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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772110/morphology-and-memory-toward-an-integrated-theory
#1
Ray Jackendoff, Jenny Audring
Framed in psychological terms, the basic question of linguistic theory is what is stored in memory, and in what form. Traditionally, what is stored is divided into grammar and lexicon, where grammar contains the rules and the lexicon is an unstructured list of exceptions. We develop an alternative view in which rules of grammar are simply lexical items that contain variables, and in which rules have two functions. In their generative function, they are used to build novel structures, just as in traditional generative linguistics...
May 17, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771982/idiosyncratic-representation-of-peripersonal-space-depends-on-the-success-of-one-s-own-motor-actions-but-also-the-successful-actions-of-others
#2
Yann Coello, François Quesque, Maria-Francesca Gigliotti, Laurent Ott, Jean-Luc Bruyelle
Peripersonal space is a multisensory representation of the environment around the body in relation to the motor system, underlying the interactions with the physical and social world. Although changing body properties and social context have been shown to alter the functional processing of space, little is known about how changing the value of objects influences the representation of peripersonal space. In two experiments, we tested the effect of modifying the spatial distribution of reward-yielding targets on manual reaching actions and peripersonal space representation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771359/neural-bases-of-social-communicative-intentions-in-speech
#3
Nele Hellbernd, Daniela Sammler
Our ability to understand others' communicative intentions in speech is key to successful social interaction. Indeed, misunderstanding an "excuse me" as apology, while meant as criticism, may have important consequences. Recent behavioural studies have provided evidence that prosody, i.e., vocal tone, is an important indicator for speakers' intentions. Using a novel audio-morphing paradigm, the present fMRI study examined the neurocognitive mechanisms that allow listeners to 'read' speakers' intents from vocal-prosodic patterns...
May 16, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767897/-oncology-trajectories-of-elderly-patients-in-a-palliative-situation-%C3%A2-the-long-and-winding-road-%C3%A2
#4
Annick Anchisi, Rose-Anna Foley, Claire Ansermet, Sandro Anchisi
This paper focuses on trajectories of elderly patients with metastatic cancer who experience several lines of systemic palliative cancer treatments. Based on photographs representing paths, the representations between patients and professional caregivers vary. Where the latter see wearisome treatments and spaces of negotiation, the patients wish to be seen as fighters, a figure that ought to be adopted to face cancer and its treatments, day after day, to meet medical and social expectations.
May 16, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758674/heterogeneous-update-mechanisms-in-evolutionary-games-mixing-innovative-and-imitative-dynamics
#5
Marco Antonio Amaral, Marco Alberto Javarone
Innovation and evolution are two processes of paramount relevance for social and biological systems. In general, the former allows the introduction of elements of novelty, while the latter is responsible for the motion of a system in its phase space. Often, these processes are strongly related, since an innovation can trigger the evolution, and the latter can provide the optimal conditions for the emergence of innovations. Both processes can be studied by using the framework of evolutionary game theory, where evolution constitutes an intrinsic mechanism...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757221/children-s-imaginaries-of-human-robot-interaction-in-healthcare
#6
Núria Vallès-Peris, Cecilio Angulo, Miquel Domènech
This paper analyzes children’s imaginaries of Human-Robots Interaction (HRI) in the context of social robots in healthcare, and it explores ethical and social issues when designing a social robot for a children’s hospital. Based on approaches that emphasize the reciprocal relationship between society and technology, the analytical force of imaginaries lies in their capacity to be embedded in practices and interactions as well as to affect the construction and applications of surrounding technologies...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755295/patterns-of-emotional-availability-between-mothers-and-young-children-associations-with-risk-factors-for-borderline-personality-disorder
#7
Rebecca D Trupe, Jenny Macfie, Rebecca M Skadberg, Gretchen Kurdziel
Emotional availability (EA) characterizes a warm, close relationship between caregiver and child. We compared patterns (clusters) of EA on risk factors, including those for borderline personality disorder (BPD). We sampled 70 children aged 4 to 7 years from low-socioeconomic backgrounds, 51% of whose mothers had BPD. We coded filmed interactions for EA: mothers' sensitivity, structuring, non-intrusiveness, non-hostility, and children's responsiveness to, and involvement of, mothers. We additionally coded children's over -responsiveness and over -involvement...
