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Anion gap

Monique Mostert, Anthony Bonavia
BACKGROUND Besides providing anesthesia for surgery, the anesthesiologist's role is to optimize the patient for surgery and for post-surgical recovery. This involves timely identification and treatment of medical comorbidities and abnormal laboratory values that could complicate the patient's perioperative course. There are several potential causes of anion and non-anion gap metabolic acidosis in surgical patients, most of which could profoundly affect a patient's surgical outcome. Thus, the presence of an acute acid-base disturbance requires a thorough workup, the results of which will influence the patient's anesthetic management...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Martin Kimmel, Mark Dominik Alscher
The regulation of the acid-base balance and pH is critical for the organism. The most important buffer system is CO2 / HCO3(-). The kidney controls systemic bicarbonate and therefore the metabolic regulation and the lung is relevant for respiratory regulation by an effective CO2 elimination. There are four acid-base disorders with two metabolic and two respiratory disorders (acidosis and alkalosis). The anion gap enables a further workup of metabolic acidosis.
October 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Carolina López, Andrés José Alcaraz, Blanca Toledo, Lucía Cortejoso, Maite Augusta Gil-Ruiz
OBJECTIVE: Patients in PICUs frequently present hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis secondary to loop diuretic treatment, especially those undergoing cardiac surgery. This study evaluates the effectiveness of acetazolamide therapy for metabolic alkalosis in PICU patients. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study. SETTING: A tertiary care children's hospital PICU. PATIENTS: Children receiving at least a 2-day course of enteral acetazolamide...
September 29, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Balakrishna Ananthoju, Jeotikanta Mohapatra, Manoj K Jangid, D Bahadur, N V Medhekar, M Aslam
Cations and anions are replaced with Fe, Mn, and Se in CZTS in order to control the formations of the secondary phase, the band gap, and the micro structure of Cu2ZnSnS4. We demonstrate a simplified synthesis strategy for a range of quaternary chalcogenide nanoparticles such as Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS), Cu2FeSnS4 (CFTS), Cu2MnSnS4 (CMTS), Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe), and Cu2ZnSn(S0.5Se0.5)4 (CZTSSe) by thermolysis of metal chloride precursors using long chain amine molecules. It is observed that the crystal structure, band gap and micro structure of the CZTS thin films are affected by the substitution of anion/cations...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
E Fabian, L Kramer, F Siebert, C Högenauer, R B Raggam, H Wenzl, G J Krejs
D-lactic acidosis is a rare complication that occurs mainly in patients with malabsorption due to a surgically altered gastrointestinal tract anatomy, namely in short bowel syndrome or after bariatric surgery. It is characterized by rapid development of neurological symptoms and severe metabolic acidosis, often with a high serum anion gap. Malabsorbed carbohydrates can be fermented by colonic microbiota capable of producing D-lactic acid. Routine clinical assessment of serum lactate covers only L-lactic acid; when clinical suspicion for D-lactic acidosis is high, special assays for D-lactic acid are called for...
October 10, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Tory J Andrews, Robert D Cox, Christina Parker, James Kolb
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor medications are a class of antihyperglycemic agents that increase urinary glucose excretion by interfering with the reabsorption of glucose in the proximal renal tubules. In May of 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration released a warning concerning a potential increased risk of ketoacidosis and ketosis in patients taking these medications. CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 57-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking a combination of canagliflozin and metformin who presented with progressive altered mental status over the previous 2 days...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Kinga Westphal, Konrad Skotnicki, Krzysztof Bobrowski, Janusz Rak
The radiolysis of deoxygenated aqueous solution containing trimeric oligonucleotides labelled with iodinated pyrimidines and Tris-HCl as the hydroxyl radical scavenger leads to electron attachment to the halogenated bases that mainly results in single strand breaks. The iodinated trimers are 2-fold more sensitive to solvated electrons than the brominated oligonucleotides, which is explained by the barrier-free dissociation of the iodinated base anions. The present study fills the literature gap concerning the chemistry triggered by ionizing radiation in the iodinated pyrimidines incorporated into DNA...
