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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817805/ltp-at-hilar-mossy-cell-dentate-granule-cell-synapses-modulates-dentate-gyrus-output-by-increasing-excitation-inhibition-balance
#1
Yuki Hashimotodani, Kaoutsar Nasrallah, Kyle R Jensen, Andrés E Chávez, Daniel Carrera, Pablo E Castillo
Excitatory hilar mossy cells (MCs) in the dentate gyrus receive inputs from dentate granule cells (GCs) and project back to GCs locally, contralaterally, and along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus, thereby establishing an associative positive-feedback loop and connecting functionally diverse hippocampal areas. MCs also synapse with GABAergic interneurons that mediate feed-forward inhibition onto GCs. Surprisingly, although these circuits have been implicated in both memory formation (e.g., pattern separation) and temporal lobe epilepsy, little is known about activity-dependent plasticity of their synaptic connections...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814058/towards-an-ankle-neuroprosthesis-for-hybrid-robotics-concepts-and-current-sources-for-functional-electrical-stimulation
#2
S Casco, I Fuster, R Galeano, J C Moreno, J L Pons, F Brunetti
Hybrid rehabilitation robotics combine neuro-prosthetic devices (close-loop functional electrical stimulation systems) and traditional robotic structures and actuators to explore better therapies and promote a more efficient motor function recovery or compensation. Although hybrid robotics and ankle neuroprostheses (NPs) have been widely developed over the last years, there are just few studies on the use of NPs to electrically control both ankle flexion and extension to promote ankle recovery and improved gait patterns in paretic limbs...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813928/difficulty-adaptation-in-a-competitive-arm-rehabilitation-game-using-real-time-control-of-arm-electromyogram-and-respiration
#3
A Darzi, M Gorsic, D Novak
Rehabilitation robots are often combined with serious games that motivate patients and keep them exercising at high intensities. A promising type of game are competitive rehabilitation games, but few difficulty adaptation algorithms have been presented for them. This paper thus presents the adaptation of difficulty in a competitive arm rehabilitation game based on two physiological signals: respiration and electromyography of the posterior deltoid. It consists of three smaller studies: an open-loop respiration study, a closed-loop respiration study (where a controller attempts to maintain respiration rate at preset levels), and a closed-loop electromyogram study (where a controller attempts to keep the electromyogram at preset levels)...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813418/mechanism-of-intracellular-allosteric-%C3%AE-2ar-antagonist-revealed-by-x-ray-crystal-structure
#4
Xiangyu Liu, Seungkirl Ahn, Alem W Kahsai, Kai-Cheng Meng, Naomi R Latorraca, Biswaranjan Pani, A J Venkatakrishnan, Ali Masoudi, William I Weis, Ron O Dror, Xin Chen, Robert J Lefkowitz, Brian K Kobilka
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) pose challenges for drug discovery efforts because of the high degree of structural homology in the orthosteric pocket, particularly for GPCRs within a single subfamily, such as the nine adrenergic receptors. Allosteric ligands may bind to less-conserved regions of these receptors and therefore are more likely to be selective. Unlike orthosteric ligands, which tonically activate or inhibit signalling, allosteric ligands modulate physiologic responses to hormones and neurotransmitters, and may therefore have fewer adverse effects...
August 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813160/a-strain-driven-antiferroelectric-to-ferroelectric-phase-transition-in-la-doped-bifeo3-thin-films-on-si
#5
Deyang Chen, Christopher T Nelson, Xiaohong Zhu, Claudy R Serrao, James D Clarkson, Zhe Wang, Ya Gao, Shang-Lin Hsu, Liv R Dedon, Zuhuang Chen, Di Yi, Heng-Jui Liu, Dechang Zeng, Ying-Hao Chu, Jian Liu, Darrell G Schlom, Ramamoorthy Ramesh
A strain-driven orthorhombic (O) to rhombohedral (R) phase transition is reported in La-doped BiFeO3 thin films on silicon substrates. Biaxial compressive epitaxial strain is found to stabilize the rhombohedral phase at La concentrations beyond the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). By tailoring the residual strain with film thickness, we demonstrate a mixed O/R phase structure consisting of O phase domains measuring tens of nanometers wide within a predominant R phase matrix. A combination of piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), polarization-electric field hysteresis loop (P-E loop), and polarization maps reveal that the O-R structural change is an antiferroelectric to ferroelectric (AFE-FE) phase transition...
