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Anion gap

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913012/hyperglycemic-high-anion-gap-metabolic-acidosis-in-patients-receiving-sglt-2-inhibitors-for-diabetes-management
#1
Juliette Sandifer Kum-Nji, Aidar R Gosmanov, Helmut Steinberg, Samuel Dagogo-Jack
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) are a class of antidiabetic medications that improve glycemic control via inhibiting the reabsorption of filtered glucose and are approved for use in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). These drugs have recently been associated with euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). An increasing number of cases of SGLT-2i-associated DKA have occurred in patients with T2DM. Herein, we describe five episodes of hyperglycemic DKA in four type 2 diabetes patients receiving SGLT-2i therapy...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911418/synthesis-and-characterization-of-fe-doped-aluminosilicate-nanotubes-with-enhanced-electron-conductive-properties
#2
Ehsan Shafia, Serena Esposito, Elnaz Bahadori, Marco Armandi, Maela Manzoli, Barbara Bonelli
The goal of the protocol is to synthesize Fe-doped aluminosilicate nanotubes of the imogolite type with the formula (OH)3Al2-xFexO3SiOH. Doping with Fe aims at lowering the band gap of imogolite, an insulator with the chemical formula (OH)3Al2O3SiOH, and at modifying its adsorption properties towards azo-dyes, an important class of organic pollutants of both wastewater and groundwater. Fe-doped nanotubes are obtained in two ways: by direct synthesis, where FeCl3 is added to an aqueous mixture of the Si and Al precursors, and by post-synthesis loading, where preformed nanotubes are put in contact with a FeCl3•6H2O aqueous solution...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905657/-toxic-encephalopathy-caused-by-liquefied-gas-exposure-report-of-one-case
#3
Luis Cartier R, Andrés Gallardo V
Liquefied hydrocarbon gas, such as propane is considered safe. However there are reports that voluntary exposure to liquefied gas at least could originate hallucinatory states. We report a 20 years old woman who was found in a coma with extensor muscle hypertonia, brisk tendon reflexes and extensor plantar (Babinski) responses after being exposed to propane gas. The brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed lesions in both hippocampi and white matter in the oval center. The patient had a normal oxygen saturation of 98%, a carboxyhemoglobin of 1...
August 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894793/a-quick-reference-on-anion-gap-and-strong-ion-gap
#4
REVIEW
Carlos Torrente Artero
Metabolic acid-base disorders are common in emergency and critically ill patients. Clinicians may have difficulty recognizing their presence when multiple acid-base derangements are present in a single patient simultaneously. The anion gap and the strong ion gap concepts are useful calculations to identify the components of complex metabolic acid-base associated to the presence of unmeasured anions. This article presents their definition, normal values, indications, limitations, and guidelines for interpretation of changes in the clinical setting...
November 25, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892522/sars-cov-fusion-peptides-induce-membrane-surface-ordering-and-curvature
#5
Luis G M Basso, Eduardo F Vicente, Edson Crusca, Eduardo M Cilli, Antonio J Costa-Filho
Viral membrane fusion is an orchestrated process triggered by membrane-anchored viral fusion glycoproteins. The S2 subunit of the spike glycoprotein from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) contains internal domains called fusion peptides (FP) that play essential roles in virus entry. Although membrane fusion has been broadly studied, there are still major gaps in the molecular details of lipid rearrangements in the bilayer during fusion peptide-membrane interactions. Here we employed differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron spin resonance (ESR) to gather information on the membrane fusion mechanism promoted by two putative SARS FPs...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886310/positive-and-negative-linear-compressibility-and-electronic-properties-of-energetic-and-porous-hybrid-crystals-with-nitrate-anions
#6
D V Korabel'nikov, Yu N Zhuravlev
The structural and electronic properties of energetic nitrates with organic cations (uronium and 3,3'-diamino-4,4'-azo-1,2,4-triazole) and a metal-organic framework crystal [Ag(ethylenediamine)]NO3 have been investigated using density functional theory including van der Waals interactions. It is found that the linear compressibility of urea nitrate is positive and anisotropic (a ≈ b < c), whereas 3,3'-diamino-4,4'-azo-1,2,4-triazole nitrate and [Ag(ethylenediamine)]NO3 show both positive and negative linear compressibility along the b, c and a-axes, respectively...
