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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073992/ebola-virus-epidemic-in-west-africa-global-health-economic-challenges-lessons-learned-and-policy-recommendations
#1
Mahmoud Elmahdawy, Gihan H Elsisi, Joao Carapinha, Mohamed Lamorde, Abdulrazaq Habib, Peter Agyie-Baffour, Redouane Soualmi, Samah Ragab, Anthony W Udezi, Cyril Usifoh, Stella Usifoh
The Ebola virus has spread across several Western Africa countries, adding a significant financial burden to their health systems and economies. In this article the experience with Ebola is reviewed, and economic challenges and policy recommendations are discussed to help curb the impact of other diseases in the future. The West African Ebola virus disease epidemic started in resource-constrained settings and caused thousands of fatalities during the last epidemic. Nevertheless, given population mobility, international travel, and an increasingly globalized economy, it has the potential to re-occur and evolve into a global pandemic...
September 2017: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854137/the-development-of-standard-operating-procedures-for-social-mobilization-and-community-engagement-in-sierra-leone-during-the-west-africa-ebola-outbreak-of-2014-2015
#2
Danielle Pedi, Amaya Gillespie, Jamie Bedson, Mohamed F Jalloh, Mohammad B Jalloh, Alusine Kamara, Kathryn Bertram, Katharine Owen, Mohamed A Jalloh, Lansana Conte
This article describes the development of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for social mobilization and community engagement (SM/CE) in Sierra Leone during the Ebola outbreak of 2014-2015. It aims to (a) explain the rationale for a standardized approach, (b) describe the methodology used to develop the resulting SOPs, and (c) discuss the implications of the SOPs for future outbreak responses. Mixed methodologies were applied, including analysis of data on Ebola-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices; consultation through a national forum; and a series of workshops with more than 250 participants active in SM/CE in seven districts with recent confirmed cases...
2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826426/geospatial-analysis-of-household-spread-of-ebola-virus-in-a-quarantined-village-sierra-leone-2014
#3
B L Gleason, S Foster, G E Wilt, B Miles, B Lewis, K Cauthen, M King, F Bayor, S Conteh, T Sesay, S I Kamara, G Lambert, P Finley, W Beyeler, T Moore, J Gaudioso, P H Kilmarx, J T Redd
We performed a spatial-temporal analysis to assess household risk factors for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in a remote, severely-affected village. We defined a household as a family's shared living space and a case-household as a household with at least one resident who became a suspect, probable, or confirmed Ebola case from 1 August 2014 to 10 October 2014. We used Geographic Information System (GIS) software to calculate inter-household distances, performed space-time cluster analyses, and developed Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE)...
October 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748776/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-among-members-of-households-actively-monitored-or-quarantined-to-prevent-transmission-of-ebola-virus-disease-margibi-county-liberia-february-march-2015
#4
Jason A Wilken, Paran Pordell, Brant Goode, Rachel Jarteh, Zayzay Miller, Benjamin G Saygar, Leroy Maximore, Watta M Borbor, Moses Carmue, Gregory W Walker, Adolphus Yeiah
BACKGROUND: In early 2015, a patient from a cluster of cases of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in Monrovia, Liberia traveled to a rural village in Margibi County, potentially exposing numerous persons. The patient died in the village and post-mortem testing confirmed Ebola Virus infection. Problem The Margibi County Health Team (CHT; Kakata, Margibi, Liberia) needed to prevent further transmission of EVD within and outside of the affected villages, and they needed to better understand the factors that support or impede compliance with measures to stop the spread of EVD...
July 27, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721471/evaluations-of-interventions-using-mathematical-models-with-exponential-and-non-exponential-distributions-for-disease-stages-the-case-of-ebola
#5
Xiaojing Wang, Yangyang Shi, Zhilan Feng, Jingan Cui
Many mathematical models for the disease transmission dynamics of Ebola have been developed and studied, particularly during and after the 2014 outbreak in West Africa. Most of these models are systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). One of the common assumptions made in these ODE models is that the duration of disease stages, such as latent and infectious periods, follows an exponential distribution. Gamma distributions have also been used in some of these models. It has been demonstrated that, when the models are used to evaluate disease control strategies such as quarantine or isolation, the models with exponential and Gamma distribution assumptions may generate contradictory results (Feng et al...
July 18, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693453/an-account-of-the-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak-in-nigeria-implications-and-lessons-learnt
#6
Akaninyene Otu, Soter Ameh, Egbe Osifo-Dawodu, Enoma Alade, Susan Ekuri, Jide Idris
BACKGROUND: The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak remains unprecedented both in the number of cases, deaths and geographic scope. The first case of EVD was confirmed in Lagos Nigeria on 23 July 2014 and spread to involve 19 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases. The EVD cases were not limited to Lagos State as Rivers State recorded 2 confirmed cases of EVD with 1 out of the 2 dying. Swift implementation of public health measures were sufficient to forestall a country -wide spread of this dreaded disease...
