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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551366/modeling-spatial-invasion-of-ebola-in-west-africa
#1
Jeremy P D'Silva, Marisa C Eisenberg
The 2014-2015 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa was the largest ever recorded, representing a fundamental shift in Ebola epidemiology with unprecedented spatiotemporal complexity. To understand the spatiotemporal dynamics of EVD in West Africa, we developed spatial transmission models using a gravity-model framework at both the national and district-level scales, which we used to compare effectiveness of local interventions (e.g. local quarantine) and long-range interventions (e.g. border-closures)...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503359/maintaining-maternal-and-child-health-services-during-the-ebola-outbreak-experience-from-pujehun-sierra-leone
#2
GianLuca Quaglio, Damiano Pizzol, David Bome, Atiba Kebbie, Zainab Bangura, Vandi Massaquoi, Clara Frasson, Donata Dalla Riva, Giovanni Putoto
BACKGROUND: During the Ebola outbreak the overall confidence of the population in the national health system declined in Sierra Leone, with a reduction in the use of health services. The objective of this study is to provide information on understanding of how Ebola impacted maternal and child health services in Sierra Leone. Data come from an operational setting which is representative of the communities affected by the outbreak. METHODS: By integrating hospital registers and contact tracing form data with healthcare workers and local population interviews, the transmission chain was reconstructed...
June 2, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351976/comparing-nonpharmaceutical-interventions-for-containing-emerging-epidemics
#3
Corey M Peak, Lauren M Childs, Yonatan H Grad, Caroline O Buckee
Strategies for containing an emerging infectious disease outbreak must be nonpharmaceutical when drugs or vaccines for the pathogen do not yet exist or are unavailable. The success of these nonpharmaceutical strategies will depend on not only the effectiveness of isolation measures but also the epidemiological characteristics of the infection. However, there is currently no systematic framework to assess the relationship between different containment strategies and the natural history and epidemiological dynamics of the pathogen...
April 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317453/ebola-virus-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-control-threat-to-humans-lessons-learnt-and-preparedness-plans-an-update-on-its-40-year-s-journey
#4
Raj Kumar Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Yashpal Singh Malik, Muthannan Andavar Ramakrishnan, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Rekha Khandia, Ruchi Tiwari, Ashok Munjal, Mani Saminathan, Swati Sachan, Perumal Arumugam Desingu, Jobin Jose Kattoor, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Sunil Kumar Joshi
Ebola virus (EBOV) is an extremely contagious pathogen and causes lethal hemorrhagic fever disease in man and animals with high fatality rates. The recently occurred Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks in the West African countries have categorized it as an international health concern. For the virus maintenance and transmission, the non-human primates and reservoir hosts like fruit bats have played a vital role. Furthermore, the virus may also get transferred through contaminated biological fluids like breast milk, tears, urine, semen, blood, etc...
March 20, 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192745/accepted-monitoring-or-endured-quarantine-ebola-contacts-perceptions-in-senegal
#5
Alice Desclaux, Dioumel Badji, Albert Gautier Ndione, Khoudia Sow
During the 2014-2016 West Africa Ebola epidemic, transmission chains were controlled through contact tracing, i.e., identification and follow-up of people exposed to Ebola cases. WHO recommendations for daily check-ups of physical symptoms with social distancing for 21 days were unevenly applied and sometimes interpreted as quarantine. Criticisms arose regarding the use of coercion and questioned contact tracing on ethical grounds. This article aims to analyze contact cases' perceptions and acceptance of contact monitoring at the field level...
February 7, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118353/bolstering-community-cooperation-in-ebola-resurgence-protocols-combining-field-blood-draw-and-point-of-care-diagnosis
#6
Mosoka P Fallah, Laura A Skrip, Philomena Raftery, Miata Kullie, Watta Borbor, A Scott Laney, David J Blackley, Athalia Christie, Emily Kainne Dokubo, Terrence Q Lo, Stewart Coulter, April Baller, Benjamin T Vonhm, Philip Bemah, Sowillie Lomax, Adolphus Yeiah, Yatta Wapoe-Sackie, Jennifer Mann, Peter Clement, Gloria Davies-Wayne, Esther Hamblion, Caitlin Wolfe, Desmond Williams, Alex Gasasira, Francis Kateh, Tolbert G Nyenswah, Alison P Galvani
Alison Galvani and colleagues describe a community-based protocol to improve cooperation with Ebola testing as well as contact tracing, quarantining, and treatment.
January 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053360/countries-response-to-who-s-travel-recommendations-during-the-2013-2016-ebola-outbreak
#7
Wendy Rhymer, Rick Speare
OBJECTIVE: To determine how, during the 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in western Africa, States Parties to the World Health Organization's (WHO) 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR) followed the IHR's international travel recommendations. METHODS: In 2015, we used the Google search engine to investigate the 196 States Parties to the 2005 IHR. Information detailing Ebola-related travel regulations or restrictions of each State Party was sourced first from official government websites and then from travel and news websites...
