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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909181/stress-related-deficits-of-older-adults-spatial-working-memory-an-eeg-investigation-of-occipital-alpha-and-frontal-midline-theta-activities
#1
Amanda C Marshall, Nicholas Cooper, Livia Rosu, Steffan Kennett
Studies highlight cumulative life stress as a significant predictor of accelerated cognitive aging. This study paired electrophysiological with behavioral measures to explore how cumulative stress affects attentional and maintenance processes underpinning working memory retention. We collected electroencephalographic recordings from 60 individuals (30 older, 30 younger) reporting high or low levels of cumulative stress during the performance of a spatial Sternberg task. We measured mid-occipital alpha (8-12 Hz) and frontal-midline theta (4-6 Hz) as indicators of attentional and maintenance processes...
May 29, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909133/tuberculin-skin-test-reaction-is-related-to-memory-but-not-naive-cd4-t-cell-responses-to-mycobacterial-stimuli-in-bcg-vaccinated-young-adults
#2
Magdalena Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Piotr Szpakowski, Camille Locht, Franck Biet, Paulina Kaplonek, Krzysztof T Krawczyk, Joël Pestel, Wieslawa Rudnicka
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only vaccine available against tuberculosis and the tuberculin skin test (TST) is the most widely used method to detect BCG take. However, subjects may remain TST-negative, even after several BCG administrations. To investigate some of the potential reasons underlying this inability of developing tuberculin sensitivity in response to BCG we compared the effect of different mycobacterial stimuli in the groups differently responding to tuberculin. TST was performed on 71 healthy adults aged 25-30 years, who had received BCG in their childhood, and considered TST-positive at ≥10 mm...
June 13, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908963/nonfunctional-mutant-wrn-protein-leads-to-neurological-deficits-neuronal-stress-microglial-alteration-and-immune-imbalance-in-a-mouse-model-of-werner-syndrome
#3
Chin Wai Hui, Marie-Kim St-Pierre, Jérôme Detuncq, Lucie Aumailley, Marie-Julie Dubois, Vanessa Couture, Daniel Skuk, André Marette, Jacques P Tremblay, Michel Lebel, Marie-Ève Tremblay
Werner syndrome (WS) is a premature aging disorder caused by mutations in a RecQ-family DNA helicase, WRN. Mice lacking part of the helicase domain of the WRN orthologue exhibit many phenotypic features of WS, including metabolic abnormalities and a shorter lifespan. Yet, little is known about the impact of WRN mutations on the central nervous system in both humans and mouse models of WS. In the current study, we have performed a longitudinal behavioral assessment on mice bearing a Wrn helicase deletion. Behavioral tests demonstrated a loss of motor activity and coordination, reduction in perception, increase in repetitive behavior, and deficits in both spatial and social novelty memories in Wrn mutant mice compared to age-matched wild type mice...
June 14, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908790/association-of-neuronal-injury-in-the-genu-and-body-of-corpus-callosum-after-cranial-irradiation-in-children-with-impaired-cognitive-control-a-prospective-study
#4
Kristin J Redmond, Meghan Hildreth, Haris I Sair, Stephanie Terezakis, Todd McNutt, Lawrence Kleinberg, Kenneth J Cohen, Moody Wharam, Alena Horska, E Mark Mahone
PURPOSE: Brain radiation is associated with functional deficits in children. The purpose of this study was to examine white matter integrity as measured by diffusion tensor imaging and associations with region-specific radiation dose and neuropsychological functioning in children treated with cranial irradiation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 20 patients and 55 age- and sex-matched controls were included in the present study. Diffusion tensor imaging and neuropsychological assessments were conducted at baseline and 6, 15, and 27 months after treatment...
