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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898018/combating-ebola-with-repurposed-therapeutics-using-the-cando-platform
#1
Gaurav Chopra, Sashank Kaushik, Peter L Elkin, Ram Samudrala
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is extremely virulent with an estimated mortality rate of up to 90%. However, the state-of-the-art treatment for EVD is limited to quarantine and supportive care. The 2014 Ebola epidemic in West Africa, the largest in history, is believed to have caused more than 11,000 fatalities. The countries worst affected are also among the poorest in the world. Given the complexities, time, and resources required for a novel drug development, finding efficient drug discovery pathways is going to be crucial in the fight against future outbreaks...
November 25, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895903/deliberate-exposure-of-humans-to-chlorine-the-aftermath-of-ebola-in-west-africa
#2
Shaheen Mehtar, Andre N H Bulabula, Haurace Nyandemoh, Steve Jambawai
BACKGROUND: During the recent Ebola outbreak, spraying of the environment and humans, including healthcare workers, with chlorine was wide spread in affected African countries; adverse clinical effects are reported here. METHODS: A cross sectional survey by interview of 1550 volunteers consisting of 500 healthcare workers (HCW), 550 Ebola survivors (EVD) and 500 quarantined asymptomatic Ebola contacts (NEVD) was conducted. Demographics, frequency of exposure to chlorine, clinical condition after chlorine exposure particularly eye, respiratory and skin conditions were noted...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846221/minimally-symptomatic-infection-in-an-ebola-hotspot-a-cross-sectional-serosurvey
#3
Eugene T Richardson, J Daniel Kelly, Mohamed Bailor Barrie, Annelies W Mesman, Sahr Karku, Komba Quiwa, Regan H Marsh, Songor Koedoyoma, Fodei Daboh, Kathryn P Barron, Michael Grady, Elizabeth Tucker, Kerry L Dierberg, George W Rutherford, Michele Barry, James Holland Jones, Megan B Murray, Paul E Farmer
INTRODUCTION: Evidence for minimally symptomatic Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is limited. During the 2013-16 outbreak in West Africa, it was not considered epidemiologically relevant to published models or projections of intervention effects. In order to improve our understanding of the transmission dynamics of EBOV in humans, we investigated the occurrence of minimally symptomatic EBOV infection in quarantined contacts of reported Ebola virus disease cases in a recognized 'hotspot.' METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional serosurvey in Sukudu, Kono District, Sierra Leone, from October 2015 to January 2016...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806049/containing-ebola-at-the-source-with-ring-vaccination
#4
Stefano Merler, Marco Ajelli, Laura Fumanelli, Stefano Parlamento, Ana Pastore Y Piontti, Natalie E Dean, Giovanni Putoto, Dante Carraro, Ira M Longini, M Elizabeth Halloran, Alessandro Vespignani
Interim results from the Guinea Ebola ring vaccination trial suggest high efficacy of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine. These findings open the door to the use of ring vaccination strategies in which the contacts and contacts of contacts of each index case are promptly vaccinated to contain future Ebola virus disease outbreaks. To provide a numerical estimate of the effectiveness of ring vaccination strategies we introduce a spatially explicit agent-based model to simulate Ebola outbreaks in the Pujehun district, Sierra Leone, structurally similar to previous modelling approaches...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676206/monoclonal-antibodies-for-the-treatment-of-ebola-virus-disease
#5
A L Moekotte, M A M Huson, A J van der Ende, S T Agnandji, E Huizenga, A Goorhuis, M P Grobusch
To date, the management of patients with suspected or confirmed Ebolavirus disease (EVD) depends on quarantine, symptomatic management and supportive care, as there are no approved vaccines or treatments available for human use. However, accelerated by the recent large outbreak in West Africa, significant progress has been made towards vaccine development but also towards specific treatment with convalescent plasma and monoclonal antibodies. Areas covered: We describe recent developments in monoclonal antibody treatment for EVD, encompassing mAb114 and the MB-003, ZMAb, ZMapp™ and MIL-77E cocktails...
