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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140917/medical-trainees-experiences-of-treating-people-with-chronic-pain-a-lost-opportunity-for-medical-education
#1
Kathleen Rice, Jae Eun Ryu, Cynthia Whitehead, Joel Katz, Fiona Webster
PURPOSE: Evidence suggests that physicians' opinions about chronic pain patients become progressively negative over the course of medical training, leading to a decline in empathy for these patients. Few qualitative studies have focused on this issue and thus the experiences shaping this process remain unexplored. This study addressed how medical trainees learn about chronic pain management through informal and formal curricula. METHOD: This study adopted a descriptive qualitative interview-based approach informed by the theoretical lens of the hidden curriculum...
November 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102786/social-interaction-with-a-cagemate-in-pain-increases-allogrooming-and-induces-pain-hypersensitivity-in-the-observer-rats
#2
Yun-Fei Lu, Bo Ren, Bin-Fang Ling, Jing Zhang, Chen Xu, Zhen Li
Empathy, which is a highly cognitive and emotional process, is the ability to share the emotional states of others. Empathy has also been observed in rodents. The empathic sharing of the distressful experience of a conspecific can even motivate altruistic behaviors, which are critical for survival. However, previous studies investigating empathy or prosocial behaviors in rodents mainly employed fearful or other stressful stimuli to elicit emotional changes; whether pain empathy can also motivate prosocial behaviors has yet to be investigated...
November 7, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101130/examining-the-effects-of-enhanced-provider-patient-communication-on-postoperative-tonsillectomy-pain-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial-performed-by-nurses-in-daily-clinical-care
#3
Liesbeth M van Vliet, Sandra van Dulmen, Bram Thiel, Gerard W van Deelen, Stephanie Immerzeel, Marc B Godfried, Jozien M Bensing
INTRODUCTION: Placebo effects (true biopsychological effects not attributable to the active ingredients of medical technical interventions) can be attributed to several mechanisms, such as expectancy manipulation and empathy manipulation elicited by a provider's communication. So far, effects have primarily been shown in laboratory settings. The aim of this study is to determine the separate and combined effects of expectancy manipulation and empathy manipulation during preoperative and postoperative tonsillectomy analgesia care on clinical adult patients' outcomes...
November 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055680/oxytocin-increases-attention-to-the-eyes-and-selectively-enhances-self-reported-affective-empathy-for-fear
#4
Kelly Hubble, Katie Daughters, Antony S R Manstead, Aled Rees, Anita Thapar, Stephanie H M van Goozen
Oxytocin (OXT) has previously been implicated in a range of prosocial behaviors such as trust and emotion recognition. Nevertheless, recent studies have questioned the evidence for this link. In addition, there has been relatively little conclusive research on the effect of OXT on empathic ability and such studies as there are have not examined the mechanisms through which OXT might affect empathy, or whether OXT selectively facilitates empathy for specific emotions. In the current study, we used eye-tracking to assess attention to socially relevant information while participants viewed dynamic, empathy-inducing video clips, in which protagonists expressed sadness, happiness, pain or fear...
October 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037252/experiences-of-midwives-on-pharmacological-and-non-pharmacological-labour-pain-management-in-ghana
#5
Lydia Aziato, Abigail A Kyei, Godsway Deku
BACKGROUND: Due to the debilitating effects of severe labour pains, labour pain management continues to be an important subject that requires much attention. Thus, this study sought to gain a detailed insight into the experiences of midwives on pharmacological and non-pharmacological labour pain management strategies in a resource limited clinical context. METHODS: A descriptive exploratory qualitative design was adopted for this study which allowed in-depth follow-up of the midwives' comments resulting in a full understanding of emerging findings...