April 22, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908415/curvilinear-locus-coeruleus-functional-connectivity-trajectories-over-the-adult-lifespan-a-7t-mri-study
#5
Heidi I L Jacobs, Lisa Müller-Ehrenberg, Nikos Priovoulos, Alard Roebroeck
The locus coeruleus (LC) plays a crucial role in modulating several higher order cognitive functions via its widespread projections to the entire brain. We set out to investigate the hypothesis that LC functional connectivity (FC) may fluctuate nonlinearly with age and explored its relation to memory function. To that end, 49 cognitively healthy individuals (19-74 years) underwent ultra high-resolution 7T resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive testing. FC patterns from the LC to regions of the isodendritic core network and cortical regions were examined using region of interest-to-region of interest analyses...
May 24, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908286/il-6-deficiency-alters-spatial-memory-in-4-and-24-month-old-mice
#6
Izabela Bialuk, Andrzej Taranta, Maria Małgorzata Winnicka
Significance of interleukin 6 (IL-6) deficiency in cognitive processes was evaluated in 4- and 24-month-old C57BL/6J IL-6-deficient (IL-6 KO) and control (WT) mice in Morris water maze (MWM), holeboard test (HB) and elevated plus maze (EPM). During 3-day learning escape latency time (ELT) was longer in IL-6 KO than in WT mice, however their swimming was slower, floating longer, and path length did not differ. The comparison of ELT and the distance traveled between the first and the third learning day within each group revealed significant decrease of ELT in all groups with the highest difference in 4-month-old WT mice, and significant decrease of distance travelled only in both groups of WT mice...
June 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908256/the-protective-effect-of-%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-against-bisphenol-a-induced-neurobehavioral-toxicity
#7
Jasim Khan, Shikha Salhotra, Shahzad Ahmad, Shikha Sharma, Sayed Aliul Hasan Abdi, Basu Dev Banerjee, Suhel Parvez, Sarika Gupta, Sheikh Raisuddin
Bisphenol A (BPA), a well-known xenoestrogen, is ubiquitously utilized in manufacturing of polycarbonated plastics. Convincing evidence suggests that BPA induces neurotoxicity and certain behavioral deficits. α-Lipoic acid (ALA) supplementation has shown protective effect against heart and liver diseases, diabetes, and neurological debility associated with aging. We studied the neuromodulatory effect of ALA against neurotoxicity of BPA in vitro in C8-D1A mouse astrocyte cell line and in vivo in C57BL/6J male mice...
June 13, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907925/retest-effects-in-working-memory-capacity-tests-a-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Jana Scharfen, Katrin Jansen, Heinz Holling
The repeated administration of working memory capacity tests is common in clinical and research settings. For cognitive ability tests and different neuropsychological tests, meta-analyses have shown that they are prone to retest effects, which have to be accounted for when interpreting retest scores. Using a multilevel approach, this meta-analysis aims at showing the reproducibility of retest effects in working memory capacity tests for up to seven test administrations, and examines the impact of the length of the test-retest interval, test modality, equivalence of test forms and participant age on the size of retest effects...
June 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907498/implicit-motivation-improves-executive-functions-of-older-adults
#9
Shira Cohen-Zimerman, Ran R Hassin
It is widely accepted that while controlled processes (e.g., working memory and executive functions) decline with age, implicit (automatic) processes are not affected by age. In this paper we challenge this view by arguing that high-level automatic processes (e.g., recruiting motivation) decline with age, and that this decline plays an unappreciated role in cognitive aging. Specifically, we hypothesized that due to their decline, automatic motivational processes are less likely to be spontaneously activated in old age; thus, implicit external activation of them should have stronger effects on older (vs...
June 12, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906495/hiv-infection-across-aging-synergistic-effects-on-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-of-the-brain
#10
Anna R Egbert, Bharat Biswal, Keerthana Karunakaran, Agnieszka Pluta, Tomasz Wolak, Stephen Rao, Robert Bornstein, Bogna Szymańska, Andrzej Horban, Ewa Firląg-Burkacka, Marta Sobańska, Natalia Gawron, Przemysław Bieńkowski, Halina Sienkiewicz-Jarosz, Anna Ścińska-Bieńkowska, Emilia Łojek
The objective of the study was to examine additive and synergistic effects of age and HIV infection on resting state (RS) intra- and inter-network functional connectivity (FC) of the brain. We also aimed to assess relationships with neurocognition and determine clinical-, treatment-, and health-related factors moderating intrinsic brain activity in aging HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals. The current report presents data on 54 HIV+ individuals (age M = 41, SD = 12 years) stabilized on cART and 54 socio-demographically matched healthy (HIV-) comparators (age M = 43, SD = 12 years), with cohort education mean of 16 years (SD = 12)...
