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G H Callejas, R L Figueira, F L L Gonçalves, F A P Volpe, A W Zuardi, J A Crippa, J E Hallak, L Sbragia
Gastroschisis (GS) is an abdominal wall defect that results in histological and morphological changes leading to intestinal motility perturbation and impaired absorption of nutrients. Due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects, cannabidiol (CBD) has been used as a therapeutic agent in many diseases. Our aim was to test the effect of maternal CBD in the intestine of an experimental model of GS. Pregnant rats were treated over 3 days with CBD (30 mg/kg) after the surgical induction of GS (day 18...
March 15, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Melanie Laura Lawrence, James R Smith, Jamie Andrew Davies
The mesonephros of mammals is a transient renal structure that contributes to various aspects of mammalian fetal development including the male reproductive system, hematopoietic stem cells and vascular endothelial cells. The mesonephros develops from the intermediate mesoderm and forms tubules that are segmented in a similar way to the nephrons of the permanent kidney (but lacking loops of Henle). Early studies have suggested that the mesonephros in marsupials and some placental mammals may perform an excretory function, but these studies have not directly shown active transport of organic anions and cations...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Carlos E Cardenas, Rachel E McCarroll, Laurence E Court, Baher A Elgohari, Hesham Elhalawani, Clifton D Fuller, Mona J Kamal, Mohamed A M Meheissen, Abdallah S R Mohamed, Arvind Rao, Bowman Williams, Andrew Wong, Jinzhong Yang, Michalis Aristophanous
PURPOSE: Automating and standardizing the contouring of clinical target volumes (CTVs) can reduce interphysician variability, which is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in head and neck radiation therapy. In addition to using uniform margin expansions to auto-delineate high-risk CTVs, very little work has been performed to provide patient- and disease-specific high-risk CTVs. The aim of the present study was to develop a deep neural network for the auto-delineation of high-risk CTVs...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Andrea Ciavattini, Giovanni Delli Carpini, Lorenzo Moriconi, Nicolò Clemente, Nina Montik, Rosa De Vincenzo, Anna Del Fabro, Monica Buttignol, Caterina Ricci, Francesca Moro, Francesco Sopracordevole
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate cervical regeneration at 6 months following excisional treatment for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and to investigate the effect of cone dimensions, age of patients and technique of excision on the efficacy of the regeneration process. DESIGN: Prospective observational multicentric study. SETTING: Three tertiary care and research centres. PARTICIPANTS: Among the 197 eligible women of childbearing age, older than 25 years of age, undergoing for the first time a loop electrosurgical excision procedure or carbon dioxide laser cervical excision for a high-grade CIN at the colposcopy-directed cervical punch biopsy, and with a final diagnosis of high-grade CIN, 165 completed the 6-month follow-up and were included in the analysis...
March 19, 2018: BMJ Open
Nivedita Rai, R Muthukumaran, R Amutha
The HtrA protease of Helicobacter pylori, which efficiently colonizes at the gastric epithelial of host cells, disrupts the mucosal integrity of E-cadherin and spreads inflammatory diseases including gastric cancer by cleaving the cell-cell adhesion of the host. The lack of knowledge on the molecular diversity, structural and functional behavior of HpHtrA necessitated the present study to explore its inhibition mechanism. At first, the similarity of HpHtrA with other gastro-intestinal pathogenic HtrA bacteria and its remote relationship with the Human HtrA homologs were ensured by the phylogenetic analysis and hence was identified as a novel therapeutic target for further design of inhibitors...
March 16, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Jeanine F Amacher, Fangfang Zhong, George P Lisi, Michael Q Zhu, Stephanie L Alden, Kevin R Hoke, Dean R Madden, Ekaterina V Pletneva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Moran Gilat, Ana Lígia Silva de Lima, Bastiaan R Bloem, James M Shine, Jorik Nonnekes, Simon J G Lewis
Freezing of gait is a devastating symptom of Parkinson's disease and other forms of parkinsonism. It poses a major burden on both patients and their families, as freezing often leads to falls, fall-related injuries and a loss of independence. Treating freezing of gait is difficult for a variety of reasons: it has a paroxysmal and unpredictable nature; a multifaceted pathophysiology, with an interplay between motor elements (disturbed stepping mechanisms) and non-motor elements (cognitive decline, anxiety); and a complex (and likely heterogeneous) underlying neural substrate, involving multiple failing neural networks...
