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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527374/talking-about-sunbed-tanning-social-representations-and-identity-work
#1
Jennifer Taylor, Michael Murray, Alexandra Lamont
RATIONALE: Despite the publicised health risks associated with its usage, sunbed tanning remains popular in many Western countries. Previous research indicates that knowledge of the harmful effects does not necessarily lead to a reduction in sunbed use. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a more extensive social psychological understanding of sunbed use, in the United Kingdom, by exploring the social representations of sunbed tanning held by both those who use and who have never used sunbeds...
May 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527206/social-representation-of-dementia-an-analysis-of-5-792-consecutive-cases-evaluated-in-a-memory-clinic
#2
Pilar Cañabate, Gabriel Martínez, Maitée Rosende-Roca, Mariola Moreno, Silvia Preckler, Sergi Valero, Oscar Sotolongo, Isabel Hernández, Montserrat Alegret, Gemma Ortega, Ana Espinosa, Ana Mauleón, Liliana Vargas, Octavio Rodríguez, Carla Abdelnour, Domingo Sánchez, Elvira Martín, Agustín Ruiz, Lluís Tárraga, Mercè Boada
BACKGROUND: Different interpretations of cognitive impairment and dementia due to differences in health structures, such as cultural differences could affect the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. it is reasonable to expect that the social and family impact of the disease and coping strategies will differ among societies. OBJECTIVE: The general aim of this study is to understand the social representations of dementia, its associated practices, and the effects they imply...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520929/laughing-off-the-stereotypes-age-and-aging-in-seniors-online-sex-related-humor
#3
Galit Nimrod, Liza Berdychevsky
Background and Objectives: Focusing on sex, the most salient topic featured in ageist jokes, this study aims at exploring the extent to which seniors' own humor reflects common ageist stereotypes or rather echoes contemporary consumer society representations of seniors' sexuality. Research Design and Methods: The study was based on a quantitative content analysis of 300 humorous sex-related messages posted during one full year by members of 14 leading online communities for seniors...
May 17, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517968/a-community-based-qualitative-study-of-intergenerational-resilience-with-palestinian-refugee-families-facing-structural-violence-and-historical-trauma
#4
Devin G Atallah
The purpose of this study was to explore resilience processes in Palestinian refugee families living under Israeli occupation for multiple generations. Qualitative methods, critical postcolonial theories, and community-based research approaches were used to examine intergenerational protective practices and to contribute to reconceptualizations of resilience from indigenous perspectives. First, the researcher developed a collaborative partnership with a nongovernmental organization (NGO) in a UN refugee camp in the occupied West Bank...
January 1, 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516959/adaptive-psychological-structure-in-childhood-hearing-impairment-audiological-correlations
#5
A Serra, G Spinato, S Cocuzza, L Licciardello, P Pavone, L Maiolino
The present research deals with the clinical and social problems present during linguistic and cognitive development of deaf children. Currently, the development of Theory of Mind represents an important research field in deafness studies. These international studies highlighted a significant alteration in the development of Theory of Mind in deaf children compared to normal hearing children, especially in cases of congenital or preverbal hearing loss. In particular, the research focuses on the skills of deaf children in recognising emotions and desires, through both perceptive and cognitive methods, by evaluation of psycho-cognitive skills of children with severe hearing loss using a set of questions to be administered to hearing loss patients...
June 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516801/representations-of-mental-health-and-arts-participation-in-the-national-and-local-british-press-2007-2015
#6
Dimitrinka Atanasova, Nelya Koteyko, Brian Brown, Paul Crawford
We analysed news articles published in national and local British newspapers between 2007 and 2015 to understand (1) how mental health and arts participation were framed and (2) how the relationships between participants in arts initiatives were conceptualised. Using corpus-assisted qualitative frame analysis, we identified frames of recovery, stigma and economy. The recovery frame, which emphasised that mental illness can be treated similarly to physical illness, positioned arts participation as a form of therapy that can complement or substitute medication...