January 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997940/australia-s-response-to-ebola-virus-disease-in-west-africa-2014-15
#8
Gwendolyn L Gilbert
In March 2016, the World Health Organization declared the 2014-15 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak officially over. With around 29 000 cases and 11 000 deaths in 27 months, this EVD outbreak was more than 60 times larger than any before, and unique in its cross-border spread and involvement of urban centres. Local and international responses were slow and initially inadequate, but establishment of the United Nations Mission for Ebola Emergency Response, 9 months after the outbreak began, allowed a coordinated effort that slowed and eventually controlled the spread of disease...
December 14, 2016: Public Health Research & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974995/the-ebola-crisis-and-the-corresponding-public-behavior-a-system-dynamics-approach
#9
Nasser Sharareh, Nasim S Sabounchi, Hiroki Sayama, Roderick MacDonald
BACKGROUND: The interaction of several sociocultural and environmental factors during an epidemic crisis leads to behavioral responses that consequently make the crisis control a complex problem. METHODS: The system dynamics approach has been adopted to study the relationships between spread of disease, public attention, situational awareness, and community's response to the Ebola epidemic. RESULTS: In developing different simulation models to capture the trend of death and incidence data from the World Health Organization for the Ebola outbreak, the final model has the best fit to the historical trends...
November 3, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898018/combating-ebola-with-repurposed-therapeutics-using-the-cando-platform
#10
Gaurav Chopra, Sashank Kaushik, Peter L Elkin, Ram Samudrala
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is extremely virulent with an estimated mortality rate of up to 90%. However, the state-of-the-art treatment for EVD is limited to quarantine and supportive care. The 2014 Ebola epidemic in West Africa, the largest in history, is believed to have caused more than 11,000 fatalities. The countries worst affected are also among the poorest in the world. Given the complexities, time, and resources required for a novel drug development, finding efficient drug discovery pathways is going to be crucial in the fight against future outbreaks...
November 25, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895903/deliberate-exposure-of-humans-to-chlorine-the-aftermath-of-ebola-in-west-africa
#11
Shaheen Mehtar, Andre N H Bulabula, Haurace Nyandemoh, Steve Jambawai
BACKGROUND: During the recent Ebola outbreak, spraying of the environment and humans, including healthcare workers, with chlorine was wide spread in affected African countries; adverse clinical effects are reported here. METHODS: A cross sectional survey by interview of 1550 volunteers consisting of 500 healthcare workers (HCW), 550 Ebola survivors (EVD) and 500 quarantined asymptomatic Ebola contacts (NEVD) was conducted. Demographics, frequency of exposure to chlorine, clinical condition after chlorine exposure particularly eye, respiratory and skin conditions were noted...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846221/minimally-symptomatic-infection-in-an-ebola-hotspot-a-cross-sectional-serosurvey
#12
Eugene T Richardson, J Daniel Kelly, Mohamed Bailor Barrie, Annelies W Mesman, Sahr Karku, Komba Quiwa, Regan H Marsh, Songor Koedoyoma, Fodei Daboh, Kathryn P Barron, Michael Grady, Elizabeth Tucker, Kerry L Dierberg, George W Rutherford, Michele Barry, James Holland Jones, Megan B Murray, Paul E Farmer
INTRODUCTION: Evidence for minimally symptomatic Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is limited. During the 2013-16 outbreak in West Africa, it was not considered epidemiologically relevant to published models or projections of intervention effects. In order to improve our understanding of the transmission dynamics of EBOV in humans, we investigated the occurrence of minimally symptomatic EBOV infection in quarantined contacts of reported Ebola virus disease cases in a recognized 'hotspot.' METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional serosurvey in Sukudu, Kono District, Sierra Leone, from October 2015 to January 2016...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806049/containing-ebola-at-the-source-with-ring-vaccination
#13
Stefano Merler, Marco Ajelli, Laura Fumanelli, Stefano Parlamento, Ana Pastore Y Piontti, Natalie E Dean, Giovanni Putoto, Dante Carraro, Ira M Longini, M Elizabeth Halloran, Alessandro Vespignani
Interim results from the Guinea Ebola ring vaccination trial suggest high efficacy of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine. These findings open the door to the use of ring vaccination strategies in which the contacts and contacts of contacts of each index case are promptly vaccinated to contain future Ebola virus disease outbreaks. To provide a numerical estimate of the effectiveness of ring vaccination strategies we introduce a spatially explicit agent-based model to simulate Ebola outbreaks in the Pujehun district, Sierra Leone, structurally similar to previous modelling approaches...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676206/monoclonal-antibodies-for-the-treatment-of-ebola-virus-disease
#14
REVIEW
A L Moekotte, M A M Huson, A J van der Ende, S T Agnandji, E Huizenga, A Goorhuis, M P Grobusch
To date, the management of patients with suspected or confirmed Ebolavirus disease (EVD) depends on quarantine, symptomatic management and supportive care, as there are no approved vaccines or treatments available for human use. However, accelerated by the recent large outbreak in West Africa, significant progress has been made towards vaccine development but also towards specific treatment with convalescent plasma and monoclonal antibodies. Areas covered: We describe recent developments in monoclonal antibody treatment for EVD, encompassing mAb114 and the MB-003, ZMAb, ZMapp™ and MIL-77E cocktails...