October 8, 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664539/news-media-coverage-of-u-s-ebola-policies-implications-for-communication-during-future-infectious-disease-threats
#6
Tara Kirk Sell, Crystal Boddie, Emma E McGinty, Keshia Pollack, Katherine Clegg Smith, Thomas A Burke, Lainie Rutkow
The Ebola outbreak of 2014-2015 raised concerns about the disease's potential spread in the U.S. and received significant news media coverage. Prior research has shown that news media coverage of policy options can influence public opinion regarding those policies, as well as public attitudes toward the broader social issues and target populations addressed by such policies. To assess news media coverage of Ebola policies, the content of U.S.-focused news stories (n=1262) published between July 1 and November 30, 2014 from 12 news sources was analyzed for 13 policy-related messages...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579053/a-mathematical-model-with-quarantine-states-for-the-dynamics-of-ebola-virus-disease-in-human-populations
#7
Gideon A Ngwa, Miranda I Teboh-Ewungkem
A deterministic ordinary differential equation model for the dynamics and spread of Ebola Virus Disease is derived and studied. The model contains quarantine and nonquarantine states and can be used to evaluate transmission both in treatment centres and in the community. Possible sources of exposure to infection, including cadavers of Ebola Virus victims, are included in the model derivation and analysis. Our model's results show that there exists a threshold parameter, R 0, with the property that when its value is above unity, an endemic equilibrium exists whose value and size are determined by the size of this threshold parameter, and when its value is less than unity, the infection does not spread into the community...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538685/ethical-considerations-surrounding-the-response-to-ebola-the-spanish-experience
#8
Miguel Ángel Royo-Bordonada, Fernando J García López
BACKGROUND: The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, with 28,646 reported cases and 11,323 deaths, was declared a public health emergency of international interest by the World Health Organisation. In Spain, a single reported case triggered a public health crisis of a markedly media-centred nature. The approach to the first EVD epidemic has given rise to various ethical considerations around the world. We address the most relevant ethical considerations emanating from the management of EVD in Spain...
2016: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446896/contact-tracing-during-an-outbreak-of-ebola-virus-disease-in-the-western-area-districts-of-sierra-leone-lessons-for-future-ebola-outbreak-response
#9
Olushayo Oluseun Olu, Margaret Lamunu, Miriam Nanyunja, Foday Dafae, Thomas Samba, Noah Sempiira, Fredson Kuti-George, Fikru Zeleke Abebe, Benjamin Sensasi, Alexander Chimbaru, Louisa Ganda, Khoti Gausi, Sonia Gilroy, James Mugume
INTRODUCTION: Contact tracing is a critical strategy required for timely prevention and control of Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks. Available evidence suggests that poor contact tracing was a driver of the EVD outbreak in West Africa, including Sierra Leone. In this article, we answered the question as to whether EVD contact tracing, as practiced in Western Area (WA) districts of Sierra Leone from 2014 to 2015, was effective. The goal is to describe contact tracing and identify obstacles to its effective implementation...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405359/optimal-control-analysis-of-ebola-disease-with-control-strategies-of-quarantine-and-vaccination
#10
Muhammad Dure Ahmad, Muhammad Usman, Adnan Khan, Mudassar Imran
BACKGROUND: The 2014 Ebola epidemic is the largest in history, affecting multiple countries in West Africa. Some isolated cases were also observed in other regions of the world. METHOD: In this paper, we introduce a deterministic SEIR type model with additional hospitalization, quarantine and vaccination components in order to understand the disease dynamics. Optimal control strategies, both in the case of hospitalization (with and without quarantine) and vaccination are used to predict the possible future outcome in terms of resource utilization for disease control and the effectiveness of vaccination on sick populations...
2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383118/the-role-of-interconnectivity-in-control-of-an-ebola-epidemic
#11
J C Blackwood, L M Childs
Several West African countries - Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea - experienced significant morbidity and mortality during the largest Ebola epidemic to date, from late 2013 through 2015. The extent of the epidemic was fueled by outbreaks in large urban population centers as well as movement of the pathogen between populations. During the epidemic there was no known vaccine or drug, so effective disease control required coordinated efforts that include both standard medical and community practices such as hospitalization, quarantine and safe burials...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344861/an-ebola-filovirus-is-discovered-in-the-usa-reston-virginia-usa-1989
#12
Jerry Jaax, Nancy K Jaax
In December of 1989, a shipment Cynomolgus sp. monkeys into the U.S. infected with Ebola virus resulted in a potential public health crisis. An emergency interagency effort to control the outbreak was mounted in Reston Virginia, the site of the nonhuman primate quarantine facility.
May 2016: Veterinary Heritage: Bulletin of the American Veterinary History Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27274326/critical-role-of-ethics-in-clinical-management-and-public-health-response-to-the-west-africa-ebola-epidemic
#13
REVIEW
Morenike O Folayan, Bridget G Haire, Brandon Brown
The devastation caused by the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa has brought to the fore a number of important ethical debates about how best to respond to a health crisis. These debates include issues related to prevention and containment, management of the health care workforce, clinical care, and research design, all of which are situated within the overarching moral problem of severe transnational disadvantage, which has very real and specific impacts upon the ability of citizens of EVD-affected countries to respond to a disease outbreak...
