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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155548/site-selective-rna-splicing-nanozyme-dnazyme-and-rtcb-conjugates-on-a-gold-nanoparticle
#1
Jessica R Petree, Kevin Yehl, Kornelia Galior, Roxanne Glazier, Brendan Deal, Khalid Salaita
Modifying RNA through either splicing or editing is a fundamental biological process for creating protein diversity from the same genetic code. Developing novel chemical biology tools for RNA editing has potential to transiently edit genes and to provide a better understanding of RNA biochemistry. Current techniques used to modify RNA include the use of ribozymes, adenosine deaminase and tRNA endonucleases. Herein, we report a nanozyme that is capable of splicing of virtually any RNA stem-loop. This nanozyme is comprised of a gold nanoparticle functionalized with three enzymes: two catalytic DNA strands with ribonuclease function and an RNA ligase...
November 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148821/the-effect-of-prior-continuous-glucose-monitoring-use-on-glycemic-outcomes-in-the-pivotal-trial-of-the-minimed-%C3%A2-670g-hybrid-closed-loop-system
#2
Toni L Cordero, Satish K Garg, Ronald Brazg, Timothy S Bailey, John Shin, Scott W Lee, Francine R Kaufman
A 3-month pivotal trial using the MiniMed™ 670G hybrid closed-loop (HCL) system in adolescent and adult patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), relative to a 2-week baseline run-in period, resulted in increased sensor glucose (SG) values in target range (71-180 mg/dL), reduced HbA1c levels, and no events of diabetic ketoacidosis or severe hypoglycemia ( Clinicaltrials.gov : NCT02463097). This brief report evaluated how prior continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) experience influenced glycemic outcomes, in the same pivotal trial...
November 17, 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148312/experimental-analysis-of-the-process-parameters-affecting-bone-burring-operations
#3
Jonathan R Kusins, O Remus Tutunea-Fatan, Louis M Ferreira
The experimental quantification of the process parameters associated with bone burring represents a desirable outcome both from the perspective of an optimized surgical procedure as well as that of a future implementation into the design of closed-loop controllers used in robot-assisted bone removal operations. Along these lines, the present study presents an experimental investigation of the effects that tool type, rotational speed of the tool, depth of cut, feed rate, cutting track overlap, and tool angle (to a total of 864 total unique combinations) have on bone temperature, tool vibration, and cutting forces associated with superficial bone removal operations...
November 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145633/the-initiation-propagation-and-dynamics-of-crispr-spycas9-r-loop-complex
#4
Yan Zeng, Yang Cui, Yong Zhang, Yanruo Zhang, Meng Liang, Hui Chen, Jie Lan, Guangtao Song, Jizhong Lou
CRISPR-Cas9 system has been widely used for efficient genome editing. Although the structures of Cas9 protein in complex with single-guided RNA (sgRNA) and target DNA have been resolved, the molecular details about the formation of Cas9 endonuclease R-loop structure remain elusive. Here we examine the DNA cleavage activities of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpyCas9) and its mutants using various target sequences and study the conformational dynamics of R-loop structure during target binding using single-molecule fluorescence energy transfer (smFRET) technique...
November 14, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143529/hexavalent-chromium-as-an-electrocatalyst-in-dna-sensing
#5
Hamid R Lotfi Zadeh Zhad, Rebecca Y Lai
We report for the first time the use of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) as an electrocatalyst in electrochemical DNA sensing. For both stem-loop probe and linear probe electrochemical DNA sensors, the increase in probe rigidity upon target hybridization alters the accessibility of Cr(VI) to the methylene blue label on the surface-immobilized DNA probes. This change results in an enhancement in the electrocatalytic current when the sensors are interrogated using cyclic voltammetry at a slow scan rate. The incorporation of this electrocatalyst does not affect the normal "signal-off" sensing behavior observed in alternating current voltammetry; instead it enables simultaneous "signal-on" and "signal-off" detection of the target, while maintaining noted attributes of this class of folding- and dynamics-based sensors such as reusability and high selectivity...
