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Anion gap

Maria P Kosaya, Alexey V Rybalchenko, Natalia S Lukonina, Olga N Mazaleva, Ilya N Ioffe, Vitaliy Yu Markov, Sergey I Troyanov, Lev N Sidorov, Nadezhda B Tamm, Alexey A Goryunkov
We survey structure and electronic properties of the family of higher trifluoromethylated C70(CF3)n molecules with n=14, 16, 18, and 20. Twenty two available compounds, of which thirteen are newly obtained and characterized, demonstrate broad diversity of π-system topologies, having enabled us to study the interplay between the CF3 addition pattern and the electronic properties. UV-vis spectroscopic and cyclic voltammetric studies demonstrate importance of the exact addition pattern rather than the plain number of addends...
May 20, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Jason An, Branko Braam
Rationale: We hope to increase awareness that hypokalemic paralysis may be the first presentation of Sjögren syndrome, for which potassium-sparing diuretics can be an effective adjunct to potassium replenishment. Presenting concerns: A 73-year-old female presented to a peripheral hospital with quadriparesis and a critically low serum potassium of 1.6 mmol/L with U waves on the electrocardiogram (ECG). The initial arterial blood gas showed a pH of 7.19, bicarbonate of 13 mEq/L, and a CO2 of 35 mm Hg...
2018: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
Teng Lei, Minliang Lai, Qiao Kong, Dylan Lu, Woochul Lee, Letian Dou, Vincent Wu, Yi Yu, Peidong Yang
Alloying different semiconductors is a powerful approach to tuning the optical and electronic properties of semiconductor materials. In halide perovskites (ABX3), alloys with different anions have been widely studied and great band gap tunability in the visible range has been achieved. However, perovskite alloys with different cations at the "B" site are less understood due to the synthetic challenges. Herein, we firstly have developed the synthesis of single crystalline CsPbxSn1-xI3 nanowires (NWs)...
May 17, 2018: Nano Letters
Ismael Toledo, Raquel Wainsztein, Carla Mannucci, Mabel Ferraro, Juan Ferreira, Alejandro Balestracci
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is characterized by metabolic acidosis (MA) with a high anion gap (AG), although, occasionally, it can present with hyperchloremia. It has been postulated that the early presence of hyperchloremia could reflect a better hydration status; however, its prevalence and impact on DKA treatment remain unknown. determine the prevalence of the hyperchloremic component in MA prior to treatment and to assess whether it is associated with a better hydration status and a shorter recovery time from DKA compared to patients with high AG only...
June 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Jian-Zhen Liao, Lingyi Meng, Ji-Hui Jia, Dong Liang, Xu-Lin Chen, Rong-Min Yu, Xiao-Fei Kuang, Can-Zhong Lu
Room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) was realized for the first time in a polyoxometalate-based charge-transfer (CT) hybrid material bearing polyoxometalates (POMs) as electron-donors (D) and rigid naphthalene diimides (NDIs) as electron-acceptors (A), meanwhile, this hybrid material displayed photochromism as well. The significant D-A anion-π interactions induced an additional through-space charge-transfer pathway. The resulting suitable D-A CT states can efficiently bridge the relatively large energy gap between the NDI-localized 1π-π* and 3π-π* states and thus trigger the ligand-localized phosphorescence (3π-π*)...
May 8, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Ryo Kuriki, Tom Ichibha, Kenta Hongo, Daling Lu, Ryo Maezono, Hiroshi Kageyama, Osamu Ishitani, Kengo Oka, Kazuhiko Maeda
Mixed anion compounds such as oxynitrides and oxychalcogenides are recognized as potential candidates of visible-light-driven photocatalysts since, as compared with oxygen 2p orbitals, p orbitals of less electronegative anion (e.g., N3-, S2-) can form a valence band that has more negative potential. In this regard, oxyfluorides appear unsuitable because of the higher electronegativity of fluorine. Here we show an exceptional case, an anion-ordered pyrochlore oxyfluoride Pb2Ti2O5.4F1.2 that has a small band gap (ca...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Elizabeth Ann Forrest, Mark Wong, Srinivasa Nama, Siddharth Sharma
BACKGROUND: Celiac crisis is a life-threatening manifestation of celiac disease and is rare in adults, with only a handful of cases documented worldwide and mostly in children. CASE PRESENTATION: A profoundly emaciated 43-year-old female presented with profuse diarrhoea, shortness of breath, left leg swelling with ulceration and immobility (Body Mass Index (BMI) = 14.7 kg/m2 ). The patient had normal anion-gap metabolic acidosis (pH = 7.16) with persisting hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypomagnesemia and hypophosphatemia...