May 1, 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516347/uniting-the-pre-health-humanities-with-the-introductory-composition-course
#7
Amy Rubens
Drawing on my experiences at a teaching-focused university, I show how locating the health humanities in first-year or introductory composition courses improves learning and offers an economical, flexible, and far-reaching approach to bringing a health humanities education to all baccalaureate-level learners, regardless of whether they aspire to careers in the health professions. In terms of improving learning, health humanities composition courses support the disciplinary aims of both fields. Accessible, relevant issues in the health humanities, such as interventions in health debates or representations of illness and healthcare settings, nourish the cognitive and social conditions needed to develop college-level writing skills...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516173/reconsidering-the-device-in-the-drawer-lapses-as-a-design-opportunity-in-personal-informatics
#8
Daniel A Epstein, Jennifer H Kang, Laura R Pina, James Fogarty, Sean A Munson
People stop using personal tracking tools over time, referred to as the lapsing stage of their tool use. We explore how designs can support people when they lapse in tracking, considering how to design data representations for a person who lapses in Fitbit use. Through a survey of 141 people who had lapsed in using Fitbit, we identified three use patterns and four perspectives on tracking. Participants then viewed seven visual representations of their Fitbit data and seven approaches to framing this data. Participant Fitbit use and perspective on tracking influenced their preference, which we surface in a series of contrasts...
September 12, 2016: Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506923/core-social-and-moral-disgust-are-bounded-a-review-on-cognitive-and-neural-bases-of-repugnance-in-clinical-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Carmelo M Vicario, Robert D Rafal, Davide Martino, Alessio Avenanti
Disgust is a multifaceted experience that might affect several aspects of life. Here, we reviewed research on neurological and psychiatric disorders that are characterized by abnormal disgust processing to test the hypothesis of a shared neurocognitive architecture in the representation of three disgust domains: i) personal experience of 'core disgust'; ii) social disgust, i.e., motor and vocal expressions of disgust; iii) moral disgust, i.e., sensitivity to ethical violations. Our analysis provides some support to the shared neurocognitive hypothesis and suggests that the insula might be the "hub" structure linking the three domains of disgust sensitivity, while other brain regions may subserve specific facets of the multidimensional experience...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505280/mining-e-cigarette-adverse-events-in-social-media-using-bi-lstm-recurrent-neural-network-with-word-embedding-representation
#10
Jiaheng Xie, Xiao Liu, Daniel Dajun Zeng
Objective: Recent years have seen increased worldwide popularity of e-cigarette use. However, the risks of e-cigarettes are underexamined. Most e-cigarette adverse event studies have achieved low detection rates due to limited subject sample sizes in the experiments and surveys. Social media provides a large data repository of consumers' e-cigarette feedback and experiences, which are useful for e-cigarette safety surveillance. However, it is difficult to automatically interpret the informal and nontechnical consumer vocabulary about e-cigarettes in social media...
May 13, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504948/substructural-regularization-with-data-sensitive-granularity-for-sequence-transfer-learning
#11
Shichang Sun, Hongbo Liu, Jiana Meng, C L Philip Chen, Yu Yang
Sequence transfer learning is of interest in both academia and industry with the emergence of numerous new text domains from Twitter and other social media tools. In this paper, we put forward the data-sensitive granularity for transfer learning, and then, a novel substructural regularization transfer learning model (STLM) is proposed to preserve target domain features at substructural granularity in the light of the condition of labeled data set size. Our model is underpinned by hidden Markov model and regularization theory, where the substructural representation can be integrated as a penalty after measuring the dissimilarity of substructures between target domain and STLM with relative entropy...
May 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485702/solitary-discourse-is-a-productive-activity
#12
Julia Zavala, Deanna Kuhn
Young adults received information regarding the platforms of two candidates for mayor of a troubled city. Half constructed a dialogue between advocates of the candidates, and the other half wrote an essay evaluating the candidates' merits. Both groups then wrote a script for a TV spot favoring their preferred candidate. Results supported our hypothesis that the dialogic task would lead to deeper, more comprehensive processing of the two positions, and hence a richer representation of them. The TV scripts of the dialogue group included more references to city problems, candidates' proposed actions, and links between them, as well as more criticisms of proposed actions and integrative judgments extending across multiple problems or proposed actions...
