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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816092/attitudes-towards-science-among-spanish-citizens-the-case-of-critical-engagers
#1
Montaña Cámara, Ana Muñoz van den Eynde, José A López Cerezo
Using data obtained from Spanish surveys on the public perception of science, this article presents a critical review of current practices of population profile segmentation, including the one-dimensional representation of perceived risks and benefits and of the systematic underestimation of critical attitudes to the social impact of science and technology. We use discriminant analysis to detect a somewhat hidden cluster in the Spanish population which we call 'critical engagers'. These individuals are critically and socially responsible and are not reticent about expressing concern regarding scientific-technological change...
August 1, 2017: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810815/social-selection-in-cohort-studies-and-later-representation-of-childhood-psychiatric-diagnoses-the-danish-national-birth-cohort
#2
Kathrine Bang Madsen, Lena Hohwü, Jin Liang Zhu, Jørn Olsen, Carsten Obel
AIM: This study aimed to estimate the relative representation of childhood psychiatric diagnoses and use of psychotropic medication in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) compared to the general population. METHODS: The general population was identified as all childbirths in Denmark during 1998-2002 ( N=344,160). Linking the DNBC ( N=91,442) and the general population to the Danish national health registries, all children were followed until they received an ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis, had a prescription of psychotropic medication or to the end of follow-up in 2013...
August 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809673/heterogeneous-face-attribute-estimation-a-deep-multi-task-learning-approach
#3
Hu Han, Anil K Jain, Shiguang Shan, Xilin Chen
Face attribute estimation has many potential applications in video surveillance, face retrieval, and social media. While a number of methods have been proposed for face attribute estimation, most of them did not explicitly consider the attribute correlation and heterogeneity (e.g., ordinal vs. nominal and holistic vs. local) during feature representation learning. In this paper, we present a Deep Multi-Task Learning (DMTL) approach to jointly estimate multiple heterogeneous attributes from a single face image...
August 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807871/mentalizing-regions-represent-distributed-continuous-and-abstract-dimensions-of-others-beliefs
#4
Jorie Koster-Hale, Hilary Richardson, Natalia Velez, Mika Asaba, Liane Young, Rebecca Saxe
The human capacity to reason about others' minds includes making causal inferences about intentions, beliefs, values, and goals. Previous fMRI research has suggested that a network of brain regions, including bilateral temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and medial prefrontal-cortex (MPFC), are reliably recruited for mental state reasoning. Here, in two fMRI experiments, we investigate the representational content of these regions. Building on existing computational and neural evidence, we hypothesized that social brain regions contain at least two functionally and spatially distinct components: one that represents information related to others' motivations and values, and another that represents information about others' beliefs and knowledge...
August 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806125/changing-avatars-changing-selves-the-influence-of-social-and-contextual-expectations-on-digital-rendition-of-identity
#5
Stefano Triberti, Ilaria Durosini, Filippo Aschieri, Daniela Villani, Giuseppe Riva
Avatar creation is an interesting topic for both video game and social network studies. Research has shown that the creation of avatars is influenced by individual, contextual, and cultural features. Avatars are used to represent aspects of users' personality, but multiple avatars are used in different virtual contexts, as self-presentation strategies may vary according to the different "audiences" to be met online (say: friends, or strangers). Moreover, avatar creation is also influenced by cultural variables, such as gender, as avatars embody stereotypical aspects of being a woman or a man...
August 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805441/examining-overlap-in-behavioral-and-neural-representations-of-morals-facts-and-preferences
#6
Jordan Theriault, Adam Waytz, Larisa Heiphetz, Liane Young
Metaethical judgments refer to judgments about the information expressed by moral claims. Moral objectivists generally believe that moral claims are akin to facts, whereas moral subjectivists generally believe that moral claims are more akin to preferences. Evidence from developmental and social psychology has generally favored an objectivist view; however, this work has typically relied on few examples, and analyses have disallowed statistical generalizations beyond these few stimuli. The present work addresses whether morals are represented as fact-like or preference-like, using behavioral and neuroimaging methods, in combination with statistical techniques that can (a) generalize beyond our sample stimuli, and (b) test whether particular item features are associated with neural activity...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805401/the-common-sense-model-of-self-regulation-meta-analysis-and-test-of-a-process-model
#7
Martin S Hagger, Severine Koch, Nikos L D Chatzisarantis, Sheina Orbell
According to the common-sense model of self-regulation, individuals form lay representations of illnesses that guide coping procedures to manage illness threat. We meta-analyzed studies adopting the model to (a) examine the intercorrelations among illness representation dimensions, coping strategies, and illness outcomes; (b) test the sufficiency of a process model in which relations between illness representations and outcomes were mediated by coping strategies; and (c) test effects of moderators on model relations...