March 12, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Daniela Fera, Matthew S Lee, Kevin Wiehe, R Ryan Meyerhoff, Alessandro Piai, Mattia Bonsignori, Baptiste Aussedat, William E Walkowicz, Therese Ton, Jeffrey O Zhou, Samuel Danishefsky, Barton F Haynes, Stephen C Harrison
HIV-1 envelope (Env) mimetics are candidate components of prophylactic vaccines and potential therapeutics. Here we use a synthetic V3-glycopeptide ("Man9 -V3") for structural studies of an HIV Env third variable loop (V3)-glycan directed, broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) lineage ("DH270"), to visualize the epitope on Env and to study how affinity maturation of the lineage proceeded. Unlike many previous V3 mimetics, Man9 -V3 encompasses two key features of the V3 region recognized by V3-glycan bnAbs-the conserved GDIR motif and the N332 glycan...
March 16, 2018: Nature Communications
(no author information available yet)
Transcriptional dysregulation promotes R-loops and impairs homologous recombination in Ewing sarcoma.
March 16, 2018: Cancer Discovery
Jeliazko R Jeliazkov, Adnan Sljoka, Daisuke Kuroda, Nobuyuki Tsuchimura, Naoki Katoh, Kouhei Tsumoto, Jeffrey J Gray
Antibodies can rapidly evolve in specific response to antigens. Affinity maturation drives this evolution through cycles of mutation and selection leading to enhanced antibody specificity and affinity. Elucidating the biophysical mechanisms that underlie affinity maturation is fundamental to understanding B-cell immunity. An emergent hypothesis is that affinity maturation reduces the conformational flexibility of the antibody's antigen-binding paratope to minimize entropic losses incurred upon binding. In recent years, computational and experimental approaches have tested this hypothesis on a small number of antibodies, often observing a decrease in the flexibility of the complementarity determining region (CDR) loops that typically comprise the paratope and in particular the CDR-H3 loop, which contributes a plurality of antigen contacts...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
E A R Engku Nur Syafirah, A B Nurul Najian, Phiaw Chong Foo, Mohammad Ridhuan Mohd Ali, Maizan Mohamed, Chan Yean Yean
Cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae is a foodborne disease that frequently reported in food and water related outbreak. Rapid diagnosis of cholera infection is important to avoid potential spread of disease. Among available diagnostic platforms, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is regarded as a potential diagnostic tool due to its rapidity, high sensitivity and specificity and independent of sophisticated thermalcycler. However, the current LAMP often requires multiple pipetting steps, hence is susceptible to cross contamination...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
N Fayard, A Goetschy, R Pierrat, R Carminati
We study theoretically the mutual information between reflected and transmitted speckle patterns produced by wave scattering from disordered media. The mutual information between the two speckle images recorded on an array of N detection points (pixels) takes the form of long-range intensity correlation loops that we evaluate explicitly as a function of the disorder strength and the Thouless number g. Our analysis, supported by extensive numerical simulations, reveals a competing effect of cross-sample and surface spatial correlations...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
W Su, Y Guo, R Erdélyi, Z J Ning, M D Ding, X Cheng, B L Tan
Coronal loops exist ubiquitously in the solar atmosphere. These loops puzzle astronomers over half a century. Solar magneto-seismology (SMS) provides a unique way to constrain the physical parameters of coronal loops. Here, we study the evolution of oscillations of a coronal loop observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). We measure geometric and physical parameters of the loop oscillations. In particular, we find that the mean period of the oscillations increased from 1048 to 1264 s during three oscillatory cycles...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Paul D Marasco, Jacqueline S Hebert, Jon W Sensinger, Courtney E Shell, Jonathon S Schofield, Zachary C Thumser, Raviraj Nataraj, Dylan T Beckler, Michael R Dawson, Dan H Blustein, Satinder Gill, Brett D Mensh, Rafael Granja-Vazquez, Madeline D Newcomb, Jason P Carey, Beth M Orzell
To effortlessly complete an intentional movement, the brain needs feedback from the body regarding the movement's progress. This largely nonconscious kinesthetic sense helps the brain to learn relationships between motor commands and outcomes to correct movement errors. Prosthetic systems for restoring function have predominantly focused on controlling motorized joint movement. Without the kinesthetic sense, however, these devices do not become intuitively controllable. We report a method for endowing human amputees with a kinesthetic perception of dexterous robotic hands...