May 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483974/a-neural-mechanism-of-social-categorization
#13
Ryan M Stolier, Jonathan B Freeman
Humans readily sort one another into multiple social categories from mere facial features. However, the facial features used to do so are not always clear-cut, as they can be associated with opponent categories (e.g., feminine male face). Recently, computational models and behavioral studies have provided indirect evidence that categorizing such faces is accomplished through dynamic competition between parallel, co-activated social categories that resolve into a stable categorical percept. Using a novel paradigm combining fMRI with real-time hand-tracking, the present study examined how the brain translates diverse social cues into categorical percepts...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479554/temporal-trends-of-psychosociobehavioral-factors-underlying-tobacco-use-a-semi-automated-exploratory-analysis-of-peer-to-peer-communication-in-a-health-related-online-community
#14
Vishnupriya Sridharan, Trevor Cohen, Nathan Cobb, Sahiti Myneni
Online communities have been an integral part of tobacco cessation programs. They are rich in content, and offer insights into factors affecting an individual's behavior change efforts. We used word representation techniques to infer implicit meaning embedded in messages exchanged in a health-related online community. Our analysis of peer interactions revealed that individuals factor in safety, glamour, expense, and media projection when choosing a form of nicotine intake. When choosing pharmacotherapy techniques, individuals focus on brands, dosage, and side effects associated with each form (e...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479537/requirements-and-solutions-for-personalized-health-systems
#15
Bernd Blobel, Pekka Ruotsalainen, Diego M Lopez, Frank Oemig
Organizational, methodological and technological paradigm changes enable a precise, personalized, predictive, preventive and participative approach to health and social services supported by multiple actors from different domains at diverse level of knowledge and skills. Interoperability has to advance beyond Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) concerns, including the real world business domains and their processes, but also the individual context of all actors involved. The paper introduces and compares personalized health definitions, summarizes requirements and principles for pHealth systems, and considers intelligent interoperability...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474340/doddering-but-dear-%C3%A2-even-in-the-eyes-of-young-children-age-stereotyping-and-prejudice-in-childhood-and-adolescence
#16
Christin-Melanie Vauclair, Ricardo Borges Rodrigues, Sibila Marques, Carla Sofia Esteves, Filipa Cunha, Filomena Gerardo
This study aims to explore age prejudice, and to examine age stereotyping in children and adolescents by adopting the Stereotype Content Model (SCM) as a theoretical framework. It was hypothesised that children are socialised into adopting an ambivalent representation of old age (socialisation hypothesis) and that this cognitive bias becomes weaker in adolescence due to greater cognitive maturity (developmental hypothesis). By analysing representative data from Portugal (European Social Survey; N = 2367), it was ascertained that the ambivalent age stereotype (higher evaluations of warmth than competence for older people) is indeed a shared social representation of older people in Portuguese society...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473793/time-frame-affects-vantage-point-in-episodic-and-semantic-autobiographical-memory-evidence-from-response-latencies
#17
Jerzy J Karylowski, Blazej Mrozinski
Previous research suggests that, with the passage of time, representations of self in episodic memory become less dependent on their initial (internal) vantage point and shift toward an external perspective that is normally characteristic of how other people are represented. The present experiment examined this phenomenon in both episodic and semantic autobiographical memory using latency of self-judgments as a measure of accessibility of the internal vs. the external perspective. Results confirmed that in the case of representations of the self retrieved from recent autobiographical memories, trait-judgments regarding unobservable self-aspects (internal perspective) were faster than trait judgments regarding observable self-aspects (external perspective)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465518/invisible-body-illusion-modulates-interpersonal-space
#18
Mariano D'Angelo, Giuseppe di Pellegrino, Francesca Frassinetti
Interpersonal space (e.g., IPS) refers to the physical distance individuals maintain from others during social interactions, and into which intrusion by others can cause discomfort. Here, we asked whether the size of IPS is affected by manipulation of one's own body representation. To address this issue, in Experiment 1, IPS was measured through a comfort-distance task, before and after eliciting the illusion of owning an invisible body. To rule out a general, nonspecific change in space perception consequent the illusion, we also assessed peripersonal space, e...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463721/-how-can-anybody-be-representative-for-those-kind-of-people-forms-of-patient-representation-in-health-research-and-why-it-is-always-contestable
#19
Kath Maguire, Nicky Britten
Different discourses that co-exist within the world of patient and public involvement in health and social care mirror a tangle of historical, social, political and theoretical roots. These range from the radical activism, born of civil rights movements, to a more passive model in which patients are the recipients of information. This paper explores the concept of 'representation' and the ways the concept is used by people serving as 'patient' or 'lay' representatives in a range of roles within research projects, funding bodies and academic institutions...
June 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462981/german-muslims-and-their-engagement-in-participatory-culture-reflections-on-civic-and-artistic-contributions-to-the-public-sphere
#20
Asmaa Soliman
This paper examines publics of young German Muslims. Case studies include the singer Huelya Kandemir, the theatre group Uma Lamo and the social network Zahnräder. By focusing on spiritual music publics, theatrical comedy publics and social publics, it tries a new approach to the way in which we understand minority public engagement. In addition to examining the concept of counterpublics, it utilizes the concept of participatory culture, which offers a relevant complement. The study argues that the publics of young German Muslims display multifaceted artistic and civic engagement, which can best be understood in terms of participation in cultural or civic productions and contribution to the wider German public...
April 30, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
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