August 14, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805128/the-reception-of-broadcast-terrorism-recruitment-and-radicalisation
#8
Edgar Jones
The declaration of a caliphate by Islamic State in June 2014 witnessed the recruitment of increasing numbers of foreign terrorist fighters drawn from a diverse range of nations across the globe. This paper seeks to explore the appeal of extreme groups and how recruiters persuade young people to risk either their lives or lengthy terms of imprisonment. The processes of radicalization and recruitment are differentiated and compared with conventional means of encouraging individuals to enlist in state-sanctioned armed forces...
August 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804738/social-observation-task-in-a-linear-maze-for-rats
#9
Xiang Mou, Daoyun Ji
Animals often learn through observing their conspecifics. However, the mechanisms of them obtaining useful knowledge during observation are beginning to be understood. This protocol describes a novel social observation task to test the 'local enhancement theory', which proposes that presence of social subjects in an environment facilitates one's understanding of the environments. By combining behavior test and in vivo electrophysiological recording, we found that social observation can facilitate the observer's spatial representation of an unexplored environment...
July 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803580/is-aboriginal-nutrition-a-priority-for-local-government-a-policy-analysis
#10
Catherine Helson, Ruth Walker, Claire Palermo, Kim Rounsefell, Yudit Aron, Catherine MacDonald, Petah Atkinson, Jennifer Browne
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to explore how Australian local governments prioritise the health and well-being of Aboriginal populations and the extent to which nutrition is addressed by local government health policy. DESIGN: In the state of Victoria, Australia, all seventy-nine local governments' public health policy documents were retrieved. Inclusion of Aboriginal health and nutrition in policy documents was analysed using quantitative content analysis...
August 14, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798671/bodily-sensory-inputs-and-anomalous-bodily-experiences-in-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-evaluation-of-the-potential-effects-of-sound-feedback
#11
Ana Tajadura-Jiménez, Helen Cohen, Nadia Bianchi-Berthouze
Neuroscientific studies have shown that human's mental body representations are not fixed but are constantly updated through sensory feedback, including sound feedback. This suggests potential new therapeutic sensory approaches for patients experiencing body-perception disturbances (BPD). BPD can occur in association with chronic pain, for example in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). BPD often impacts on emotional, social, and motor functioning. Here we present the results from a proof-of-principle pilot study investigating the potential value of using sound feedback for altering BPD and its related emotional state and motor behavior in those with CRPS...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796461/ce-que-peut-la-sociologie
#12
Bernard Lahire
When it is relational, processual, and it articulates the incorporated dispositions of the actors and the contexts of their actions, sociology "desevidentialize," denaturalize, desubstantialize, and historicize the social world by contributing to do away with spontaneous representations that distort the reality of things. Besides, when sociology studies the social at the level of the individuals and individual actions, it destroys the fictions (juridical and philosophical) of the isolated individuals, enclosed on himself, free and fully conscious of everything...