November 25, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874133/the-structural-and-electronic-properties-of-nbsin-0-n-3-12-clusters-anion-photoelectron-spectroscopy-and-ab-initio-calculations
#7
Sheng-Jie Lu, Guo-Jin Cao, Xi-Ling Xu, Hong-Guang Xu, Wei-Jun Zheng
Niobium-doped silicon clusters, NbSin(-) (n = 3-12), were generated by laser vaporization and investigated by anion photoelectron spectroscopy. The structures and electronic properties of NbSin(-) anions and their neutral counterparts were investigated with ab initio calculations and compared with the experimental results. It is found that the Nb atom in NbSin(-/0) prefers to occupy the high coordination sites to form more Nb-Si bonds. The most stable structures of NbSi3-7(-/0) are all exohedral structures with the Nb atom face-capping the Sin frameworks...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872507/calculated-chemistry-parameters-do-they-need-to-be-harmonised
#8
REVIEW
David Hughes, James Cg Doery, Kay Weng Choy, Robert Flatman
In clinical chemistry, harmonisation of the testing process is a global initiative with the purpose of improving patient safety, allowing better integration of research data and enabling the use of national electronic heath records. In Australia, as in other countries, the initial focus has been on the harmonisation of the more commonly measured analytes. There are also a number of calculated parameters, derived from these measured analytes, which could also be considered for harmonisation. Calculated parameters that are reported by laboratories and used for clinical decision-making should undergo the same robust process of harmonisation as is the case for the measured analytes...
August 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872504/harmonising-reference-intervals-for-three-calculated-parameters-used-in-clinical-chemistry
#9
REVIEW
David Hughes, Gus Koerbin, Julia M Potter, Nicholas Glasgow, Nic West, Walter P Abhayaratna, Juleen Cavanaugh, David Armbruster, Peter E Hickman
For more than a decade there has been a global effort to harmonise all phases of the testing process, with particular emphasis on the most frequently utilised measurands. In addition, it is recognised that calculated parameters derived from these measurands should also be a target for harmonisation. Using data from the Aussie Normals study we report reference intervals for three calculated parameters: serum osmolality, serum anion gap and albumin-adjusted serum calcium. The Aussie Normals study was an a priori study that analysed samples from 1856 healthy volunteers...
August 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869610/electrolyte-and-metabolic-disturbances-in-ebola-patients-during-a-clinical-trial-guinea-2015
#10
Johan van Griensven, Elhadj Ibrahima Bah, Nyankoye Haba, Alexandre Delamou, Bienvenu Salim Camara, Kadio Jean-Jacques Olivier, Hilde De Clerck, Helena Nordenstedt, Malcolm G Semple, Michel Van Herp, Jozefien Buyze, Maaike De Crop, Steven Van Den Broucke, Lutgarde Lynen, Anja De Weggheleire
By using data from a 2015 clinical trial on Ebola convalescent-phase plasma in Guinea, we assessed the prevalence of electrolyte and metabolic abnormalities at admission and their predictive value to stratify patients into risk groups. Patients underwent testing with a point-of-care device. We used logistic regression to construct a prognostic model and summarized the predictive value with the area under the receiver operating curve. Abnormalities were common among patients, particularly hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hyponatremia, raised creatinine, high anion gap, and anemia...
December 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866471/distal-renal-tubular-acidosis-without-renal-impairment-after-use-of-tenofovir-a-case-report
#11
Kentaro Iwata, Manabu Nagata, Shuhei Watanabe, Shinichi Nishi
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir, one of antiretroviral medication to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, is known to cause proximal renal tubular acidosis such as Fanconi syndrome, but cases of distal renal tubular acidosis had never been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 20-year-old man with HIV infection developed nausea and vomiting without diarrhea after starting antiretroviral therapy. Arterial blood gas revealed non-anion-gap metabolic acidosis and urine test showed positive urine anion gap...
November 21, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865136/ph-dependent-absorption-spectra-of-rhodopsin-mutant-e113q-on-the-role-of-counterions-and-protein
#12
Peng Xie, Panwang Zhou, Ahmed Alsaedi, Yan Zhang
The absorption spectra of bovine rhodopsin mutant E113Q in solutions were investigated at the molecular level by using a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method. The calculations suggest the mechanism of the absorption variations of E113Q at different pH values. The results indicate that the polarizations of the counterions in the vicinity of Schiff base under protonation and unprotonation states of the mutant E113Q would be a crucial factor to change the energy gap of the retinal to tune the absorption spectra...
