyme deficiency. These disorders are characterized by their progressive nature and a variety of somatic manifestations and neurological symptoms. There are established treatments for some MPS disorders, but these mostly alleviate somatic and non-neurological symptoms and do not cure the disease...
October 16, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152899/lung-function-after-extremely-preterm-birth-a-population-based-cohort-study-express
#15
Per Thunqvist, Ellen Tufvesson, Leif Bjermer, Anna Winberg, Vineta Fellman, Magnus Domellöf, Erik Melén, Mikael Norman, Jenny Hallberg
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Follow-up studies of children and young adults born very-to-moderately preterm show persistent and significant lung function deficits. The aim of the study was to determine lung function and airway mechanics in school-aged children born in 2004 to 2007 and extremely preterm (after 22-26 weeks of gestation). METHODS: In a population-based cohort of children born extremely preterm and controls born at term (n = 350), follow-up at 6½-years-of-age was performed using spirometry and impulse oscillometry...
November 20, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152735/6%C3%A2-hz-corneal-kindling-in-mice-triggers-neurobehavioral-comorbidities-accompanied-by-relevant-changes-in-c-fos-immunoreactivity-throughout-the-brain
#16
Giulia Albertini, Laura Walrave, Thomas Demuyser, Ann Massie, Dimitri De Bundel, Ilse Smolders
OBJECTIVE: Besides seizures, patients with epilepsy are affected by a variety of cognitive and psychiatric comorbidities that further impair their quality of life. The present study provides an in-depth characterization of the behavioral alterations induced by 6 Hz corneal kindling. Furthermore, we correlate these behavioral changes to alterations in c-Fos protein expression throughout the brain following kindling. METHODS: Adolescent male Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice were kindled via repetitive subconvulsive 6 Hz corneal stimulations until they reached the fully kindled state (defined as 10 consecutive generalized seizures)...
November 20, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152165/specificity-of-executive-function-and-theory-of-mind-performance-in-relation-to-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-symptoms-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#17
Steve Lukito, Catherine R G Jones, Andrew Pickles, Gillian Baird, Francesca Happé, Tony Charman, Emily Simonoff
Background: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently demonstrate symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous findings in children with ASD have suggested that these symptoms are associated with an impairment in executive function (EF) abilities. However, studies rarely considered this association within a single framework that controls for other related factors such as Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities and ASD symptoms. Methods: We used structural equation modeling to explore the relations among EF, ToM, and symptoms of ASD and ADHD, using data from a population-based sample of 100 adolescents with ASD and full-scale IQ ≥ 50 (the Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP) cohort)...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151982/the-effect-of-low-magnitude-low-frequency-vibrations-lmlf-on-osteogenic-differentiation-potential-of-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#18
Monika Marędziak, Daniel Lewandowski, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski, Krzysztof Kubiak, Krzsztof Marycz
Introduction: In the current study, we investigated the effect of low magnitude, low frequency (LMLF) mechanical vibrations on the osteogenic differentiation potential of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASC), taken from elderly patients. Methods: During 21 days in osteogenic culture medium, cells were periodically exposed to three different frequencies (25, 35 and 45 Hz) of continuous sinusoidal oscillation, using a vibration generator. We measured cell proliferation, cell morphology, calcium and phosphorus deposition using Almar Blue assay, fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and a EDX detector, respectively...
2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151568/a-comparison-of-the-mini-open-wiltse-approach-with-pedicle-screw-fixation-and-the-percutaneous-pedicle-screw-fixation-for-neurologically-intact-thoracolumbar-fractures
#19
Yong Fan, JiaNan Zhang, Xin He, YunFei Huang, QiNing Wu, DingJun Hao
BACKGROUND The thoracolumbar AO type A3 fracture is an incomplete burst fracture, which affects one vertebral body endplate. The objective of this study was to determine which of two minimal invasive techniques was more suitable for A3 fractures based on clinical and radiographic results. MATERIAL AND METHODS We studied 112 patients with A3 subtype fractures without neurological deficits. A total of 63 patients received percutaneous pedicle screw fixation (PPSF), and 49 patients were treated using mini-open Wiltse approach with pedicle screw fixation (MWPSF)...
November 20, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150620/the-role-of-forelimb-motor-cortex-areas-in-goal-directed-action-in-mice
#20
Karin Morandell, Daniel Huber
Mammalian motor cortex consists of several interconnected subregions thought to play distinct roles in voluntary movements, yet their specific role in decision making and execution is not completely elucidated. Here we used transient optogenetic inactivation of the caudal forelimb area (CFA) and rostral forelimb area (RFA) in mice as they performed a directional joystick task. Based on a vibrotactile cue applied to their forepaw, mice were trained to push or pull a joystick after a delay period. We found that choice and execution are temporally segregated processes...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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