October 4, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Xiaodong Xing, Jingjing Wang, Xiaoyu Kuang, Xinxin Xia, Cheng Lu, George Maroulis
The effect of Mg doping on the growth behavior and the electronic properties of aluminum clusters has been investigated theoretically using the CALYPSO (Crystal structure AnaLYsis by Particle Swarm Optimization) method in combination with density functional theory calculations. Compared to pure aluminum clusters, the structure of Mg-doped clusters shows the charming transformation with increasing atomic number. The photoelectron spectra (PES) of the global minima of anionic Aln and AlnMg (n = 3-20) clusters have been calculated based on the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) method...
September 21, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Marcin A Majewski, Yongseok Hong, Tadeusz Lis, Janusz Gregoliński, Piotr J Chmielewski, Joanna Cybińska, Dongho Kim, Marcin Stępień
Octulene, the higher homologue of kekulene and septulene, was synthesized using the fold-in method. This new hydrocarbon macrocycle contains a large 24-membered inner circuit, which is peripherally fused to 24 benzene rings. Such an arrangement produces considerable hyperbolic distortion of the π-conjugated surface. The consequences of distortion in octulene were explored using photophysical methods, which revealed a reduced electronic band gap and greater flexibility of the π system. Octulene contains a functional cavity with a diameter larger than 5...
October 6, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Monika Rak, Anna Ochałek, Ewa Bielecka, Joanna Latasiewicz, Katarzyna Gawarecka, Jolanta Sroka, Jarosław Czyż, Katarzyna Piwowarczyk, Marek Masnyk, Marek Chmielewski, Tadeusz Chojnacki, Ewa Swiezewska, Zbigniew Madeja
BACKGROUND: One of the major challenges limiting development of gene therapy is absence of efficient and safe gene carriers. Among the non-viral gene delivery methods, lipofection is considered as one of the most promising. In this study a set of cationic polyprenyl derivatives (trimethylpolyprenylammonium iodides - PTAI) with different lengths of polyprenyl chains (from 7, 8 and 11 to 15 isoprene units) was suggested as a component of efficient DNA vehicles. METHODS: Optimization studies were conducted for PTAI in combination with co-lipid DOPE (dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine) on DU145 human prostate cancer cells using: size and zeta potential measurements, confocal microscopy, fluorescein diacetate/ethidium bromide test, cell counting, time-lapse monitoring of cell movement, gap junctional intracellular coupling analysis, antimicrobial activity assay, red blood cell hemolysis test...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Gene Medicine
Ryan S Gerrity, Anthony F Pizon, Andrew M King, Kenneth D Katz, Nathan B Menke
BACKGROUND: Alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA) is a complex syndrome that results from disrupted metabolism in the setting of excessive alcohol use and poor oral intake. Dehydration, glycogen depletion, high redox state, and release of stress hormones are the primary factors producing the characteristic anion gap metabolic acidosis with an elevated β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OH) and lactate. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 47-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with metabolic acidosis and profoundly elevated lactate levels who had AKA...
October 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Arun Sankaralingam, Annette Thomas, David James, Anthony S Wierzbicki
BACKGROUND: Ethylene glycol (EG) poisoning remains a rare but important presentation to acute toxicology units. Guidelines recommended that Ethylene Glycol should be available as an 'urgent' test within 4 hours but these are difficult to deliver in practice. This study assessed a semi-quantitative enzymatic spectrophotometric assay for EG compatible with automated platforms. METHODS: The EG method was assessed in 21 samples from patients with an increased anion gap and metabolic acidosis not due to EG ingestion, and 7 samples known to contain EG...
September 28, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Qian Wang, Xianya Liao, Wenqian Xu, Yang Ren, Kenneth J Livi, Mengqiang Zhu
Layered manganese (Mn) oxides, such as birnessite, are versatile materials in industrial applications and common minerals mediating elemental cycling in natural environment. Many of birnessite properties are controlled by Mn(III) concentration and particle sizes. Thus, it is important to synthesize birnessite nanoparticles with controlled Mn(III) concentrations and sizes so that one can tune its properties for many applications. Birnessite was synthesized in the presence of oxyanions (phosphate, silicate, or sulfate) during reductive precipitation of KMnO4 by HCl and characterized using multiple synchrotron X-ray techniques, electron microscopy, and diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy...