July 10, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551366/modeling-spatial-invasion-of-ebola-in-west-africa
#7
Jeremy P D'Silva, Marisa C Eisenberg
The 2014-2016 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa was the largest ever recorded, representing a fundamental shift in Ebola epidemiology with unprecedented spatiotemporal complexity. To understand the spatiotemporal dynamics of EVD in West Africa, we developed spatial transmission models using a gravity-model framework at both the national and district-level scales, which we used to compare effectiveness of local interventions (e.g. local quarantine) and long-range interventions (e.g. border-closures)...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503359/maintaining-maternal-and-child-health-services-during-the-ebola-outbreak-experience-from-pujehun-sierra-leone
#8
GianLuca Quaglio, Damiano Pizzol, David Bome, Atiba Kebbie, Zainab Bangura, Vandi Massaquoi, Clara Frasson, Donata Dalla Riva, Giovanni Putoto
BACKGROUND: During the Ebola outbreak the overall confidence of the population in the national health system declined in Sierra Leone, with a reduction in the use of health services. The objective of this study is to provide information on understanding of how Ebola impacted maternal and child health services in Sierra Leone. Data come from an operational setting which is representative of the communities affected by the outbreak. METHODS: By integrating hospital registers and contact tracing form data with healthcare workers and local population interviews, the transmission chain was reconstructed...
June 2, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351976/comparing-nonpharmaceutical-interventions-for-containing-emerging-epidemics
#9
Corey M Peak, Lauren M Childs, Yonatan H Grad, Caroline O Buckee
Strategies for containing an emerging infectious disease outbreak must be nonpharmaceutical when drugs or vaccines for the pathogen do not yet exist or are unavailable. The success of these nonpharmaceutical strategies will depend on not only the effectiveness of isolation measures but also the epidemiological characteristics of the infection. However, there is currently no systematic framework to assess the relationship between different containment strategies and the natural history and epidemiological dynamics of the pathogen...
April 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317453/ebola-virus-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-control-threat-to-humans-lessons-learnt-and-preparedness-plans-an-update-on-its-40-year-s-journey
#10
Raj Kumar Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Yashpal Singh Malik, Muthannan Andavar Ramakrishnan, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Rekha Khandia, Ruchi Tiwari, Ashok Munjal, Mani Saminathan, Swati Sachan, Perumal Arumugam Desingu, Jobin Jose Kattoor, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Sunil Kumar Joshi
Ebola virus (EBOV) is an extremely contagious pathogen and causes lethal hemorrhagic fever disease in man and animals with high fatality rates. The recently occurred Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks in the West African countries have categorized it as an international health concern. For the virus maintenance and transmission, the non-human primates and reservoir hosts like fruit bats have played a vital role. Furthermore, the virus may also get transferred through contaminated biological fluids like breast milk, tears, urine, semen, blood, etc...
March 20, 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192745/accepted-monitoring-or-endured-quarantine-ebola-contacts-perceptions-in-senegal
#11
Alice Desclaux, Dioumel Badji, Albert Gautier Ndione, Khoudia Sow
During the 2014-2016 West Africa Ebola epidemic, transmission chains were controlled through contact tracing, i.e., identification and follow-up of people exposed to Ebola cases. WHO recommendations for daily check-ups of physical symptoms with social distancing for 21 days were unevenly applied and sometimes interpreted as quarantine. Criticisms arose regarding the use of coercion and questioned contact tracing on ethical grounds. This article aims to analyze contact cases' perceptions and acceptance of contact monitoring at the field level...
April 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118353/bolstering-community-cooperation-in-ebola-resurgence-protocols-combining-field-blood-draw-and-point-of-care-diagnosis
#12
Mosoka P Fallah, Laura A Skrip, Philomena Raftery, Miata Kullie, Watta Borbor, A Scott Laney, David J Blackley, Athalia Christie, Emily Kainne Dokubo, Terrence Q Lo, Stewart Coulter, April Baller, Benjamin T Vonhm, Philip Bemah, Sowillie Lomax, Adolphus Yeiah, Yatta Wapoe-Sackie, Jennifer Mann, Peter Clement, Gloria Davies-Wayne, Esther Hamblion, Caitlin Wolfe, Desmond Williams, Alex Gasasira, Francis Kateh, Tolbert G Nyenswah, Alison P Galvani
Alison Galvani and colleagues describe a community-based protocol to improve cooperation with Ebola testing as well as contact tracing, quarantining, and treatment.
January 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053360/countries-response-to-who-s-travel-recommendations-during-the-2013-2016-ebola-outbreak
#13
Wendy Rhymer, Rick Speare
OBJECTIVE: To determine how, during the 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in western Africa, States Parties to the World Health Organization's (WHO) 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR) followed the IHR's international travel recommendations. METHODS: In 2015, we used the Google search engine to investigate the 196 States Parties to the 2005 IHR. Information detailing Ebola-related travel regulations or restrictions of each State Party was sourced first from official government websites and then from travel and news websites...
