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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937311/it-s-not-as-bad-as-you-think-menopausal-representations-are-more-positive-in-postmenopausal-women
#1
Lydia Brown, Valerie Brown, Fiona Judd, Christina Bryant
INTRODUCTION: The menopausal transition is associated with underlying hormonal changes that can contribute to a range of physical and emotional symptoms. Psycho-social factors including attitudes and internal representations play a central role in women's experience of the menopause, but very little is known about how representations might differ across menopausal stages. METHODS: A sample of 387 women aged 40-60 completed a postal questionnaire that included the menopausal representations questionnaire, the emotional representation subscale adapted from the illness perception questionnaire, and data on menopausal status...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936159/neural-coding-for-action-execution-and-action-observation-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-its-role-in-the-organization-of-socially-driven-behavior
#2
REVIEW
Stefano Rozzi, Leonardo Fogassi
The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPF) plays a fundamental role in planning, organizing, and optimizing behavioral performance. Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological studies have suggested that in this cortical sector, information processing becomes more abstract when moving from caudal to rostral and that such processing involves parietal and premotor areas. We review studies that have shown that the LPF, in addition to its involvement in implementing rules and setting behavioral goals, activates during the execution of forelimb movements even in the absence of a learned relationship between an instruction and its associated motor output...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933673/making-history-critical
#3
Mark Learmonth
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore a possible discursive history of National Health Service (NHS) "management" (with management, for reasons that will become evident, very much in scare quotes). Such a history is offered as a complement, as well as a counterpoint, to the more traditional approaches that have already been taken to the history of the issue. Design/methodology/approach Document analysis and interviews with UK NHS trust chief executives. Findings After explicating the assumptions of the method it suggests, through a range of empirical sources that the NHS has undergone an era of administration, an era of management and an era of leadership...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933506/the-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health-icf-in-electronic-health-records-a-systematic-literature-review
#4
Roxanne Maritz, Dominik Aronsky, Birgit Prodinger
BACKGROUND: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is the World Health Organization's standard for describing health and health-related states. Examples of how the ICF has been used in Electronic Health Records (EHRs) have not been systematically summarized and described yet. OBJECTIVES: To provide a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature about the ICF's use in EHRs, including related challenges and benefits. METHODS: Peer-reviewed literature, published between January 2001 and July 2015 was retrieved from Medline(®), CINAHL(®), Scopus(®), and ProQuest(®) Social Sciences using search terms related to ICF and EHR concepts...
September 20, 2017: Applied Clinical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931376/why-to-cooperate-is-better-than-to-compete-brain-and-personality-components
#5
Michela Balconi, Davide Crivelli, Maria Elide Vanutelli
BACKGROUND: Cooperation and competition were compared in the present study. Brain correlates (electroencephalography, EEG frequency band, delta, theta, alpha, and beta) and hemodynamic measure of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS, O2Hb) were acquired during a joined cooperative (Experiment 1) or competitive (Experiment 2) task. Subjects were required to match each other's cognitive performance (cooperation) or to make better than others (competition) in terms of accuracy (error rate, ER) and response time (RT)...
September 20, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926569/am-i-who-i-say-i-am-unobtrusive-self-representation-and-personality-recognition-on-facebook
#6
Margeret Hall, Simon Caton
Across social media platforms users (sub)consciously represent themselves in a way which is appropriate for their intended audience. This has unknown impacts on studies with unobtrusive designs based on digital (social) platforms, and studies of contemporary social phenomena in online settings. A lack of appropriate methods to identify, control for, and mitigate the effects of self-representation, the propensity to express socially responding characteristics or self-censorship in digital settings, hinders the ability of researchers to confidently interpret and generalize their findings...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924334/from-the-cradle-to-the-grave-the-effect-of-adverse-caregiving-environments-on-attachment-and-relationships-throughout-the-lifespan
#7
Colleen Doyle, Dante Cicchetti
This paper reviews research examining the effects of adverse early caregiving on relationships throughout the lifespan. Central attachment constructs are summarized and integrated into a review of research on the long-term effects of institutional rearing and child maltreatment. Findings are interpreted within the organizational perspective on development, which conceptualizes attachment as a stage-salient task of infancy that influences the reorganization of adaptive/maladaptive functioning around subsequent stage-salient tasks...