March 14, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Cecilia Siliansky de Andreazzi, Paulo R Guimarães, Carlos J Melián
Studies have shown the potential for rapid adaptation in coevolving populations and that the structure of species interaction networks can modulate the vulnerability of ecological systems to perturbations. Although the feedback loop between population dynamics and coevolution of traits is crucial for understanding long-term stability in ecological assemblages, modelling eco-evolutionary dynamics in species-rich assemblages is still a challenge. We explore how eco-evolutionary feedbacks influence trait evolution and species abundances in 23 empirical antagonistic networks...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Uma Mahesh R Avula, Jonathan J Hernandez, Masatoshi Yamazaki, Carmen R Valdivia, Antony Chu, Alvaro Rojas-Pena, Kuljeet Kaur, Roberto Ramos-Mondragón, Justus M Anumonwo, Stanley Nattel, Héctor H Valdivia, Jérôme Kalifa
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying spontaneous atrial fibrillation (AF) associated with atrial ischemia/infarction are incompletely elucidated. Here, we investigate the mechanisms underlying spontaneous AF in an ovine model of left atrial myocardial infarction (LAMI). METHODS AND RESULTS: LAMI was created by ligating the atrial branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery. ECG loop recorders were implanted to monitor AF episodes. In 7 sheep, dantrolene-a ryanodine receptor blocker-was administered in vivo during the 8-day observation period (LAMI-D, 2...
March 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Wan Peng, Yan Sun, Gao-Fei Li, Liang-Ge He, Ruo-Zhu Li, Yao-Si Liang, Xu Ding, Xue Yu, Yong Zhang, Hao-Ran Lin, Dan-Qi Lu
Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a Th1 cytokine that is critical for innate and adaptive immunity. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling pathways are critical in early host defense against invading pathogens. miR-146a has been reported to participate in the regulation of host immunity. The known mechanisms of integrations between the IFNγ and TLR signaling pathways are incompletely understood, especially in teleosts. In this study, orange-spotted grouper ( Epinephelus coioides ) IFNγ1 and IFNγ2, their biological activities, especially their involvements in TLR pathway, were explored...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Zoe A Stewart, Malgorzata E Wilinska, Sara Hartnell, Leanne K O'Neil, Gerry Rayman, Eleanor M Scott, Katharine Barnard, Conor Farrington, Roman Hovorka, Helen R Murphy
OBJECTIVE: Despite advances in technology, optimal glucose control remains elusive and neonatal complications ubiquitous in type 1 diabetes (T1D) pregnancy. Our aim was to examine the safety, efficacy, and longer-term feasibility of day-and-night closed-loop insulin delivery. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We recruited 16 pregnant women (mean [SD]: age 32.8 [5.0] years, T1D duration 19.4 [10.2] years, HbA1c 8.0% [1.1%], BMI 26.6 [4.4] kg/m2 ) to an open-label, randomized, crossover trial...
March 13, 2018: Diabetes Care
Patrick D Ganzer, Michael J Darrow, Eric C Meyers, Bleyda R Solorzano, Andrea D Ruiz, Nicole M Robertson, Katherine S Adcock, Justin T James, Han S Jeong, April M Becker, Mark P Goldberg, David T Pruitt, Seth A Hays, Michael P Kilgard, Robert L Rennaker
Recovery from serious neurological injury requires substantial rewiring of neural circuits. Precisely-timed electrical stimulation could be used to restore corrective feedback mechanisms and promote adaptive plasticity after neurological insult, such as spinal cord injury (SCI) or stroke. This study provides the first evidence that closed-loop vagus nerve stimulation (CLV) based on the synaptic eligibility trace leads to dramatic recovery from the most common forms of SCI. The addition of CLV to rehabilitation promoted substantially more recovery of forelimb function compared to rehabilitation alone following chronic unilateral or bilateral cervical SCI in a rat model...
March 13, 2018: ELife
Naoya Yamaguchi, Shinya Anraku, Erwan Paineau, Cyrus R Safinya, Patrick Davidson, Laurent J Michot, Nobuyoshi Miyamoto
Exploring the interaction of nucleic acids with clay minerals is important to understand such issues as the persistence in soils of biomolecules and the appearance of genetic polymers in prebiotic environments. Colloidal dispersions of double stranded DNA and clay nanosheets may also provide interesting model systems to study the statistical physics of mixtures of semi-flexible rods and plates. Here, we show that adding very small amounts of DNA to liquid-crystalline montmorillonite and beidellite smectite clay suspensions strongly widens the isotropic/nematic phase coexistence region...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
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