May 2, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
Shuangshuang Shi, Min Luo, Chensheng Lin, Ning Ye
Two new centric alkali metal bismuth selenite fluorides, ABi2SeO3F5 (A = K and Rb), have been synthesized through a soft hydrothermal method. KBi2SeO3F5 crystallizes in an orthorhombic crystal system with the centric space group Pbcm possessing a three-dimensional (3D) network made up of SeO3 trigonal pyramids and asymmetric BiO3F5 polyhedra. As regards compound RbBi2SeO3F5, it crystallizes in a triclinic crystal system with a centric space group of P1[combining macron], which contains alternant two-dimensional (2D) [Bi2SeO3F5]∞1- layers separated by Rb+ cations...
April 27, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Tingwei Chen, Guokui Liu, Fan Jin, Min Wei, Jin Feng, Yuchen Ma
Doping is an effective way to extend the optical absorption of TiO2 to the visible range. Doping of TiO2 by carbon has been found to enhance the water splitting efficiency significantly in experiment. However, the mechanism behind this is elusive. Using the ab initio many-body Green's function theory, we find that the C2 dimer formed on the TiO2 surface produces a shallow delocalized occupied Ti 3d state just below the bottom of the conduction bands. Therefore, band-gap narrowing in carbon-doped TiO2 is caused by the opposite shifts of both valence and conduction bands simultaneously, which is in contrast to the generally accepted idea that anionic dopants can only affect the valence band of TiO2...
April 26, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Allison Mustonen, Olga Gonzalez, Elda Mendoza, Shyamesh Kumar, Edward J Dick
BACKGROUND: Uremic encephalopathy is uncommon yet is one of the most severe complications of renal failure. We present a case of acute renal failure and associated cerebral and vascular lesions consistent with uremic encephalopathy in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). METHODS: A 14-year-old, female, specific-pathogen-free rhesus macaque presented in lateral recumbency, obtunded, severely dehydrated, and hypothermic, with severe azotemia, mild hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, increased anion gap, and hypercholesterolemia...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Shengwen Li, Yanning Zhang, Xiaobin Niu
Cobalt pyrite (CoS2) and related materials are attracting much attention due to their potential use in renewable energy applications. In this work, first-principles studies were performed to investigate the effects of various neutral defects and ion dopants on the structural, energetic, magnetic and electronic properties of the bulk CoS2. Our theoretical results show that the concentrations of single cobalt (VCo) and sulfur (VS) vacancies in CoS2 samples can be high under S-rich and S-poor conditions, respectively...
April 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Daniel Friedrich, Marc Schlosser, Christian Näther, Arno Pfitzner
The selenogallates CsGaSe3 and Cs2 Ga2 Se5 release gaseous selenium upon heating. An in situ high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction analysis revealed a two-step degradation process from CsGaSe3 to Cs2 Ga2 Se5 and finally to CsGaSe2 . During each step, one Se2 2- unit of the anionic chains in Cs2 [Ga2 (Se2 )2- x Se2+ x ] ( x = 0, 1, 2) decomposes, and one equivalent of selenium is released. This thermal decomposition can be reverted by simple addition of elemental selenium and subsequent annealing of the samples below the decomposition temperature...
April 18, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Sandy El Bitar, Chanudi Weerasinghe, Elie El-Charabaty, Marcel Odaimi
Immune checkpoint blockade therapy is gaining popularity among oncologists for treatment of solid and hematologic malignancies. The widespread use of these agents resulted in increasing incidence of renal immune-related adverse events. Reported renal toxicity described so far includes acute interstitial nephritis, minimal change disease, and immune complex glomerulonephritis. We report the case of a 79-year-old female with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer on anti-PD-1 therapy nivolumab. After the 4th administration of nivolumab, the treatment course was complicated with normal anion gap metabolic acidosis...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Hazem M Alhourani, Aneel Kumar, Lekha K George, Tahira Sarwar, Barry M Wall
Pyroglutamic acid, an intermediate in glutathione metabolism, can lead to elevated anion gap metabolic acidosis as rare complication of acetaminophen therapy in adults. Acquired pyroglutamic acidosis has been observed primarily in settings associated with glutathione deficiency. Risk factors for glutathione deficiency include critical illness, chronic liver or kidney disease, advanced age, female gender, alcohol abuse, malnutrition, pregnancy, antiepileptic drugs, and chronic acetaminophen use. Diagnosis of pyroglutamic acidosis requires both the exclusion of common etiologies of increased anion gap metabolic acidosis and a high index of suspicion...
