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Samantha K Rowbotham, Soren Blau, Jacqueline Hislop-Jambrich
The term 'B.A.S.E jump' refers to jumping from a building, antenna, span (i.e., bridge) or earth (i.e., cliff) structure, and parachuting to the ground. There are numerous hazards associated with B.A.S.E jumps which often result in injury and, occasionally, fatality. This case report details the skeletal trauma resulting from a fatal B.A.S.E jump in Australia. In this case, the jumper impacted the ground from a fall of 439m in a feet-first landing position, as a result of a partially deployed parachute, under extreme vertical deceleration...
February 27, 2018: Forensic Science International
Briony J Murphy, Lyndal C Bugeja, Jennifer L Pilgrim, Joseph E Ibrahim
OBJECTIVES: Suicide among nursing home residents is a growing public health concern, currently lacking in empirical research. This study aims to describe the frequency and nature of suicide among nursing home residents in Australia. METHODS: This research comprised a national population-based retrospective analysis of suicide deaths among nursing home residents in Australia reported to the Coroner between July 2000 and December 2013. Cases were identified using the National Coronial Information System, and data collected from paper-based coroners' records on individual, incident, and organizational factors, as well as details of the medico-legal death investigation...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Luca D Borruso, Nicholas A Buckley, Katharine A Kirby, Gregory Carter, Jennifer L Pilgrim, Kate M Chitty
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between alcohol co-ingestion in an index deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) episode with repeated DSP and subsequent suicide. A retrospective cohort study was conducted involving 5,669 consecutive index presentations to a toxicology service following DSP between January 1, 1996, and October 31, 2010. Records were probabilistically matched to National Coronial Information System data to identify subsequent suicide. Index DSPs were categorized on co-ingestion of alcohol, and primary outcomes analyzed were repetition of any DSP, rates of repeated DSP, time to first repeat DSP, and subsequent suicide...
March 2, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
S S M Chang, R C A Symons, J Ozanne-Smith
INTRODUCTION: Extensive efforts to reduce unintentional injury were enacted in the last three decades of the 20th century. Examination of road traffic injury mortality indicates the extent of fatal, unintentional child injuries (0-14 years) future interventions must address. AIMS: (1) describe in-depth child road traffic injury (RTI) deaths 2001-2012 in Victoria, Australia (2) identify the potential preventability of the RTI causes by currently available countermeasures and scope for enhanced implementation and novel solutions...
December 21, 2017: Injury
Jacob S Gipson, Erica M Wood, Merrole F Cole-Sinclair, Zoe McQuilten, Neil Waters, Noel W Woodford
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to describe the epidemiology of major bleeding fatalities. METHODS: A case series analysis of Australia's National Coronial Information System was conducted. Keywords were used to search for closed cases of major haemorrhage in the state of Victoria for the period 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2011. Coroners' findings, autopsy reports and police reports of cases were reviewed. Demographic data were extracted, and cases were assigned to a clinical bleeding context...
December 10, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Richard C Franklin, Amy E Peden
Four-sided, non-climbable pool fencing is an effective strategy for preventing children from drowning in home swimming pools. In 2009, the Queensland Government introduced legislation to improve the effectiveness of pool fencing. This study explores community attitudes towards the effectiveness of these legislative changes and examines child (<5 years) drowning deaths in pools. Data from the 2011 Queensland Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) Social Survey include results from questions related to pool ownership and pool fencing legislation...
November 24, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ria E Hopkins, Malcolm Dobbin, Jennifer L Pilgrim
INTRODUCTION: Misuse of paracetamol, codeine and doxylamine combination analgesics may lead to addiction and mortality. This study aimed to (1) identify unintentional deaths in Australia associated with use of combination analgesic products containing paracetamol, codeine and doxylamine; (2) describe cases characteristics, including demographics and additional medication use; and (3) identify common factors associated with misuse and mortality of these medicines in Australia. DESIGN: This retrospective case series analysed National Coronial Information System data to identify cases of unintentional death attributable to paracetamol, codeine and doxylamine products between 2002 and 2012...
January 2018: Forensic Science International
Tony Lower, Margaret Rolfe, Noeline Monaghan
Agriculture is recognized internationally as a hazardous industry. This article describes the trends and patterns of unintentional farm fatalities in Australia. Data from the National Coronial Information System were analyzed to assess all unintentional farm fatalities for the 2001-2015 period. A secondary comparison with earlier coronial system data from 1989-1992 was also completed to ascertain historical changes. There was no statistically significant change in the rate of work-related fatalities per 100,000 workers in the 2001-2015 period...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
Briony Murphy, Lyndal Bugeja, Jennifer Pilgrim, Joseph E Ibrahim
OBJECTIVES: To describe the frequency and nature of deaths from resident-to-resident aggression (RRA) in nursing homes in Australia. DESIGN: National population-based retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Accredited nursing homes in Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Residents whose deaths resulted from RRA and were reported to the coroner between July 1, 2000, and December 31, 2013. MEASUREMENTS: Cases were identified using the National Coronial Information System, and data on individual, interpersonal, organizational, and societal factors were collected through review of the paper-based coroners' files...
December 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Lyndal Bugeja, Marta H Woolford, Melissa Willoughby, David Ranson, Joseph E Ibrahim
BACKGROUND: Coroners are tasked with the investigation of unnatural and unexpected deaths. In Australia, the coroner's role also includes making recommendations for promoting interventions to improve public safety. However, the coroners' role in public health and safety in the aged care setting is an underexplored area of research. OBJECTIVES: To describe the frequency and nature of coroners' recommendations for prevention of harm from injury-related deaths among nursing home residents in Australia...