June 2017: Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922817/children-class-and-the-search-for-security-writing-the-future-in-1930s-britain
#8
Hester Barron, Claire Langhamer
This article is based on 269 essays written in 1937 by Middlesbrough schoolboys aged 12-16 years on the topic 'When I leave school', which were collected by the social research organization Mass Observation. The essays provide a counterpoint to social scientific surveys of ordinary people and allow us to work with the boys' own understandings of the world they inhabited. They offer an alternative lens on a period which, at least in relation to the industrial areas of Britain, is often characterized by poverty and unemployment...
September 1, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916786/early-maternal-mirroring-predicts-infant-motor-system-activation-during-facial-expression-observation
#9
Holly Rayson, James John Bonaiuto, Pier Francesco Ferrari, Lynne Murray
Processing facial expressions is an essential component of social interaction, especially for preverbal infants. In human adults and monkeys, this process involves the motor system, with a neural matching mechanism believed to couple self- and other-generated facial gestures. Here, we used electroencephalography to demonstrate recruitment of the human motor system during observation and execution of facial expressions in nine-month-old infants, implicating this system in facial expression processing from a very young age...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914554/when-cooperation-goes-wrong-brain-and-behavioral-correlates-of-ineffective-joint-strategies-in-dyads
#10
Michela Balconi, Laura Gatti, Maria Elide Vanutelli
Human life is connoted by sophisticated interactions that involve not only single individuals, but larger social groups composed by members interacting each other. Cooperation secures a benefit to all the people engaged as well as important behaviors like helping, sharing, and acting prosocially. But what happens when the joint actions are not effective? In the present study we asked 24 participants paired in 12 dyads to cooperate during an attentional task in a way to synchronize their responses and obtain better outcomes...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911238/talking-about-sunbed-tanning-in-online-discussion-forums-assertions-and-arguments
#11
Jennifer Taylor, Alexandra Lamont, Michael Murray
OBJECTIVE: There is increasing evidence of both health and appearance risks associated with sunbed use. At the same time, the sunbed industry promotes the benefits of using sunbeds, and the image of a tanned skin as attractive and healthy arguably remains embedded within contemporary western culture. These tensions are played out in everyday conversations, and this paper reports a study which explored how sunbed users manage them within online discussion forums. DESIGN: A total of 556 posts from 13 sunbed-related threads, taken from six different UK-based online forums, were analysed thematically followed by techniques from discourse analysis...
September 15, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910506/tainted-love-gothic-imaging-of-nurses-in-popular-culture
#12
Margaret Mcallister, Donna Lee Brien, Lorna Piatti-Farnell
AIMS: To discuss representations of nursing in popular culture using the Contemporary Gothic theory. BACKGROUND: Nursing is stereotypically known as a caring profession. Caring in both the natural and professional perspectives is inextricably attached to love and love, we are told, is universal. In popular culture, however, there are numerous examples of nurses being portrayed in ways where love - its expression and its practice - has been transgressed or tainted...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910413/the-influence-of-the-japanese-waving-cat-on-the-joint-spatial-compatibility-effect-a-replication-and-extension-of-dolk-hommel-prinz-and-liepelt-2013
#13
Lydia Puffe, Kerstin Dittrich, Karl Christoph Klauer
In a joint go/no-go Simon task, each of two participants is to respond to one of two non-spatial stimulus features by means of a spatially lateralized response. Stimulus position varies horizontally and responses are faster and more accurate when response side and stimulus position match (compatible trial) than when they mismatch (incompatible trial), defining the social Simon effect or joint spatial compatibility effect. This effect was originally explained in terms of action/task co-representation, assuming that the co-actor's action is automatically co-represented...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906068/human-mating-strategies-from-past-causes-to-present-consequences
#14
REVIEW
Daniele Marzoli, Jan Havlíček, S Craig Roberts
In both humans and nonhuman animals, mating strategies represent a set of evolutionary adaptations aimed at promoting individual fitness by means of reproduction with the best possible partners. Given this critical role, mating strategies influence numerous aspects of human life. In particular, between-sex divergence in the intensity of intrasexual competition could account for robust cross-cultural sex differences in psychology and behavior (e.g., personality, psychiatric disorders, social behavior, violence)...