November 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664539/news-media-coverage-of-u-s-ebola-policies-implications-for-communication-during-future-infectious-disease-threats
#15
Tara Kirk Sell, Crystal Boddie, Emma E McGinty, Keshia Pollack, Katherine Clegg Smith, Thomas A Burke, Lainie Rutkow
The Ebola outbreak of 2014-2015 raised concerns about the disease's potential spread in the U.S. and received significant news media coverage. Prior research has shown that news media coverage of policy options can influence public opinion regarding those policies, as well as public attitudes toward the broader social issues and target populations addressed by such policies. To assess news media coverage of Ebola policies, the content of U.S.-focused news stories (n=1262) published between July 1 and November 30, 2014 from 12 news sources was analyzed for 13 policy-related messages...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579053/a-mathematical-model-with-quarantine-states-for-the-dynamics-of-ebola-virus-disease-in-human-populations
#16
Gideon A Ngwa, Miranda I Teboh-Ewungkem
A deterministic ordinary differential equation model for the dynamics and spread of Ebola Virus Disease is derived and studied. The model contains quarantine and nonquarantine states and can be used to evaluate transmission both in treatment centres and in the community. Possible sources of exposure to infection, including cadavers of Ebola Virus victims, are included in the model derivation and analysis. Our model's results show that there exists a threshold parameter, R 0, with the property that when its value is above unity, an endemic equilibrium exists whose value and size are determined by the size of this threshold parameter, and when its value is less than unity, the infection does not spread into the community...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538685/ethical-considerations-surrounding-the-response-to-ebola-the-spanish-experience
#17
Miguel Ángel Royo-Bordonada, Fernando J García López
BACKGROUND: The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, with 28,646 reported cases and 11,323 deaths, was declared a public health emergency of international interest by the World Health Organisation. In Spain, a single reported case triggered a public health crisis of a markedly media-centred nature. The approach to the first EVD epidemic has given rise to various ethical considerations around the world. We address the most relevant ethical considerations emanating from the management of EVD in Spain...
2016: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446896/contact-tracing-during-an-outbreak-of-ebola-virus-disease-in-the-western-area-districts-of-sierra-leone-lessons-for-future-ebola-outbreak-response
#18
Olushayo Oluseun Olu, Margaret Lamunu, Miriam Nanyunja, Foday Dafae, Thomas Samba, Noah Sempiira, Fredson Kuti-George, Fikru Zeleke Abebe, Benjamin Sensasi, Alexander Chimbaru, Louisa Ganda, Khoti Gausi, Sonia Gilroy, James Mugume
INTRODUCTION: Contact tracing is a critical strategy required for timely prevention and control of Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks. Available evidence suggests that poor contact tracing was a driver of the EVD outbreak in West Africa, including Sierra Leone. In this article, we answered the question as to whether EVD contact tracing, as practiced in Western Area (WA) districts of Sierra Leone from 2014 to 2015, was effective. The goal is to describe contact tracing and identify obstacles to its effective implementation...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405359/optimal-control-analysis-of-ebola-disease-with-control-strategies-of-quarantine-and-vaccination
#19
Muhammad Dure Ahmad, Muhammad Usman, Adnan Khan, Mudassar Imran
BACKGROUND: The 2014 Ebola epidemic is the largest in history, affecting multiple countries in West Africa. Some isolated cases were also observed in other regions of the world. METHOD: In this paper, we introduce a deterministic SEIR type model with additional hospitalization, quarantine and vaccination components in order to understand the disease dynamics. Optimal control strategies, both in the case of hospitalization (with and without quarantine) and vaccination are used to predict the possible future outcome in terms of resource utilization for disease control and the effectiveness of vaccination on sick populations...
July 13, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383118/the-role-of-interconnectivity-in-control-of-an-ebola-epidemic
#20
J C Blackwood, L M Childs
Several West African countries - Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea - experienced significant morbidity and mortality during the largest Ebola epidemic to date, from late 2013 through 2015. The extent of the epidemic was fueled by outbreaks in large urban population centers as well as movement of the pathogen between populations. During the epidemic there was no known vaccine or drug, so effective disease control required coordinated efforts that include both standard medical and community practices such as hospitalization, quarantine and safe burials...
2016: Scientific Reports
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