April 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
J Prinz, B Böll, M von Bergwelt, V Burst, J U Becker, D Carvalho-Fiel, A Shimabukuro-Vornhagen, M Kochanek
Ethylene glycol poisoning of incidental or suicidal intention can cause life-threatening metabolic acidosis, diverse secondary damage, and even lead to death. Beside hemodialysis effective therapy consists of the administration of fomepizole and ethanol. We describe a patient after repeated ethylene glycol poisoning with high anion gap metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Using hemodialysis, with dialysate containing a specific amount of ethanol, and intravenous ethanol administration we were able to prevent severe secondary organ damage...
April 12, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
A Switlicka, B Machura, R Kruszynski, J Cano, L M Toma, F Lloret, M Julve
Three, mononuclear complexes of the formula [Co(bmim)2(SCN)2] (1), [Co(bmim)2(NCO)2] (2) and [Co(bmim)2(N3)2] (3) [bmim = 1-benzyl-2-methylimidazole] were prepared and structurally analyzed by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The cobalt(ii) ions in 1-3 are tetrahedrally coordinated with two bmim molecules and two pseudohalide anions. The angular distortion parameter δ was calculated and the SHAPE program (based on the CShM concept) was used for 1-3 to estimate the angular distortion from an ideal tetrahedron...
April 12, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Nora Chokr, Hafsa Farooq, Elizabeth Guadalupe
Background: Anti-PD-1 agents were approved for advanced melanoma after the landmark trial Checkmate-037. Anti-PD-1 agents can breach immunologic tolerance. Fulminant diabetes is an immune endocrinopathy that results from a violent immune attack leading to complete destruction of pancreatic beta cells in genetically predisposed people. We present a rare case of fulminant diabetes precipitated by anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. Case: A 61-year-old male with advanced melanoma presented with a three-day history of nausea, vomiting, and malaise...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Ali A Zaied, Halis K Akturk, Richard W Joseph, Augustine S Lee
Nivolumab, a monoclonal antibody against programmed cell death-1 receptor, is increasingly used in advanced cancers. While nivolumab use enhances cancer therapy, it is associated with increased immune-related adverse events. We describe an elderly man who presented in ketoacidosis after receiving nivolumab for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. On presentation, he was hyperpneic and laboratory analyses showed hyperglycemia and anion-gapped metabolic acidosis consistent with diabetic ketoacidosis. No other precipitating factors, besides nivolumab, were identified...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Jiri Hlusicka, Tomas Loster, Lucie Lischkova, Manuela Vaneckova, Zdenek Seidl, Pavel Diblik, Pavel Kuthan, Pavel Urban, Tomas Navratil, Petr Kacer, Sergey Zakharov
CONTEXT: The role of activation of lipid peroxidation in the mechanisms of acute methanol poisoning has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: We measured the concentrations of lipid peroxidation markers in acutely intoxicated patients with known serum concentrations of methanol and leukotrienes. METHODS: Blood serum samples were collected from 28 patients hospitalized with acute intoxication and from 36 survivors 2 years after discharge. In these samples, concentrations of 4-hydroxy-trans-2-hexenal (HHE), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured using the method of liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry...
April 2, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Runbo Song, Shanjin Cao
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic crises occur most often in patients with type 1 diabetes and occasionally in type 2 diabetes, especially under stressful conditions. However, a diabetic crisis occurring directly from prediabetes is an unusual phenomenon. CASE REPORT: A 45-year-old woman presented with postprandial left upper quadrant abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. She had a past medical history of prediabetes with impaired fasting glucose and HbA1c 6.4%. On admission, routine laboratory tests showed high anion gap metabolic acidosis (pH 6...
March 29, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
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