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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457208/children-deserve-smoke-free-world
#1
REVIEW
R Remesh Kumar, P R Jayakumar, R Krishna Mohan
Tobacco smoke, active or passive exposure was the major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the world during twentieth century and will continue to be the same in the twenty-first century also if the current trends continue. Both active and passive smoking are having significance in relation to child health. Exposure starts antenatally from placenta to the fetus and later phases through passive exposure to experimental and regular smoking and ultimately addiction and habitual smoking. Evidences are in favour of causal relationship with intrauterine growth restriction, sudden infant death syndrome, decreased pulmonary function, increased risk for respiratory tract infection, otitis media, wheeze, asthma, neurobehavioral disorders, cleft palate and triggering pathogenesis of fetal and childhood onset of adult diseases, especially pulmonary and cardio vascular diseases...
February 19, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457055/tuberculin-skin-test-conversion-and-primary-progressive-tuberculosis-disease-in-the-first-5-years-of-life-a-birth-cohort-study-from-cape-town-south-africa
#2
Leonardo Martinez, David M le Roux, Whitney Barnett, Attie Stadler, Mark P Nicol, Heather J Zar
Background: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of global childhood mortality. However, the epidemiology and burden of tuberculosis in infancy is not well understood. We aimed to investigate tuberculin skin test conversion and tuberculosis in the Drakenstein Child Health study, a South African birth cohort in a community in which tuberculosis incidence is hyperendemic. Methods: In this prospective birth cohort study, we enrolled pregnant women older than 18 years who were between 20 and 28 weeks' gestation and who were attending antenatal care in a peri-urban, impoverished South African setting...
January 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456992/national-immunization-campaigns-with-oral-polio-vaccine-reduce-all-cause-mortality-a-natural-experiment-within-seven-randomized-trials
#3
Andreas Andersen, Ane Baerent Fisker, Amabelia Rodrigues, Cesario Martins, Henrik Ravn, Najaaraq Lund, Sofie Biering-Sørensen, Christine Stabell Benn, Peter Aaby
Background: A recent WHO review concluded that live BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may have beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs) reducing mortality from non-targeted diseases. NSEs of oral polio vaccine (OPV) were not examined. If OPV vaccination campaigns reduce the mortality rate, it would suggest beneficial NSEs. Setting: Between 2002 and 2014, Guinea-Bissau had 15 general OPV campaigns and other campaigns with OPV plus vitamin A supplementation (VAS), VAS-only, MV, and H1N1 vaccine...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456230/isolated-renal-involvement-of-cytomegalovirus-inclusion-disease-in-an-infant
#4
Subramaniam Murugananth, Rajendran Padmaraj, Natarajan Gopalakrishnan, Rajendran Manorajan, Anila Abraham Kurien, Jeyachandran Dhanapriya, Thanigachalam Dineshkumar, Ramanathan Sakthirajan
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of congenital infections in humans occurring in 1% of all liveborns. Symptomatic congenital CMV infection involves multiple systems and causes significant morbidity and mortality in newborns. Isolated CMV infection of the kidneys in a living infant has not been reported in literature. Here, we report an infant who presented only with renomegaly and renal biopsy showed extensive CMV inclusions. Serum and urine polymerase chain reaction for CMV were positive, and CMV involvement of other organs was ruled out...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455264/mortality-rate-and-predictors-in-children-under-15-years-old-who-acquired-hiv-from-mother-to-child-transmission-in-paraguay
#5
Gloria Aguilar, Angélica Espinosa Miranda, George W Rutherford, Sergio Munoz, Nancy Hills, Tania Samudio, Fernando Galeano, Anibal Kawabata, Carlos Miguel Rios González
We estimated mortality rate and predictors of death in children and adolescents who acquired HIV through mother-to-child transmission in Paraguay. In 2000-2014, we conducted a cohort study among children and adolescents aged < 15 years. We abstracted data from medical records and death certificates. We used the Cox proportional hazards model for the multivariable analysis of mortality predictors. A total of 302 subjects were included in the survey; 216 (71.5%) were younger than 5 years, 148 (51.0%) were male, and 214 (70...
February 17, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454821/mortality-in-single-fathers-compared-with-single-mothers-and-partnered-parents-a-population-based-cohort-study
#6
Maria Chiu, Farah Rahman, Simone Vigod, Cindy Lau, John Cairney, Paul Kurdyak
BACKGROUND: Single parent families, including families headed by single fathers, are becoming increasingly common around the world. Previous evidence suggests that single parenthood is associated with adverse health outcomes and increased mortality; however, most studies have focused on single mothers, with little known about the health of single fathers. This study aimed to examine mortality in a large population-based sample of Canadian single fathers compared with single mothers and partnered fathers and mothers...