November 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141142/closing-the-loop-on-transition-metal-mediated-nitrogen-fixation-chemoselective-production-of-hn-sime3-2-from-n2-me3sicl-and-x-oh-x-r-r3si-or-silica-gel
#6
Leila M Duman, Lawrence R Sita
Chemical reduction of the Mo(IV) dichloride, Cp*[N(Et)C(Ph)N(Et)]MoCl2 (Cp* = η(5)-C5Me5) (1), in the presence of N2 has previously provided the dinuclear [Mo(II), Mo(II)] end-on-bridged μ-N2 complex, {Cp*[N(Et)C(Ph)N(Et)]Mo]}2(μ-η(1):η(1)-N2) (2), which, when heated in solution with Me3SiCl, provides the Mo(IV) terminal imido complex, Cp*[N(Et)C(Ph)N(Et)]Mo(NSiMe3) (3). Treatment of 3 with a 1 : 2 mixture of Me3SiOH and Me3SiCl, respectively, resulted in rapid and quantitative regeneration of 1 along with formation of one equivalent each of HN(SiMe3)2 and O(SiMe3)2...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129920/transcription-putting-r-loops-firmly-on-the-map
#7
Katharine H Wrighton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123273/in-vivo-imaging-of-the-microvasculature-of-the-soft-tissue-margins-of-osteonecrotic-jaw-lesions
#8
P Bastos, V Patel, F Festy, N Hosny, R J Cook
Introduction Given the increasing incidence of medication-related jaw osteonecrosis, and recognition of the mucosal blood supply's importance, we have developed a non-invasive Real Time Optical Vascular Imaging (RTOVI) instrument. Imaging the red blood cells within the sub-mucosal capillary networks demonstrates the microcirculatory anatomy. We report a small trial, demonstrating the technique's viability, examining mucosal microcirculatory changes adjacent to osteonecrotic lesions.Aims Imaging the microvasculature of soft tissue margins of patients' exposed necrotic bone lesions in situ was intended to provide unique observational as well as quantitative data, using an image analysis routine, based on ImageJ software...
November 10, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122663/ftir-study-of-secondary-structure-changes-in-epidermal-growth-factor-by-gold-nanoparticle-conjugation
#9
T T Bhattacharjee, M L Castilho, I R de Oliveira, V P S Jesus, K C Hewitt, L Raniero
Conformation of protein is vital to its function, but may get affected when processing to manufacture products. It is therefore important to understand structural changes during each step of production. In this study, we investigate secondary structure changes in the targeting protein Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) during synthesis of theranostic bifunctional nanoparticle, devised for Photodynamic therapy of breast cancer. We acquired FTIR spectra of EGF; unconjugated, post treatment with α-lipoic acid, attached to gold nanoparticle, and bound to the bifunctional nanoprobe...
November 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122445/a-method-for-the-topographical-identification-and-quantification-of-high-frequency-oscillations-in-intracranial-electroencephalography-recordings
#10
Zachary J Waldman, Shoichi Shimamoto, Inkyung Song, Iren Orosz, Anatol Bragin, Itzhak Fried, Jerome Engel, Richard Staba, Michael R Sperling, Shennan A Weiss
OBJECTIVE: To develop a reliable software method using a topographic analysis of time-frequency plots to distinguish ripple (80-200 Hz) oscillations that are often associated with EEG sharp waves or spikes (RonS) from sinusoid-like waveforms that appear as ripples but correspond with digital filtering of sharp transients contained in the wide bandwidth EEG. METHODS: A custom algorithm distinguished true from false ripples in one second intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings using wavelet convolution, identifying contours of isopower, and categorizing these contours into sets of open or closed loop groups...