September 14, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903659/sage-on-the-stage-women-s-representation-at-an-academic-conference
#15
Camille S Johnson, Pamela K Smith, Chunlei Wang
Who presents at conferences matters. Presenting research benefits speakers, and presenters shape the conclusions audiences draw about who can succeed in a field. This is particularly important for members of historically underrepresented or disadvantaged groups, such as women. We investigated gender representation over a 13-year period among speakers at the largest social and personality psychology conference. On average, women were underrepresented as speakers, though this effect diminished over time. Chairs appeared to serve as gatekeepers: In symposia chaired by women, almost half of the invited speakers were women, whereas in symposia chaired by men, it was a third...
April 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890684/neural-correlates-of-early-sound-encoding-and-their-relationship-to-speech-in-noise-perception
#16
Emily B J Coffey, Alexander M P Chepesiuk, Sibylle C Herholz, Sylvain Baillet, Robert J Zatorre
Speech-in-noise (SIN) perception is a complex cognitive skill that affects social, vocational, and educational activities. Poor SIN ability particularly affects young and elderly populations, yet varies considerably even among healthy young adults with normal hearing. Although SIN skills are known to be influenced by top-down processes that can selectively enhance lower-level sound representations, the complementary role of feed-forward mechanisms and their relationship to musical training is poorly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890391/learned-pleasure-from-eating-an-opportunity-to-promote-healthy-eating-in-children
#17
REVIEW
Lucile Marty, Stéphanie Chambaron, Sophie Nicklaus, Sandrine Monnery-Patris
Across the lifespan, eating is a common everyday act driven by the search for pleasure and reinforced by experienced pleasure. Pleasure is an innate indicator of the satisfaction of physiological needs, in addition to other attributes. Pleasure from eating is also learned and contributes to the development of children's eating habits, which remain mostly stable until adulthood. Based on classical models of determinants of food consumption behaviour, we identified three dimensions of pleasure from eating learned during childhood: 1/the sensory dimension, i...
September 8, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890239/self-help-organisations-as-patient-representatives-in-health-care-and-policy-decision-making
#18
Daniela Rojatz, Rudolf Forster
A crucial question about participation is who is legitimised, willing and capable of representing particular collectives. Social insurance health care systems tend to focus on representation by patient organisations. Self-help organisations (SHOs), as one type of 'health consumer and patient organisation', often take over this role. Research findings indicate that participation by SHOs is accompanied by high expectations, but also by concerns about the risks of instrumental abuse, overload and professionalisation...
September 2, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890098/-rituals-of-birth-in-senegal
#19
Idrissa Ba, Oumou Diodo Ly, Alice Titia Rizzi, Rosella Sandri, Mamadou Habib Thiam
In a Senegalese society undergoing profound change, holding on to certain beliefs and social and cultural practices can sometimes prove difficult. Prevention and care systems must take into account social and cultural representations in order to support these families as best as possible.
September 2017: Soins. Pédiatrie, Puériculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889821/relating-asd-symptoms-to-well-being-moving-across-different-construct-levels
#20
M K Deserno, D Borsboom, S Begeer, H M Geurts
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the specific factors that contribute to the well-being (WB) of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A plausible hypothesis is that ASD symptomatology has a direct negative effect on WB. In the current study, the emerging tools of network analysis allow to explore the functional interdependencies between specific symptoms of ASD and domains of WB in a multivariate framework. We illustrate how studying both higher-order (total score) and lower-order (subscale) representations of ASD symptomatology can clarify the interrelations of factors relevant for domains of WB...
September 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
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