February 14, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452322/end-stage-liver-disease-in-patients-with-intracranial-hemorrhage-is-associated-with-increased-mortality-a-cohort-study
#7
Carlito Lagman, Daniel T Nagasawa, John P Sheppard, Cheng Hao Jacky Chen, Thien Nguyen, Giyarpuram N Prashant, Tianyi Niu, Alexander M Tucker, Won Kim, Nader Pouratian, Fady M Kaldas, Ronald W Busuttil, Isaac Yang
BACKGROUND: End-stage liver disease (ESLD) is a devastating consequence of hepatocyte destruction that is associated with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). OBJECTIVE: To determine if ESLD in patients with ICH is associated with increased mortality. METHODS: We performed a single-center, retrospective cohort study of 53 patients (33 ESLD and 20 non-ESLD patients) who received neurosurgical care between 2006 and 2017. The exposure of interest was ESLD defined clinically as severely impaired liver function and at least one major complication of liver failure...
February 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450195/insecticide-treated-nets-utilization-and-associated-factors-among-under-5-years-old-children-in-mirab-abaya-district-gamo-gofa-zone-ethiopia
#8
Amha Admasie, Amanuel Zemba, Wondimagegn Paulos
Background: Malaria can be prevented using cost-effective interventions. It can be prevented at large via the use of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs). The use of ITNs decreases malaria mortality rates by 55% in under-5 years old children in Africa, Ethiopia, realizing the effectiveness, scaling up distribution and utilization of ITNs to cover 100% of children less than 5 years of age. However, little is known about ITNs utilization and factors associated with the utilization in under-5 years old children in the study area yet...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449638/protection-from-experimental-cerebral-malaria-with-a-single-intravenous-or-subcutaneous-whole-parasite-immunization
#9
Kirsten Heiss, Marion Irmgard Maier, Angelika Hoffmann, Roland Frank, Martin Bendszus, Ann-Kristin Mueller, Johannes Pfeil
Cerebral malaria is a life-threatening complication of Plasmodia infection and a major cause of child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. We report that protection from experimental cerebral malaria in the rodent model is obtained by a single intravenous or subcutaneous whole-parasite immunization. Whole-parasite immunization with radiation-attenuated sporozoites was equally protective as immunization with non-attenuated sporozoites under chemoprophylaxis. Both immunization regimens delayed the development of blood-stage parasites, but differences in cellular and humoral immune mechanisms were observed...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444721/psychological-treatments-delivered-by-community-health-workers-in-low-resource-government-health-systems-effectiveness-of-group-interpersonal-psychotherapy-for-caregivers-of-children-affected-by-nodding-syndrome-in-uganda
#10
Byamah B Mutamba, Jeremy C Kane, Joop T V M de Jong, James Okello, Seggane Musisi, Brandon A Kohrt
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing evidence for the benefits of psychological treatments (PTs) in low- and middle-income countries, few national health systems have adopted PTs as standard care. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-G) intervention, when delivered by lay community health workers (LCHWs) in a low-resource government health system in Uganda. The intended outcome was reduction of depression among caregivers of children with nodding syndrome, a neuropsychiatric condition with high morbidity, mortality and social stigma...
February 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441503/utilization-of-intergovernmental-funds-to-implement-maternal-and-child-health-plans-of-a-multi-strategy-community-intervention-in-haryana-north-india-a-retrospective-assessment
#11
Madhu Gupta, Federica Angeli, Hans Bosma, Shankar Prinja, Manmeet Kaur, Onno C P van Schayck
INTRODUCTION: A multi-strategy community intervention known as the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) was implemented in India from 2005 to 2012 in an attempt to reduce maternal and child mortality. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the extent to which the NRHM's maternal and child health (MCH) sector plans were implemented. We observed trends in how intergovernmental (use of central government funds by state governments) budgets were allocated and used to implement MCH plans in Haryana, India...
December 2017: PharmacoEconomics Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441182/pediatric-cardiac-anamnesis-prevention-of-additional-diagnostic-tests
#12
REVIEW
Izet Masic, Zijo Begic, Nabil Naser, Edin Begic
Pediatrics is defined as the science of a healthy and sick child from birth to end of adolescence. Diseases of the cardiovascular system are the leading causes of mortality in adults, with frequent onset in childhood. The cardiologic examination starts with anamnesis in a pleasant atmosphere, refined space, enough time and patience, detailed measurements, and preferably a noncrying child. Anamnesis, regardless of the development of diagnostic procedures, still constitutes the basis of every clinical examination...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439672/renal-manifestations-of-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-patients-and-parents-knowledge-and-routines-for-renal-follow-up-a-questionnaire-study
#13
I Cockerell, M Guenin, K Heimdal, M Bjørnvold, K K Selmer, O Rouvière
BACKGROUND: Renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs) are a major clinical feature in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Spontaneous bleeding can be life threatening, and appropriate information and proper surveillance and management are important to limit morbidity and mortality. Because TSC is a rare disease, patients are at risk of suboptimal medical management. Our aim was to investigate patients' and parents' knowledge about renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs) in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) and to identify current routines for renal follow-up...