August 2017: Canadian Review of Sociology, Revue Canadienne de Sociologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795604/-lonely-within-the-mother-an-exploratory-study-of-first-time-mothers-experiences-of-loneliness
#13
Katharine Lee, Konstantina Vasileiou, Julie Barnett
Loneliness is associated with life transitions such as new motherhood, yet there are few studies investigating the issue in this population. Using data from semi-structured interviews and an interpretative phenomenological analysis, this exploratory study sought to understand seven new mothers' experiences of loneliness. Experiences were organised around three themes, reflecting loneliness arising from making unfavourable self-comparisons with perceived mothering 'norms', from reduced social contact and relationships lacking in empathy...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793112/social-representations-of-older-adults-regarding-quality-of-life
#14
Marielle Cristina Gonçalves Ferreira, Luiz Fernando Rangel Tura, Rafael Celestino da Silva, Márcia de Assunção Ferreira
Objective: to identify the social representations of older adults regarding quality of life, and to analyze the care practices adopted to promote it. Method: qualitative, exploratory, descriptive research, applying the Theory of Social Representations. Thirty older people from a Health Academy of Rio de Janeiro participated in the study. The software Alceste was used, and lexical analysis of data was performed. Results: social representations of quality of life are based on the social determinants of health; they evidence knowledge and practices of care by valuing physical activities...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792569/-evaluation-of-a-citizenship-oriented-intervention-the-citizens-project-of-the-university-of-recovery
#15
Jean-François Pelletier, Denis Pouliot-Morneau, Janie Houle, Julie Bordeleau, Sébastien Laroche, Michael Rowe
Objectives The Global Model of Public Mental Health is "global" not only in the sense of having an international perspective, but in regarding service users as actors at all levels of public mental health exerting collective and organized influence on the social determinants of health, in addition to being recipients of care. Having access to appropriate health and mental health care when needed is a fundamental human right. Having a say over the manner in which care is provided, including partnership in decision making in care planning and ongoing care, has gained increasing support among recipients and providers of care...
2017: Santé Mentale Au Québec
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790960/the-impact-of-top-down-prediction-on-emotional-face-processing-in-social-anxiety
#16
Guangming Ran, Xu Chen
There is evidence that people with social anxiety show abnormal processing of emotional faces. To investigate the impact of top-down prediction on emotional face processing in social anxiety, brain responses of participants with high and low social anxiety (LSA) were recorded, while they performed a variation of the emotional task, using high temporal resolution event-related potential techniques. Behaviorally, we reported an effect of prediction with higher accuracy for predictable than unpredictable faces...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790394/interocularly-merged-face-percepts-eliminate-binocular-rivalry
#17
P Christiaan Klink, Daphne Boucherie, Damiaan Denys, Pieter R Roelfsema, Matthew W Self
Faces are important visual objects for humans and other social animals. A complex network of specialized brain areas is involved in the recognition and interpretation of faces. This network needs to strike a balance between being sensitive enough to distinguish between different faces with similar features, and being tolerant of low-level visual changes so that a given face is stably perceived as a particular individual. Such stability may require feedback from higher brain regions down to the level where details are represented...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783471/investigating-interdependent-self-in-post-communist-countries-a-comparison-of-two-slovak-and-danish-generations
#18
Radka Antalíková, Tia G B Hansen, Manuel L de la Mata, Rafael Martínez
Some evidence suggests prevalence of collectivist values and interdependent self in post-communist Europe. However, research on social representations identifies a possible divide between Eastern Europeans' appreciation of their immediate social environment on the one hand and their suspicion towards impersonal collectives on the other. The current study aimed to capture this divide by investigating two types of interdependent self, namely relational and collective. Specifically, we compared self-descriptions in two Slovak samples-"old" with a communist experience (n = 80) and "young" without it (n = 80)-and used a country that has never been communist (Denmark; n = 80 x 2) to control for age effects...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782584/self-construal-differences-in-neural-responses-to-negative-social-cues
#19
Belinda J Liddell, Kim L Felmingham, Pritha Das, Thomas J Whitford, Gin S Malhi, Eva Battaglini, Richard A Bryant
Cultures differ substantially in representations of the self. Whereas individualistic cultural groups emphasize an independent self, reflected in processing biases towards centralized salient objects, collectivistic cultures are oriented towards an interdependent self, attending to contextual associations between visual cues. It is unknown how these perceptual biases may affect brain activity in response to negative social cues. Moreover, while some studies have shown that individual differences in self-construal moderate cultural group comparisons, few have examined self-construal differences separate to culture...
August 3, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777713/the-cultural-functions-and-social-potential-of-queer-monuments-a-preliminary-inventory-and-analysis
#20
Joe Joe Orangias, Jeannie Simms, Sloane French
Public monuments function as cultural agents, reifying dominant public narratives or fostering change. Either way, their representation of people and events intervene in public discourse and contribute to cultural, economic, political, and social environments. Queer monuments, defined here as heritage sites that honor gender and sexual minorities, represent communities that have often been excised in dominant public narratives. This article provides a preliminary global inventory of queer monuments and describes three of their major functions: (1) to provide visibility and reduce stigma; (2) to educate the public on the abuse and attempted extermination of gender and sexual minorities; and (3) to stimulate public debate and discourse about gender and sexual minority rights...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
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