November 13, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858012/a-simultaneous-disulfide-bond-cleavage-n-s-bialkylation-n-protonation-and-self-assembly-reaction-syntheses-structures-and-properties-of-two-hybrid-iodoargentates-with-thiazolyl-based-heterocycles
#13
Guang-Ning Liu, Ke Li, Qing-Shun Fan, Hui Sun, Xin-Yu Li, Xiao-Nan Han, Yu Li, Zhen-Wei Zhang, Cuncheng Li
Solvothermal reactions of AgI with the vulcanization accelerator 2,2'-dibenzothiazolyl disulfide and hydroiodic acid in alcohols afford two hybrid iodoargentates with one-dimensional structures, namely (Et2mbt)[Ag2I3] (1, Hmbt = 2-mercaptobenzothiazole) and {(Hmbt)[AgI]}n (2). The syntheses of both 1 and 2 involve unprecedented multiple in situ reactions. Specifically, a simultaneous disulfide bond cleavage, N and S donor atoms bialkylation, and self-assembly reaction lead to 1 that contains a discrete N,S-biethylated cation (Et2mbt)(+) and a rare inorganic (Ag2I3)(-) anionic chain, while a simultaneous disulfide bond cleavage, N-protonation and self-assembly reaction affords 2 which features zwitterionic Hmbt molecules coordinating with the opposite side Ag atoms of a neutral inorganic (AgI)n chain via forming Ag-S coordination bonds...
November 18, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854232/stress-induced-ketoacidosis-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy-an-under-recognized-complication
#14
Eoin Mulroy, Sarah Gleeson, Michael James Furlong
Ketoacidosis is an important but under-recognized complication of neuromuscular disease, in particular spinal muscular atrophy. This easily treatable condition is largely overlooked in best practice guidelines, and lack of awareness contributes to adverse outcomes in this patient population. Neuromyopathy associated ketosis should be considered in all patients with severe muscle wasting presenting with an elevated anion gap metabolic ketoacidosis. Treatment is simple, effective, and should be instituted early...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851597/1963-aspirin-toxicity-manifesting-with-a-negative-anion-gap
#15
Harish Devineni, Jaspreet Dhami, Vishisht Mehta, Karishma Bhatia, Khalid Bashir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850950/1314-non-anion-gap-metabolic-acidosis-in-patients-with-diabetic-ketoacidosis-a-retrospective-analysis
#16
Guramrinder Thind, Prashant Patel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847651/ethylene-glycol-poisoning-an-unusual-cause-of-altered-mental-status-and-the-lessons-learned-from-management-of-the-disease-in-the-acute-setting
#17
R Singh, E Arain, A Buth, J Kado, A Soubani, N Imran
Ethylene glycol is found in many household products and is a common toxic ingestion. Acute ingestions present with altered sensorium and an osmolal gap. The true toxicity of ethylene glycol is mediated by its metabolites, which are responsible for the increased anion gap metabolic acidosis, renal tubular damage, and crystalluria seen later in ingestions. Early intervention is key; however, diagnosis is often delayed, especially in elderly patients presenting with altered mental status. There are several laboratory tests which can be exploited for the diagnosis, quantification of ingestion, and monitoring of treatment, including the lactate and osmolal gaps...
2016: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845368/magnetic-modes-in-rare-earth-perovskites-a-magnetic-field-dependent-inelastic-light-scattering-study
#18
Surajit Saha, Bing-Chen Cao, M Motapothula, Chun-Xiao Cong, Tarapada Sarkar, Amar Srivastava, Soumya Sarkar, Abhijeet Patra, Siddhartha Ghosh, Ariando, J M D Coey, Ting Yu, T Venkatesan
Here, we report the presence of defect-related states with magnetic degrees of freedom in crystals of LaAlO3 and several other rare-earth based perovskite oxides using inelastic light scattering (Raman spectroscopy) at low temperatures in applied magnetic fields of up to 9 T. Some of these states are at about 140 meV above the valence band maximum while others are mid-gap states at about 2.3 eV. No magnetic impurity could be detected in LaAlO3 by Proton-Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy. We, therefore, attribute the angular momentum-like states in LaAlO3 to cationic/anionic vacancies or anti-site defects...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797196/convergence-of-excitation-energies-in-mixed-quantum-and-classical-solvent-comparison-of-continuum-and-point-charge-models
#19
Makenzie Rae Provorse, Thomas Peev, Chou Xiong, Christine Marie Isborn
Mixed quantum mechanical (QM)/classical methods provide a computationally efficient approach to modeling both ground and excited state chemical processes in the condensed phase. To accurately model short-range interactions, some amount of the environment can be included in the QM region, while a classical model is used to treat long-range interactions to maintain computational affordability. The best computational protocol for these mixed QM/classical methods can be determined by comparison with converged molecular properties...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778049/geographic-location-is-an-important-determinant-of-risk-factors-for-stone-disease
#20
Ethan B Fram, Matthew D Sorensen, Vincent G Bird, Joshua M Stern
Some regions are known to have an increased burden of urolithiasis. Urolithiasis is known to be affected by weather patterns, particularly high ambient temperatures. To identify geographic differences in risk factors, we compared metabolic information for 1254 patients in two geographically distinct regions, New York and Florida, with per sample adjustment for ambient weather. We observed that patients in New York were more likely to have low urine volume, but also lower total urinary calcium (168 vs 216 mg, p = 0...
October 24, 2016: Urolithiasis
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