August 17, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813015/transcriptional-responses-of-creeping-bentgrass-to-2-3-butanediol-a-bacterial-volatile-compound-bvc-analogue
#6
Yi Shi, Kuiju Niu, Bingru Huang, Wenhui Liu, Huiling Ma
Bacterial volatile compounds (BVCs) have been reported to enhance plant growth and elicit plant defenses against fungal infection and insect damage. The objective of this study was to determine transcriptomic changes in response to synthetic BVC that could be associated with plant resistance to Rhizoctonia solani in creeping bentgrass. The 2,3-butanediol (BD) (250 µM) was sprayed on creeping bentgrass leaves grown in jam jars. The result showed that synthetic BD induced plant defense against R. solani for creeping bentgrass...
August 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811555/identification-of-novel-micrornas-in-the-sheep-heart-and-their-regulation-in-heart-failure
#7
Lee Lee Wong, Miriam T Rademaker, Eng Leng Saw, Kar Sheng Lew, Leigh J Ellmers, Christopher J Charles, Arthur Mark Richards, Peipei Wang
Study of microRNA (miRNAs) using sheep models is limited due to lack of miRNA information. We therefore investigated oar-miRNAs and their regulation in an ovine model of heart failure (HF). Left ventricular (LV) tissue was collected from normal (Cont), HF (LV pacing @ ~220bpm for 13-days) and HF-recovery sheep (HF-R, 26-days after pacing cessation). MiRNA expression was profiled using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and miRNA array, and validated by stem-loop qPCR. Detected sequences were mapped against the ovine genome (Oar v4...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811374/recruitment-of-crispr-cas-systems-by-tn7-like-transposons
#8
Joseph E Peters, Kira S Makarova, Sergey Shmakov, Eugene V Koonin
A survey of bacterial and archaeal genomes shows that many Tn7-like transposons contain minimal type I-F CRISPR-Cas systems that consist of fused cas8f and cas5f, cas7f, and cas6f genes and a short CRISPR array. Several small groups of Tn7-like transposons encompass similarly truncated type I-B CRISPR-Cas. This minimal gene complement of the transposon-associated CRISPR-Cas systems implies that they are competent for pre-CRISPR RNA (precrRNA) processing yielding mature crRNAs and target binding but not target cleavage that is required for interference...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809376/inferior-alveolar-nerve-trajectory-mental-foramen-location-and-incidence-of-mental-nerve-anterior-loop
#9
M Velasco-Torres, M Padial-Molina, G Avila-Ortiz, R García-Delgado, A Catena, P Galindo-Moreno
OBJECTIVES: Injury of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) is a serious intraoperative complication that may occur during routine surgical procedures, such as dental implant placement or extraction of impacted teeth. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the trajectory of the mandibular canal (MC), the location of the mental foramen (MF) and the presence and extension of an anterior loop of the mental nerve (AL). STUDY DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 348 CBCTs were analyzed...