2016: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27257264/medical-mistrust-in-the-context-of-ebola-implications-for-intended-care-seeking-and-quarantine-policy-support-in-the-united-states
#14
Valerie A Earnshaw, Laura M Bogart, Michael Klompas, Ingrid T Katz
This investigation explores Ebola conspiracy beliefs, a form of medical mistrust, and their potential impact on health behavior. Results of an online survey in the United States in December 2014 demonstrated that 16 percent of 202 participants held conspiracy beliefs. Participants who were less knowledgeable about Ebola, more mistrustful of medical organizations, and more xenophobic more strongly endorsed conspiracy beliefs. Participants who more strongly endorsed conspiracy beliefs reported that they would be less likely to seek care for Ebola and were less supportive of quarantining people returning from West Africa...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252570/quarantine-and-liability-in-the-context-of-ebola
#15
Polly J Price
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27150412/quarantine-controversy-kaci-hickox-v-governor-chris-christie
#16
Robert Gatter
Nurse Kaci Hickox is among the "Ebola Fighters" honored by Time magazine as its 2014 Person of the Year, having treated Ebola patients in Sierra Leone while volunteering with Médecins Sans Frontieres. When she returned to the United States in October 2014, she was quarantined in New Jersey for three days before returning home to Maine under the terms of a negotiated release. A year later, in October 2015, Hickox filed suit in federal court against Governor Chris Christie and New Jersey health officials, claiming that the quarantine violated her civil rights...
May 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27049322/predicting-and-evaluating-the-epidemic-trend-of-ebola-virus-disease-in-the-2014-2015-outbreak-and-the-effects-of-intervention-measures
#17
Zuiyuan Guo, Dan Xiao, Dongli Li, Xiuhong Wang, Yayu Wang, Tiecheng Yan, Zhiqi Wang
We constructed dynamic Ebola virus disease (EVD) transmission models to predict epidemic trends and evaluate intervention measure efficacy following the 2014 EVD epidemic in West Africa. We estimated the effective vaccination rate for the population, with basic reproduction number (R0) as the intermediate variable. Periodic EVD fluctuation was analyzed by solving a Jacobian matrix of differential equations based on a SIR (susceptible, infective, and removed) model. A comprehensive compartment model was constructed to fit and predict EVD transmission patterns, and to evaluate the effects of control and prevention measures...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27032458/quarantine-for-zika-virus-where-is-the-science
#18
Kristi L Koenig
In January 2016, the World Health Organization warned that Zika virus is "spreading explosively" in the Americas and that up to 4 million infections could be present worldwide within a year. Soon thereafter, some politicians and authors publicly advocated for quarantine of travelers returning from regions where mosquitoes carrying Zika virus are prevalent. The public health tool of quarantine can be used to prevent the spread of infection by restricting the movement of persons who have been exposed to a deadly disease that can be transmitted from person to person before symptom onset...
April 1, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26865320/misconceptions-about-ebola-virus-disease-among-lay-people-in-guinea-lessons-for-community-education
#19
Lonzozou Kpanake, Komlantsè Gossou, Paul Clay Sorum, Etienne Mullet
To characterize the perception of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Guinea, we administered, from November 2014 to February 2015, a questionnaire to a convenience sample of 200 lay people in Conakry and a group of 8 physicians. We found widespread misconceptions among lay people, including that praying to God can protect against EVD, that traditional healers are more competent than physicians in treating EVD, that people get infected through physical proximity without contact, that the Ebola epidemic is the result of Western bioterrorism experiments, that Western medical staff disseminated the virus, and that the purpose of quarantine measures is to hasten the death of Ebola patients...
May 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26850106/-ebola-contacts-surveillance-social-impact-and-ethical-issues-in-senegal
#20
A Desclaux, A G Ndione, D Badji, K Sow
Quarantine has been widely used during the Ebola outbreak in West Africa mainly to control transmission chains. This measure raises ethical issues that require documentation of the modalities of quarantine at the field level and its social effects for contact persons. In Senegal, 74 people were in contact with the Ebola case coming from Guinea in September 2014. Of these, 34 members of the case's household were contained together at home and monitored by officers. The remaining 40 health care workers from two facilities were dispersed in their family households and monitored by telephone or during doctors' visits...
October 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
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