January 2018: Infant and Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752630/potentially-reversible-social-deficits-among-transgender-youth
#8
Jack L Turban
Recently, there has been increased attention to a putative relationship between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and gender dysphoria, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) diagnosis for those whose gender assigned at birth does not match their gender identity. Studies have shown an over-representation of ASD symptoms among transgender youth. These studies, however, have used scales that are non-specific for ASD. These ASD symptoms may represent social deficits that are secondary to social stress and deprivation, as transgender youth suffer high rates of peer and family rejection...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747765/-social-representations-of-trisomy-21
#9
Carine Vassy
Social representations of trisomy 21 have evolved considerably since its first descriptions in France in the 19th century. Today contradictory trends are at work. Some convey alarmist and stereotypical images while others favour greater understanding of life with trisomy 21.
May 2018: Soins. Pédiatrie, Puériculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747073/the-cognitive-ontogeny-of-tool-making-in-children-the-role-of-inhibition-and-hierarchical-structuring
#10
Gökhan Gönül, Ece Kamer Takmaz, Annette Hohenberger, Michael Corballis
During the last decade, the ontogeny of tool making has received growing attention in the literature on tool-related behaviors. However, the cognitive demands underlying tool making are still not clearly understood. In this cross-sectional study of 52 Turkish preschool children from 3 to 6 years of age, the roles of executive function (response inhibition), ability to form hierarchical representations (hierarchical structuring), and social learning were investigated with the hook task previously used with children and animals...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746907/oscillatory-networks-of-high-level-mental-alignment-a-perspective-taking-meg-study
#11
R A Seymour, H Wang, G Rippon, K Kessler
Mentally imagining another's perspective is a high-level social process, reliant on manipulating internal representations of the self in an embodied manner. Recently Wang et al. (2016) showed that theta-band (3-7Hz) brain oscillations within the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ) and brain regions coding for motor/body schema contribute to the process of perspective-taking. Using a similar paradigm, we set out to unravel the extended functional brain network in detail. Increasing the angle between self and other perspective was accompanied by longer reaction times and increases in theta power within rTPJ, right lateral pre-frontal cortex (PFC) and right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)...
May 7, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741991/asymmetric-mixtures-common-conceptual-priorities-for-social-and-chemical-kinds
#12
Alexander Noyes, Frank C Keil
Hypodescent is the phenomenon of categorizing biracial individuals asymmetrically (e.g., viewing Black-White biracial individuals as Black instead of White). We propose that hypodescent is explained by domain-general attentional biases toward dangerous and distinctive components in conceptual representation. This cognitive mechanism derives its empirical support from several research traditions, especially from research on how people evaluate generic statements. Here, we demonstrate how liquid mixtures are categorized in ways characteristic of hypodescent...
May 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740297/a-multitude-of-neural-representations-behind-multisensory-social-norm-processing
#13
Felipe Pegado, Michelle H A Hendriks, Steffie Amelynck, Nicky Daniels, Jessica Bulthé, Haemy Lee Masson, Bart Boets, Hans Op de Beeck
Humans show a unique capacity to process complex information from multiple sources. Social perception in natural environment provides a good example of such capacity as it typically requires the integration of information from different sensory systems, and also from different levels of sensory processing. Here, instead of studying one isolate system and level of representation, we focused upon a neuroimaging paradigm which allows to capture multiple brain representations simultaneously, i.e., low and high-level processing in two different sensory systems, as well as abstract cognitive processing of congruency...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739734/representation-of-tinnitus-in-the-us-newspaper-media-and-in-facebook-pages-cross-sectional-analysis-of-secondary-data
#14
Vinaya Manchaiah, Pierre Ratinaud, Gerhard Andersson
BACKGROUND: When people with health conditions begin to manage their health issues, one important issue that emerges is the question as to what exactly do they do with the information that they have obtained through various sources (eg, news media, social media, health professionals, friends, and family). The information they gather helps form their opinions and, to some degree, influences their attitudes toward managing their condition. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to understand how tinnitus is represented in the US newspaper media and in Facebook pages (ie, social media) using text pattern analysis...