February 13, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439297/state-of-south-dakota-s-child-2017
#14
Ann L Wilson, Tyler Hemmingson, Brad Randall
There was a slight decrease in 2016 from 2015 in the total number of live births in South Dakota, but it was the fifth consecutive year that there were more than 12,000 newborns in the state. Nearly one-quarter of South Dakota's births represent minority populations mirroring what is observed nationally. Infant mortality in South Dakota dropped to its lowest ever rate per 1,000 live births (4.8) in 2016. Fewer births of less than 500 g newborns, increased survival of very low birth weight newborns, and a decrease in deaths due to congenital anomalies contributed to this low mortality rate...
January 2018: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439191/how-consistent-are-associations-between-maternal-and-paternal-education-and-child-growth-and-development-outcomes-across-39-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#15
Joshua Jeong, Rockli Kim, S V Subramanian
BACKGROUND: Maternal and paternal education are associated with improved early child outcomes. However, less is known about how these relative associations compare for preschool children's growth versus development outcomes; and across country contexts. METHODS: We analysed data from 89 663 children aged 36 to 59 months in 39 low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We used linear regression models with country fixed effects to estimate the joint associations between maternal and paternal education and children's growth and development outcomes...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438135/assessment-of-prognostic-performance-of-albumin-bilirubin-child-pugh-and-model-for-end-stage-liver-disease-scores-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis-complicated-with-acute-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#16
Sofia A Xavier, Ricardo Vilas-Boas, Pedro Boal Carvalho, Joana T Magalhães, Carla M Marinho, José B Cotter
OBJECTIVE: The Albumin-Bilirubin (ALBI) score was developed recently to assess the severity of liver dysfunction. We aimed to assess its prognostic performance in patients with liver cirrhosis complicated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) while comparing it with Child-Pugh (CP) and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective unicentric study, including consecutive adult patients with cirrhosis admitted for UGIB between January 2011 and November 2015...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437491/human-donor-milk-or-formula-a-qualitative-study-of-maternal-perspectives-on-supplementation
#17
Molly R Rabinowitz, Laura R Kair, Heather L Sipsma, Carrie A Phillipi, Ilse A Larson
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is fundamental to maternal and child health and is the most cost-effective intervention to reduce child mortality. Pasteurized human donor milk (HDM) is increasingly provided for term newborns requiring temporary supplementation. Few studies examine maternal perspectives on supplementation of term newborns. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted semistructured in-person interviews with mothers of term newborns (n = 24) during postpartum hospitalization...
February 13, 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436407/infant-deaths-from-congenital-anomalies-novel-use-of-child-death-overview-panel-data
#18
Catriona Firth, Emily Petherick, Sam J Oddie
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess Child Death Overview Panel (CDOP) data validity, and cause of death classification, by comparison with information from a local birth cohort study (Born in Bradford, BiB), and another cause of death coding system (causes of death and associated conditions-CODAC). We then aimed to use CDOP data to calculate ethnic-specific infant mortality rates (IMRs), and compare characteristics of infants who died of congenital anomalies (CA) with those who died from other causes (non-CA)...
February 7, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436403/chronic-interstitial-lung-disease-in-children
#19
REVIEW
Matthias Griese
Children's interstitial lung diseases (chILD) are increasingly recognised and contain many lung developmental and genetic disorders not yet identified in adult pneumology. Worldwide, several registers have been established. The Australasian Registry Network for Orphan Lung Disease (ARNOLD) has identified problems in estimating rare disease prevalence; focusing on chILD in immunocompetent patients, a period prevalence of 1.5 cases per million children and a mortality rate of 7% were determined. The chILD-EU register highlighted the workload to be covered per patient included and provided protocols for diagnosis and initial treatment, similar to the United States chILD network...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436101/chemoembolization-related-to-good-survival-for-selected-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-invading-segmental-portal-vein
#20
Jin Hyoung Kim, Ju Hyun Shim, Hyun-Ki Yoon, Heung-Kyu Ko, Jong Woo Kim, Dong Il Gwon
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We evaluated survival outcomes and prognostic factors associated with survival after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in a large cohort of 331 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with segmental portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT). METHODS: From 1997 to 2015, a total of 331 patients were included in this study from among 507 patients who underwent TACE as a first-line treatment for HCC with segmental PVTT. RESULTS: After TACE, the median survival of the whole cohort was 10...
February 13, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
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