August 15, 2017: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808029/elucidating-crosstalk-mechanisms-between-phosphorylation-and-o-glcnacylation
#10
Aneika C Leney, Dris El Atmioui, Wei Wu, Huib Ovaa, Albert J R Heck
Proteins can be modified by multiple posttranslational modifications (PTMs), creating a PTM code that controls the function of proteins in space and time. Unraveling this complex PTM code is one of the great challenges in molecular biology. Here, using mass spectrometry-based assays, we focus on the most common PTMs-phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation-and investigate how they affect each other. We demonstrate two generic crosstalk mechanisms. First, we define a frequently occurring, very specific and stringent phosphorylation/O-GlcNAcylation interplay motif, (pSp/T)P(V/A/T)(gS/gT), whereby phosphorylation strongly inhibits O-GlcNAcylation...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807998/immunogenicity-and-structures-of-a-rationally-designed-prefusion-mers-cov-spike-antigen
#11
Jesper Pallesen, Nianshuang Wang, Kizzmekia S Corbett, Daniel Wrapp, Robert N Kirchdoerfer, Hannah L Turner, Christopher A Cottrell, Michelle M Becker, Lingshu Wang, Wei Shi, Wing-Pui Kong, Erica L Andres, Arminja N Kettenbach, Mark R Denison, James D Chappell, Barney S Graham, Andrew B Ward, Jason S McLellan
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a lineage C betacoronavirus that since its emergence in 2012 has caused outbreaks in human populations with case-fatality rates of ∼36%. As in other coronaviruses, the spike (S) glycoprotein of MERS-CoV mediates receptor recognition and membrane fusion and is the primary target of the humoral immune response during infection. Here we use structure-based design to develop a generalizable strategy for retaining coronavirus S proteins in the antigenically optimal prefusion conformation and demonstrate that our engineered immunogen is able to elicit high neutralizing antibody titers against MERS-CoV...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807671/selective-inhibition-of-extra-synaptic-%C3%AE-5-gabaa-receptors-by-s44819-a-new-therapeutic-agent
#12
Lori-An Etherington, Balázs Mihalik, Adrienn Pálvölgyi, István Ling, Katalin Pallagi, Szabolcs Kertész, Péter Varga, Ben G Gunn, Adam R Brown, Matthew R Livesey, Olivia Monteiro, Delia Belelli, József Barkóczy, Michael Spedding, István Gacsályi, Ferenc A Antoni, Jeremy J Lambert
In the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) GABAA receptors (GABAARs) mediate neuronal inhibition and are important therapeutic targets. GABAARs are composed of 5 subunits, drawn from 19 proteins, underpinning expression of 20-30 GABAAR subtypes. In the CNS these isoforms are heterogeneously expressed and exhibit distinct physiological and pharmacological properties. We report the discovery of S44819, a novel tricyclic oxazolo-2,3-benzodiazepine-derivative, that selectively inhibits α5-subunit-containing GABAARs (α5-GABAARs)...
August 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805831/elucidating-screw-dislocation-driven-film-formation-of-sodium-thiosulphate-with-complex-hierarchical-molecular-assembly
#13
Deepak Dwivedi, Katerina Lepkova, Thomas Becker, Matthew R Rowles
Sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) films were synthesized on carbon steel substrates through solution deposition, and a film formation growth mechanism is delineated in detail herein. Dislocation-driven film formation took place at the lower concentration of Na2S2O3 (0.1 M) studied, where screw dislocation loops were identified. Interestingly, we observed the co-existence of screw dislocation spiral loops and hierarchically-ordered molecular assembly in the film, and showed the importance of hierarchical morphology in the origin of screw dislocation...
August 14, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803625/modified-reduced-order-observer-based-linear-active-disturbance-rejection-control-for-tito-systems
#14
S N Pawar, R H Chile, B M Patre
This paper proposes an observer based control approach for two input and two output (TITO) plant affected by the lumped disturbance which includes the undesirable effect of cross couplings, parametric uncertainties, and external disturbances. A modified reduced order extended state observer (ESO) based active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) is designed to estimate the lumped disturbance actively as an extended state and compensate its effect by adding it to the control. The decoupled mechanism has been used to determine the controller parameters, while the proposed control technique is applied to the TITO coupled plant without using decoupler to show its efficacy...