October 21, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120166/aromatic-residues-in-the-fourth-transmembrane-spanning-helix-m4-are-important-for-gaba%C3%AF-receptor-function
#11
James Cory-Wright, Mona Alqazzaz, Francesca Wroe, Jenny Jeffreys, Lu Zhou, Sarah C R Lummis
GABAρ receptors are a subfamily of the GABAA receptor family of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs). Each of the five subunits has four transmembrane α-helices (M1-M4), with M4 most distant from the central pore. Aromatic residues in this M4 helix are important for receptor assembly in pLGICs and also may interact with adjacent lipids and/or residues in neighboring α-helices and the extracellular domain to modify or enable channel gating. This study examines the role of M4 receptor aromatic residues in the GABAρ receptor transmembrane domain using site-directed mutagenesis and subsequent expression in HEK293 cells, probing functional parameters using a fluorescent membrane-potential-sensitive dye...
November 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118338/sialidase-inhibitors-attenuate-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-model
#12
Tejas R Karhadkar, Darrell Pilling, Nehemiah Cox, Richard H Gomer
Fibrosis involves increasing amounts of scar tissue appearing in a tissue, but what drives this is unclear. In fibrotic lesions in human and mouse lungs, we found extensive desialylation of glycoconjugates, and upregulation of sialidases. The fibrosis-associated cytokine TGF-β1 upregulates sialidases in human airway epithelium cells, lung fibroblasts, and immune system cells. Conversely, addition of sialidases to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells induces accumulation of extracellular TGF-β1, forming what appears to be a sialidase - TGF-β1 - sialidase positive feedback loop...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118172/multicenter-evaluation-of-the-modified-carbapenem-inactivation-method-and-the-carba-np-for-detection-of-carbapenemase-producing-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-acinetobacter-baumannii
#13
Patricia J Simner, J Kristie Johnson, William B Brasso, Karen Anderson, David R Lonsway, Virginia M Pierce, April M Bobenchik, Zabrina C Lockett, Angella Charnot-Katsikas, Lars F Westblade, Brian B Yoo, Stephen G Jenkins, Brandi M Limbago, Sanchita Das, Darcie E Roe-Carpenter
The purpose of this study was to develop the modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method (mCIM) for the detection of carbapenemase-producing (CP) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) and perform a multicenter evaluation of the mCIM and Carba NP tests for these non-fermenters. Thirty P. aeruginosa and 30 A. baumannii isolates previously characterized by whole genome sequencing from the CDC-FDA Antibiotic Resistance Isolate Bank were evaluated, including carbapenemase-producers (CP; Ambler Class A, B, and D), non-carbapenemase-producing (non-CP) carbapenem-resistant isolates, and carbapenem-susceptible isolates...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118090/complement-activation-via-a-c3a-receptor-pathway-alters-cd4-t-lymphocytes-and-mediates-lung-cancer-progression
#14
Jeff W Kwak, Jennifer Laskowski, Howard Y Li, Maria V McSharry, Trisha R Sippel, Bonnie L Bullock, Amber M Johnson, Joanna M Poczobutt, Alexander J Neuwelt, Stephen P Malkoski, Mary C Weiser-Evans, John Lambris, Eric T Clambey, Joshua M Thurman, Raphael A Nemenoff
The complement cascade is a part of the innate immune system which acts primarily to remove pathogens and injured cells. However, complement activation is also peculiarly associated with tumor progression. Here we report mechanistic insights into this association in multiple immunocompetent orthotopic models of lung cancer. After tumor engraftment, we observed systemic activation of the complement cascade as reflected by elevated levels of the key regulator C3a. Notably, growth of primary tumors and metastases was both strongly inhibited in C3-deficient mice (C3-/- mice), with tumors undetectable in many subjects...