June 12, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906177/nonmonotonic-aging-and-memory-in-a-frictional-interface
#11
Sam Dillavou, Shmuel M Rubinstein
We measure the static frictional resistance and the real area of contact between two solid blocks subjected to a normal load. We show that following a two-step change in the normal load the system exhibits nonmonotonic aging and memory effects, two hallmarks of glassy dynamics. These dynamics are strongly influenced by the discrete geometry of the frictional interface, characterized by the attachment and detachment of unique microcontacts. The results are in good agreement with a theoretical model we propose that incorporates this geometry into the framework recently used to describe Kovacs-like relaxation in glasses as well as thermal disordered systems...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905824/milk-powder-added-to-a-school-meal-increases-cognitive-test-scores-in-ghanaian-children
#12
Reginald Lee, Lauren Singh, Danielle van Liefde, Meghan Callaghan-Gillespie, Matilda Steiner-Asiedu, Kwesi Saalia, Carly Edwards, Anja Serena, Tamara Hershey, Mark J Manary
Background: The inclusion of milk in school feeding is accepted as good nutritional practice, but specific benefits remain uncertain. Objective: The objective was to determine whether consumption of 8.8 g milk protein/d given as milk powder with a multiple micronutrient-enriched porridge resulted in greater increases in linear growth and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) scores in Ghanaian schoolchildren when compared with 1 of 3 control groups...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904929/role-of-first-year-maternal-employment-and-paternal-involvement-in-behavioral-and-cognitive-development-of-young-children
#13
Youngjo Im, Tyler J Vanderweele
Drawing on economic models of child development and attachment relationship perspectives, this study examined the effect of maternal employment in the first year after childbirth on subsequent behavioral and cognitive development in low-income children. Analyses of data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 411) revealed that despite the accompanying family income gains, maternal employment in the first year after childbirth adversely affected caregiver-reported internalizing and externalizing behavior problems of Hispanic, Black, and White children at ages 3 and 5 years...
June 15, 2018: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904644/neopterin-is-associated-with-hippocampal-subfield-volumes-and-cognition-in-hiv
#14
Debra A Fleischman, Konstantinos Arfanakis, Sue Leurgans, Sheila M Keating, Melissa Lamar, David A Bennett, Oluwatoyin M Adeyemi, Lisa L Barnes
Objective: HIV infection sets off an immediate immune response and inflammatory cascade that can lead to neuronal injury and cognitive impairment, but the relationship between immune markers, regional brain volumes, and cognition remains understudied in HIV-infected adults. Methods: Cross-sectional associations were examined between serum immune markers of activation (neopterin) and inflammation (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and C-reactive protein) with regional brain volumes (cortical, subcortical, total gray matter, hippocampus, and subfields) and cognition in 66 HIV-infected, virally suppressed, adults who underwent 3...