August 10, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803092/uniform-field-loop-gap-resonator-and-rectangular-teu02-for-aqueous-sample-epr-at-94ghz
#15
Jason W Sidabras, Tadeusz Sarna, Richard R Mett, James S Hyde
In this work we present the design and implementation of two uniform-field resonators: a seven-loop-six-gap loop-gap resonator (LGR) and a rectangular TEU02 cavity resonator. Each resonator has uniform-field-producing end-sections. These resonators have been designed for electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of aqueous samples at 94GHz. The LGR geometry employs low-loss Rexolite end-sections to improve the field homogeneity over a 3mm sample region-of-interest from near-cosine distribution to 90% uniform. The LGR was designed to accommodate large degassable Polytetrafluorethylen (PTFE) tubes (0...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802046/replication-transcription-conflicts-generate-r-loops-that-orchestrate-bacterial-stress-survival-and-pathogenesis
#16
Kevin S Lang, Ashley N Hall, Christopher N Merrikh, Mark Ragheb, Hannah Tabakh, Alex J Pollock, Joshua J Woodward, Julia E Dreifus, Houra Merrikh
Replication-transcription collisions shape genomes, influence evolution, and promote genetic diseases. Although unclear why, head-on transcription (lagging strand genes) is especially disruptive to replication and promotes genomic instability. Here, we find that head-on collisions promote R-loop formation in Bacillus subtilis. We show that pervasive R-loop formation at head-on collision regions completely blocks replication, elevates mutagenesis, and inhibits gene expression. Accordingly, the activity of the R-loop processing enzyme RNase HIII at collision regions is crucial for stress survival in B...
August 10, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802045/transcription-replication-conflict-orientation-modulates-r-loop-levels-and-activates-distinct-dna-damage-responses
#17
Stephan Hamperl, Michael J Bocek, Joshua C Saldivar, Tomek Swigut, Karlene A Cimprich
Conflicts between transcription and replication are a potent source of DNA damage. Co-transcriptional R-loops could aggravate such conflicts by creating an additional barrier to replication fork progression. Here, we use a defined episomal system to investigate how conflict orientation and R-loop formation influence genome stability in human cells. R-loops, but not normal transcription complexes, induce DNA breaks and orientation-specific DNA damage responses during conflicts with replication forks. Unexpectedly, the replisome acts as an orientation-dependent regulator of R-loop levels, reducing R-loops in the co-directional (CD) orientation but promoting their formation in the head-on (HO) orientation...
August 10, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802036/transcription-replication-conflicts-orientation-matters
#18
Yea-Lih Lin, Philippe Pasero
Interference between DNA replication and transcription represents a major source of genomic instability. In this issue of Cell, Lang et al. and Hamperl et al. show that head-on collisions, but not codirectional collisions, impede fork progression in bacteria and in human cells by promoting the formation of RNA-DNA hybrids known as R-loops.
August 10, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800489/polioviruses-that-bind-a-chimeric-pvr-nectin-2-protein-identify-capsid-residues-involved-in-receptor-interaction
#19
Yi Lin, Vincent R Racaniello
Amino acid changes in the C'C"D region in poliovirus receptor domain 1 disrupt poliovirus binding. To examine further the role of the C'C"D region in poliovirus infection, we substituted this region of Pvr into the corresponding region of a murine homolog, nectin-2. The chimeric receptor, nectin-2(Pvr(c'c"d)), rendered transformed L cells susceptible to infection with poliovirus P1/Mahoney, but not with polioviruses P2/Lansing and P3/Leon, due to lack of binding. Twenty-four variants of P2/Lansing were selected that replicate in nectin-2(Pvr(c'c"d)) producing cell lines...
August 8, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798962/structural-pathway-of-regulated-substrate-transfer-and-threading-through-an-hsp100-disaggregase
#20
Célia Deville, Marta Carroni, Kamila B Franke, Maya Topf, Bernd Bukau, Axel Mogk, Helen R Saibil
Refolding aggregated proteins is essential in combating cellular proteotoxic stress. Together with Hsp70, Hsp100 chaperones, including Escherichia coli ClpB, form a powerful disaggregation machine that threads aggregated polypeptides through the central pore of tandem adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) rings. To visualize protein disaggregation, we determined cryo-electron microscopy structures of inactive and substrate-bound ClpB in the presence of adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate), revealing closed AAA+ rings with a pronounced seam...
August 2017: Science Advances
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