November 8, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117862/successful-medical-management-of-acute-mesenteric-ischemia-due-to-superior-mesenteric-and-portal-vein-thrombosis-in-a-27-year-old-man-with-protein-s-deficiency-a-case-report
#15
N P Osti, D N Sah, R S Bhandari
BACKGROUND: Acute mesenteric ischemia poses a diagnostic challenge due to nonspecific clinical clues and lack of awareness owing to its rarity. Ischemia due to mesenteric venous thrombosis has a good prognosis compared to arterial cause and can be managed conservatively with early diagnosis. The portomesenteric venous system is an unusual site of thrombosis in patients with protein S deficiency, and its thrombosis is an uncommon cause of acute mesenteric ischemia. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 27-year-old Mongolian man who presented with acute abdominal pain increasing in severity, and refractory to repeated attempts at treatment with a misdiagnosis of acute peptic ulcer disease...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114861/kappa-opioid-receptors-regulate-hippocampal-synaptic-homeostasis-and-epileptogenesis
#16
Bridget N Queenan, Raymond L Dunn, Victor R Santos, Yang Feng, Megan N Huizenga, Robert J Hammack, Stefano Vicini, Patrick A Forcelli, Daniel T S Pak
OBJECTIVE: Homeostatic synaptic plasticity (HSP) serves as a gain control mechanism at central nervous system (CNS) synapses, including those between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3. Improper circuit control of DG-CA3 synapses is hypothesized to underlie epileptogenesis. Here, we sought to (1) identify compounds that preferentially modulate DG-CA3 synapses in primary neuronal culture and (2) determine if these compounds would delay or prevent epileptogenesis in vivo. METHODS: We previously developed and validated an in vitro assay to visualize the behavior of DG-CA3 synapses and predict functional changes...
November 8, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110415/structural-and-functional-studies-of-differentially-o-glycosylated-analogs-of-a-thrombin-inhibitory-peptide-variegin
#17
Pidathala R V Shabareesh, Ashish Kumar, Dinakar M Salunke, Kanwal J Kaur
Variegin is a 32-amino acid long thrombin inhibitory peptide isolated from the salivary gland extract of tropical bont tick Amblyomma variegatum. It was identified to be O-glycosylated on its Thr-14 side chain, and this glycosylated form was 14-fold more potent than that of its non-glycosylated form. However, as the identity of this glycosylation remained elusive, the mechanistic details underlying its functional impact are not yet known. In this report, we synthesized four different O-glycosylated analogs of variegin bearing physiologically relevant sugars on its Thr-14...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110182/new-complexity-measures-reveal-that-topographic-loops-of-human-alpha-phase-potentials-are-more-complex-in-drowsy-than-in-wake
#18
Aleksandar Kalauzi, Aleksandra Vuckovic, Tijana Bojić
A number of measures, stemming from nonlinear dynamics, exist to estimate complexity of biomedical objects. In most cases they are appropriate, but sometimes unconventional measures, more suited for specific objects, are needed to perform the task. In our present work, we propose three new complexity measures to quantify complexity of topographic closed loops of alpha carrier frequency phase potentials (CFPP) of healthy humans in wake and drowsy states. EEG of ten adult individuals was recorded in both states, using a 14-channel montage...
November 7, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109187/homologous-vapc-toxins-inhibit-translation-and-cell-growth-by-sequence-specific-cleavage-of-trna-fmet
#19
Lauren R Walling, J Scott Butler
Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems play a critical role in the establishment and maintenance of bacterial dormancy. They are composed of a protein toxin and its cognate protein antitoxin. They function to regulate growth during conditions of stress, such as starvation or antibiotic treatment. As cellular proteases degrade the antitoxin, which normally binds and neutralizes the toxin, this frees the toxin to act on its cellular targets and arrest bacterial growth. TA systems are of particular concern in pathogenic organisms such as nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), as dormancy may lead to chronic infections and failure of antibiotic treatment...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109157/an-ultra-processive-accurate-reverse-transcriptase-encoded-by-a-metazoan-group-ii-intron
#20
Chen Zhao, Fei Liu, Anna Marie Pyle
Group II introns and non-LTR retrotransposons encode a phylogenetically-related family of highly processive reverse transcriptases (RTs) that are essential for mobility and persistence of these retroelements. Recent crystallographic studies on members of this RT family have revealed that they are structurally distinct from the retroviral RTs that are typically used in biotechnology. However, quantitative, structure-guided analysis of processivity, efficiency and accuracy of this alternate RT family has been lacking...
November 6, 2017: RNA
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