January 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997940/australia-s-response-to-ebola-virus-disease-in-west-africa-2014-15
#14
Gwendolyn L Gilbert
In March 2016, the World Health Organization declared the 2014-15 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak officially over. With around 29 000 cases and 11 000 deaths in 27 months, this EVD outbreak was more than 60 times larger than any before, and unique in its cross-border spread and involvement of urban centres. Local and international responses were slow and initially inadequate, but establishment of the United Nations Mission for Ebola Emergency Response, 9 months after the outbreak began, allowed a coordinated effort that slowed and eventually controlled the spread of disease...
December 14, 2016: Public Health Research & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974995/the-ebola-crisis-and-the-corresponding-public-behavior-a-system-dynamics-approach
#15
Nasser Sharareh, Nasim S Sabounchi, Hiroki Sayama, Roderick MacDonald
BACKGROUND: The interaction of several sociocultural and environmental factors during an epidemic crisis leads to behavioral responses that consequently make the crisis control a complex problem. METHODS: The system dynamics approach has been adopted to study theĀ relationships between spread of disease, public attention, situational awareness, and community's response to the Ebola epidemic. RESULTS: In developing different simulation models to capture the trend of death and incidence data from the World Health Organization for the Ebola outbreak, the final model has the best fit to the historical trends...
November 3, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898018/combating-ebola-with-repurposed-therapeutics-using-the-cando-platform
#16
Gaurav Chopra, Sashank Kaushik, Peter L Elkin, Ram Samudrala
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is extremely virulent with an estimated mortality rate of up to 90%. However, the state-of-the-art treatment for EVD is limited to quarantine and supportive care. The 2014 Ebola epidemic in West Africa, the largest in history, is believed to have caused more than 11,000 fatalities. The countries worst affected are also among the poorest in the world. Given the complexities, time, and resources required for a novel drug development, finding efficient drug discovery pathways is going to be crucial in the fight against future outbreaks...
November 25, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895903/deliberate-exposure-of-humans-to-chlorine-the-aftermath-of-ebola-in-west-africa
#17
Shaheen Mehtar, Andre N H Bulabula, Haurace Nyandemoh, Steve Jambawai
BACKGROUND: During the recent Ebola outbreak, spraying of the environment and humans, including healthcare workers, with chlorine was wide spread in affected African countries; adverse clinical effects are reported here. METHODS: A cross sectional survey by interview of 1550 volunteers consisting of 500 healthcare workers (HCW), 550 Ebola survivors (EVD) and 500 quarantined asymptomatic Ebola contacts (NEVD) was conducted. Demographics, frequency of exposure to chlorine, clinical condition after chlorine exposure particularly eye, respiratory and skin conditions were noted...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846221/minimally-symptomatic-infection-in-an-ebola-hotspot-a-cross-sectional-serosurvey
#18
Eugene T Richardson, J Daniel Kelly, Mohamed Bailor Barrie, Annelies W Mesman, Sahr Karku, Komba Quiwa, Regan H Marsh, Songor Koedoyoma, Fodei Daboh, Kathryn P Barron, Michael Grady, Elizabeth Tucker, Kerry L Dierberg, George W Rutherford, Michele Barry, James Holland Jones, Megan B Murray, Paul E Farmer
INTRODUCTION: Evidence for minimally symptomatic Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is limited. During the 2013-16 outbreak in West Africa, it was not considered epidemiologically relevant to published models or projections of intervention effects. In order to improve our understanding of the transmission dynamics of EBOV in humans, we investigated the occurrence of minimally symptomatic EBOV infection in quarantined contacts of reported Ebola virus disease cases in a recognized 'hotspot.' METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional serosurvey in Sukudu, Kono District, Sierra Leone, from October 2015 to January 2016...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806049/containing-ebola-at-the-source-with-ring-vaccination
#19
Stefano Merler, Marco Ajelli, Laura Fumanelli, Stefano Parlamento, Ana Pastore Y Piontti, Natalie E Dean, Giovanni Putoto, Dante Carraro, Ira M Longini, M Elizabeth Halloran, Alessandro Vespignani
Interim results from the Guinea Ebola ring vaccination trial suggest high efficacy of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine. These findings open the door to the use of ring vaccination strategies in which the contacts and contacts of contacts of each index case are promptly vaccinated to contain future Ebola virus disease outbreaks. To provide a numerical estimate of the effectiveness of ring vaccination strategies we introduce a spatially explicit agent-based model to simulate Ebola outbreaks in the Pujehun district, Sierra Leone, structurally similar to previous modelling approaches...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676206/monoclonal-antibodies-for-the-treatment-of-ebola-virus-disease
#20
REVIEW
A L Moekotte, M A M Huson, A J van der Ende, S T Agnandji, E Huizenga, A Goorhuis, M P Grobusch
To date, the management of patients with suspected or confirmed Ebolavirus disease (EVD) depends on quarantine, symptomatic management and supportive care, as there are no approved vaccines or treatments available for human use. However, accelerated by the recent large outbreak in West Africa, significant progress has been made towards vaccine development but also towards specific treatment with convalescent plasma and monoclonal antibodies. Areas covered: We describe recent developments in monoclonal antibody treatment for EVD, encompassing mAb114 and the MB-003, ZMAb, ZMappā„¢ and MIL-77E cocktails...
November 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
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