October 17, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Svetlana V Kilina, Patrick K Tamukong, Dmitri S Kilin
Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are near-ideal nanomaterials for energy conversion and lighting technologies. However, their photophysics exhibits supreme sensitivity to surface passivation and defects, of which control is problematic. The role of passivating ligands in photodynamics remains questionable and is a focus of ongoing research. The optically forbidden nature of surface-associated states makes direct measurements on them challenging. Therefore, computational modeling is imperative for insights into surface passivation and its impact on light-driven processes in QDs...
October 18, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
João Manoel Silva, Amanda Maria Ribas Rosa de Oliveira, Fernando Augusto Mendes Nogueira, Pedro M M Vianna, Cristina Prata Amendola, Maria José Carvalho Carmona, Luiz M Sá Malbouisson
BACKGROUND: Metabolic acidosis frequently is present in surgical patients; however, different types of metabolic acidosis (hyperlactatemia, hyperchloremia, and others) may have different relationships to perioperative outcomes. We hypothesized that in postoperative surgical patients, distinctive types of metabolic acidosis would correlate differently with the outcomes of high-risk surgeries. METHODS: A prospective, multicenter observational study was performed in 3 different tertiary care hospitals...
September 16, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Richard Hollander, Geert Mortier, Koen van Hoeck
: Hyperkalemia in young children is a rare phenomenon and in many cases caused by hemolysis in the specimen due to difficulties in obtaining a sample. However, hyperkalemia can also be a sign of a rare Mendelian syndrome known as familial hyperkalemic hypertension or pseudohypoaldosteronism type II. This disease is characterized by hyperkalemia, hypertension, and mild hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis (with normal anion gap) despite normal glomerular filtration. Full recovery of these abnormalities with thiazide diuretics is essential not to miss the diagnosis of this syndrome...
September 17, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Debiprasad Mondal, Manoranjan Bar, Shruti Mukherjee, Sujoy Baitalik
In this work we report synthesis and characterization of three rigid and linear rodlike monometallic Ru(II) complexes based on a terpyridine ligand tightly connected to 9,10-anthraquinone electron-acceptor unit through phenyl-imidazole spacer. The motivation of designing these complexes is to enhance their excited-state lifetimes at room temperature. Interestingly it is found that all three complexes exhibit luminescence at room temperature with excited-state lifetimes in the range of 1.6-52.8 ns, depending upon the coligand as well as the solvent...
October 3, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
S Balachandar, M Sethuram, P Muthuraja, T Shanmugavadivu, M Dhandapani
Biologically active Lewis acid-base compound, pyrazolium 3-nitro phthalate (P3NP) has been synthesized and crystallized by slow evaporation - solution method at 30°C. Spectral and single crystal X-Ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the compound. The stability of the P3NP was confirmed by UV-Visible spectral analysis. P3NP crystallizes in monoclinic P21/C space group with cell parameters, a=13.009 (3) Å, b=12.584 (3) Å, c=7.529 (18) Å and β=93.052 (4)(o) with Z=4. Crystal packing was stabilized by N(+)H⋯O(-), OH⋯O and CH⋯O intermolecular hydrogen bonds...
October 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Srinivas Agurla, Agepati S Raghavendra
Dynamic regulation of stomatal aperture is essential for plants to optimize water use and CO2 uptake. Stomatal opening or closure is accompanied by the modulation of guard cell turgor. Among the events leading to stomatal closure by plant hormones or microbial elicitors, three signaling components stand out as the major converging points. These are reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytosolic free Ca(2+), and ion channels. Once formed, the ROS and free Ca(2+) of guard cells regulate both downstream and upstream events...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Tatiana B Emelina, Alexandra Ya Freidzon, Alexander A Bagaturyants, Vladimir E Karasev
The structure and ligand-localized excited states of [Eu(cfqH) (cfq)(H2O)4]Cl2 (cfqH is ciprofloxacin) are studied by XMCQDPT2/CASSCF with full geometry optimization. The complex includes one anionic and one zwitterionic ligand. Two low-lying triplet states, both localized on the anionic ligand, are found. One of them has sufficient energy to transfer to the (5)D1 sublevel of Eu(3+), because its T-S0 vertical transition energy is equal (or very close) to the (7)F0-(5)D1 Eu(3+) excitation energy. The other triplet state has a very small S0-T1 gap, which favors fast nonradiative relaxation...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
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