July 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904345/a-larger-social-network-enhances-novel-object-location-memory-and-reduces-hippocampal-microgliosis-in-aged-mice
#15
Bryon M Smith, Xinyue Yao, Kelly S Chen, Elizabeth D Kirby
The mammalian hippocampus shows marked decline in function with aging across many species, including humans and laboratory rodent models. This decline frequently manifests in memory impairments that occur even in the absence of dementia pathology. In humans, a number of factors correlate with preserved hippocampal memory in aging, such as exercise, cognitive stimulation and number of social ties. While interventional studies and animal models clearly indicate that exercise and cognitive stimulation lead to hippocampal preservation, there is relatively little research on whether a decline in social ties leads to cognitive decline or vice versa...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902208/brain-basis-of-cognitive-resilience-prefrontal-cortex-predicts-better-reading-comprehension-in-relation-to-decoding
#16
Smadar Z Patael, Emily A Farris, Jessica M Black, Roeland Hancock, John D E Gabrieli, Laurie E Cutting, Fumiko Hoeft
OBJECTIVE: The ultimate goal of reading is to understand written text. To accomplish this, children must first master decoding, the ability to translate printed words into sounds. Although decoding and reading comprehension are highly interdependent, some children struggle to decode but comprehend well, whereas others with good decoding skills fail to comprehend. The neural basis underlying individual differences in this discrepancy between decoding and comprehension abilities is virtually unknown...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902058/differential-effects-of-angry-faces-on-working-memory-updating-in-younger-and-older-adults
#17
Natalie Berger, Anne Richards, Eddy J Davelaar
Research suggests that cognition-emotion interactions change with age. In the present study, younger and older adults completed a 2-back task, and the effects of negative stimuli were analyzed as a function of their status in the n-back sequence. Older adults were found to benefit more from angry than from neutral probes relative to younger adults. However, they were slower when lures were angry and less accurate when lures and probes had the same emotion. The results suggest that recollection of the n-back sequence was reduced in older adults, making them more susceptible to the facilitating and impairing effects of negative emotion...
June 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901988/bio-spectroscopic-imaging-provides-evidence-of-hippocampal-zn-deficiency-and-decreased-lipid-unsaturation-in-an-accelerated-ageing-mouse-model
#18
Nicholas Fimognari, Ashley Hollings, Virginie Lam, Rebecca J Tidy, Cameron M Kewish, Matthew A Albrecht, Ryu Takechi, John C L Mamo, Mark J Hackett
Western society is facing a health epidemic due to the increasing incidence of dementia in ageing populations, and there are still few effective diagnostic methods, minimal treatment options, and no cure. Ageing is the greatest risk factor for memory loss that occurs during the natural ageing process, as well as being the greatest risk factor for neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, greater understanding of the biochemical pathways that drive a healthy ageing brain towards dementia (pathological ageing or Alzheimer's disease), is required to accelerate the development of improved diagnostics and therapies...
June 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901790/neurocognitive-profiles-of-older-adults-with-working-memory-dysfunction
#19
Alireza Salami, Anna Rieckmann, Nina Karalija, Bárbara Avelar-Pereira, Micael Andersson, Anders Wåhlin, Goran Papenberg, Douglas D Garrett, Katrine Riklund, Martin Lövdén, Ulman Lindenberger, Lars Bäckman, Lars Nyberg
Individuals differ in how they perceive, remember, and think. There is evidence for the existence of distinct subgroups that differ in cognitive performance within the older population. However, it is less clear how individual differences in cognition in old age are linked to differences in brain-based measures. We used latent-profile analysis on n-back working-memory (WM) performance to identify subgroups in a large sample of older adults (n = 181; age = 64-68 years). Our analysis identified one larger normal subgroup with higher performance (n = 113; 63%), and a second smaller subgroup (n = 55; 31%) with lower performance...
July 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901697/effects-of-amyloid-pathology-and-neurodegeneration-on-cognitive-change-in-cognitively-normal-adults
#20
Murat Bilgel, Yang An, Jessica Helphrey, Wendy Elkins, Gabriela Gomez, Dean F Wong, Christos Davatzikos, Luigi Ferrucci, Susan M Resnick
Understanding short-term cognitive decline in relation to Alzheimer's neuroimaging biomarkers in early stages of the development of neuropathology and neurodegeneration will inform participant recruitment and monitoring strategies in clinical trials aimed at prevention of cognitive impairment and dementia. We assessed associations among neuroimaging measures of cerebral amyloid pathology, a hallmark Alzheimer's neuropathology, hippocampal atrophy, and prospective cognition among 171 cognitively normal Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging participants (baseline age 56-95 years, 48% female, 562 cognitive assessments, 3...
June 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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