September 22, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Ben Beck, Peter A Cameron, Mark C Fitzgerald, Rodney T Judson, Warwick Teague, Ronan A Lyons, Belinda J Gabbe
OBJECTIVE: To investigate temporal trends in the incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and costs of health loss caused by serious road traffic injury. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective review of data from the population-based Victorian State Trauma Registry and the National Coronial Information System on road traffic-related deaths (pre- and in-hospital) and major trauma (Injury Severity Score > 12) during 2007-2015.Main outcomes and measures: Temporal trends in the incidence of road traffic-related major trauma, mortality, DALYs, and costs of health loss, by road user type...
September 18, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
Elspeth E Shipton, Ashleigh J Shipton, Jonathan A Williman, Edward A Shipton
INTRODUCTION: In the late 1990s multiple physicians and advocacy organizations promoted increased use of opioids for the treatment of acute, chronic and cancer pain. There has been an exponential growth in opioid prescribing in the last 20 years in the United States of America, in Australia, and in other developed Western countries. There are negative consequences associated with the liberal use of opioids. The primary aim of this population-based cohort study is to investigate the opioid-related death rate in New Zealand between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2012...
December 2017: Pain and Therapy
Gary Cheung, Gwendolyn Douwes, Frederick Sundram
CONTEXT: Previous studies have reported significantly elevated standardized mortality rates in older people with cancer. Terminally ill people represent a unique group where suicide may be considered as rational. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study are to compare the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of older people with and without terminal cancer who died by suicide and analyze the suicide motives of those with terminal cancer to determine whether they represent rational suicide...
December 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Kate Churruca, Rebecca Mitchell
BACKGROUND: In countries like the United States and the United Kingdom, systematic variation in the classification of intent in pharmaceutical poisoning deaths have been identified between jurisdictions. This study aimed to explore whether the coronial determination of intent (unintentional, intentional, undetermined) for pharmaceutical-related poisoning deaths may have affected death rates over time and by jurisdiction in Australia. METHODS: A retrospective examination of mortality records in the National Coronial Information System (NCIS) during 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2013 was conducted...
August 1, 2017: BMC Public Health
Christopher I Johnston, Nicole M Ryan, Colin B Page, Nicholas A Buckley, Simon Ga Brown, Margaret A O'Leary, Geoffrey K Isbister
OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology, treatment and adverse events after snakebite in Australia. DESIGN: Prospective, multicentre study of data on patients with snakebites recruited to the Australian Snakebite Project (2005-2015) and data from the National Coronial Information System. Setting, participants: Patients presenting to Australian hospitals with suspected or confirmed snakebites from July 2005 to June 2015 and consenting to participation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic data, circumstances of bites, clinical effects of envenoming, results of laboratory investigations and snake venom detection kit (SVDK) testing, antivenom treatment and adverse reactions, time to discharge, deaths...
August 7, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
Rebbecca Lilley, Tony Lower, Gabrielle Davie
OBJECTIVE: This study compares the patterns of quad-related fatal injuries between Australia and New Zealand (NZ). METHOD: Fatal injuries from July 2007 to June 2012 involving a quad (quad bike or all-terrain vehicle) were identified from coronial files. Data described the socio-demographic, injury, vehicle and environment factors associated with incidents. Injury patterns were compared between countries. RESULTS: A total of 101 quad-related fatalities were identified: 69 in Australia and 32 in NZ (7...
July 16, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Andrew Harris
The Department of Health has completed its consultation on the nature of the new medical examiner system and supporting regulations. This article considers whether the regulations for death notification to coroners are fit for purpose in the light of the medical literature on unnatural deaths and the experience of a coroner in a jurisdiction with a heavy workload from specialist hospital referrals. It concludes that they are to be welcomed, but that they should not rely on natural/unnatural death as a criterion for notification of deaths during the course of medical treatment, or refer to 'neglect'...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
Andrew Harris
In the United Kingdom, when people die, either a doctor writes an acceptable natural cause of death medical certificate, or a coroner (fiscal in Scotland) investigates the case, usually with an autopsy. An inquest may or may not follow. The concept of 'natural or unnatural cause' death is not internationally standardized. This article reviews scientific evidence as to what is a natural death or unnatural death and how that relates to the international classification of deaths. Whilst there is some consensus on the definition, its application in considering whether to report to the coroner is more difficult...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
Anri Forrest, Warwick W Butt, Siva P Namachivayam
OBJECTIVES: Paediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is an uncommon event but is associated with high mortality and severe neurological sequelae among survivors. Most studies of paediatric OHCA are population-based, with very few reports on the cohort admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). We sought to determine outcomes and predictors of neurologically intact survival in these children admitted to the PICU. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective analysis of data prospectively collected from the PICU and emergency department (ED) databases and cross-checked with medical records and coronial reports for January 2005 to December 2014...
June 2017: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
Stephen Leadbeatter, Ryk James
BACKGROUND: Despite public inquiries, and some changes to legislation following high-profile multiple homicides that were not detected by autopsy, coroners continue to rely largely on the autopsy. Regardless of the extent of quality failings and excess deaths at some hospitals, not detected through the coroner system, the autopsy is scarcely used by hospitals to monitor standards and educate. OBJECTIVE: To explore when a compulsory medicolegal autopsy should, and should not, be used...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
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