May 8, 2018: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738190/recruiting-and-engaging-african-american-men-in-health-research
#15
Schenita Randolph, Tanya Coakley, Jeffrey Shears
BACKGROUND: Improving the health of black and minority ethnic (BME) men in the US continues to be a public health priority. Compared with men of other races and ethnicities, African-American men have higher rates of mortality and morbidity from chronic illness and diseases including cancer, heart disease, prostate cancer, diabetes and HIV/AIDS. One way to address these disparities is to include African-American men in health research, to elicit their perspectives on health risks and protective factors...
May 8, 2018: Nurse Researcher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735557/decomposing-gratitude-representation-and-integration-of-cognitive-antecedents-of-gratitude-in-the-brain
#16
Hongbo Yu, Xiaoxue Gao, Yuanyuan Zhou, Xiaolin Zhou
Gratitude is a typical social-moral emotion that plays a crucial role in maintaining human cooperative interpersonal relationship. Although neural correlates of gratitude have been investigated, the neurocognitive processes that lead to gratitude, namely the representation and integration of its cognitive antecedents, remain largely unknown. Here, we combined fMRI and a human social interaction task to investigate how benefactor's cost and beneficiary's benefit, two critical antecedents of gratitude, are encoded and integrated in beneficiary's brain, and how the neural processing of gratitude is converted to reciprocity...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735211/envisioning-bodies-and-architectures-of-care-reflections-on-competition-designs-for-older-people
#17
Sarah Nettleton, Christina Buse, Daryl Martin
Architects shape future dwellings and built environments in ways that are critical for aging bodies. This article explores how assumptions about aging bodies are made manifest in architectural plans and designs. By analysing entries for an international student competition Caring for Older People (2009), we illustrate the ways in which aged bodies were conceived by future architectural professionals. Through analysing the architectural plans, we can discern the students' expectations and assumptions about aging bodies and embodiment through their use of and reference to spaces, places and things...
June 2018: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733764/neural-representations-of-others-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-do-not-depend-on-our-knowledge-about-them
#18
Elien Heleven, Frank Van Overwalle
Earlier neuroimaging studies on social inferences applying repetition suppression indicated that psychological entities of persons are represented in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). These representations were identified by suppression of activation in neural populations after repetition of the same persons, and are interpreted as abstract summary representations for the repeated social entity. However, an alternative explanation might be that suppression for persons does not reflect the representation of a person as such, but rather some degree of knowledge about this person...
May 7, 2018: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731735/rescripting-memory-redefining-the-self-a-meta-emotional-perspective-on-the-hypothesized-mechanism-s-of-imagery-rescripting
#19
Alessandra Mancini, Francesco Mancini
Imagery Rescripting (ImRs) is a therapeutic technique that aims to reduce the distress associated with negative memories of early aversive experiences. It consists of prompting patients to rescript the autobiographical memory in line with their unmet needs. In recent years, ImRs was found effective in reducing symptoms of disorders such as depression, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and personality disorders. However, the cognitive mechanisms underlying such broad effectiveness are currently an object of debate...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731726/overcoming-the-subject-object-dichotomy-in-urban-modeling-axial-maps-as-geometric-representations-of-affordances-in-the-built-environment
#20
Lars Marcus
The world is witnessing unprecedented urbanization, bringing extreme challenges to contemporary practices in urban planning and design. This calls for improved urban models that can generate new knowledge and enhance practical skill. Importantly, any urban model embodies a conception of the relation between humans and the physical environment. In urban modeling this is typically conceived of as a relation between human subjects and an environmental object, thereby reproducing a humans-environment dichotomy...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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