October 16, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035178/patient-perspectives-on-communication-with-primary-care-physicians-about-chronic-low-back-pain
#6
Sarah Evers, Clarissa Hsu, Karen J Sherman, Ben Balderson, Rene Hawkes, Georgie Brewer, Anne-Marie La Porte, John Yeoman, Dan Cherkin
OBJECTIVES: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a common health problem with challenges for providing satisfactory care. This study was undertaken to identify opportunities to improve key aspects of physicians' communications with CLBP-affected patients. METHODS: A series of 3 focus groups, each with 7 to 11 patients with CLBP, were recruited from primary care settings and grouped by risk level of reduced function resulting from back pain, to elicit perspectives about interactions with their primary care physicians...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024187/diversity-of-oxytocin-neurons-beyond-magno-and-parvocellular-cell-types
#7
REVIEW
Ferdinand Althammer, Valery Grinevich
The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), which is evolutionarily conserved among different species throughout the animal kingdom, is a key modulator of a variety of socio-emotional behaviors such as fear, trust and empathy. OT cells in the mammalian hypothalamus have been traditionally divided into two distinct types - magnocellular (magnOT) and parvocellular (parvOT) or preautonomic neurons. This distinction is based on OT cell sizes and shapes, projections, electrophysiological activity and functions...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016846/impact-of-empathy-in-the-patient-doctor-relationship-on-chronic-pain-relief-and-quality-of-life-a-prospective-study-in-spanish-pain-clinics
#8
Luz Cánovas, Antonio-José Carrascosa, Modesto García, Mariano Fernández, Almudena Calvo, Vicente Monsalve, José-Francisco Soriano
Objective: To assess the impact of the empathy of physicians, perceived by patients with chronic pain, regarding pain relief and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL). Methods: A prospective noninterventional study was conducted in 2,898 patients with moderate to severe chronic pain who were referred to pain clinics. The same physician visited each patient at baseline and after one and three months. Study questionnaires included the Jefferson Scale of Patient Perceptions of Physician Empathy (JSPPPE), the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R), the Pain Coping Questionnaire (CAD-R), the Brief Pain Inventory Short Form (BPI-SF), and the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D)...
July 13, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993727/pain-processing-in-a-social-context-and-the-link-with-psychopathic-personality-traits-an-event-related-potential-study
#9
Casper H van Heck, Josi M A Driessen, Maria Amato, Marnou N van den Berg, Pritha Bhandari, Laura Bilbao-Broch, Jordi Farres-Casals, Manon Hendriks, Adrian C Jodzio, Laura Luque-Ballesteros, Christina Schöchl, Laura R Velasco-Angeles, Roel H A Weijer, Clementina M van Rijn, Marijtje L A Jongsma
Empathy describes the ability to understand another person's feelings. Psychopathy is a disorder that is characterized by a lack of empathy. Therefore, empathy and psychopathy are interesting traits to investigate with respect to experiencing and observing pain. The present study aimed to investigate pain empathy and pain sensitivity by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) extracted from the ongoing EEG in an interactive setup. Each participant fulfilled subsequently the role of "villain" and "victim"...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979199/empathy-pain-and-attention-cues-that-predict-pain-stimulation-to-the-partner-and-the-self-capture-visual-attention
#10
Lingdan Wu, Ursula Kirmse, Tobias Flaisch, Ganna Boiandina, Anna Kenter, Harald T Schupp
Empathy motivates helping and cooperative behaviors and plays an important role in social interactions and personal communication. The present research examined the hypothesis that a state of empathy guides attention towards stimuli significant to others in a similar way as to stimuli relevant to the self. Sixteen couples in romantic partnerships were examined in a pain-related empathy paradigm including an anticipation phase and a stimulation phase. Abstract visual symbols (i.e., arrows and flashes) signaled the delivery of a Pain or Nopain stimulus to the partner or the self while dense sensor event-related potentials (ERPs) were simultaneously recorded from both persons...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979194/the-locus-coeruleus-norepinephrine-system-mediates-empathy-for-pain-through-selective-up-regulation-of-p2x3-receptor-in-dorsal-root-ganglia-in-rats
#11
Yun-Fei Lü, Yan Yang, Chun-Li Li, Yan Wang, Zhen Li, Jun Chen
Empathy for pain (vicariously felt pain), an ability to feel, recognize, understand and share the painful emotions of others, has been gradually accepted to be a common identity in both humans and rodents, however, the underlying neural and molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Recently, we have developed a rat model of empathy for pain in which pain can be transferred from a cagemate demonstrator (CD) in pain to a naïve cagemate observer (CO) after 30 min dyadic priming social interaction. The naïve CO rats display both mechanical pain hypersensitivity (hyperalgesia) and enhanced spinal nociception...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963465/the-oxytocinergic-system-modulates-sadistic-context-dependent-empathy-in-humans
#12
Siyang Luo, Yiyi Zhu, Ying Xu, Qianting Kong
The oxytocinergic system is crucial for sociality and well-being and is associated with empathy. It is suggested that the oxytocinergic system exerts context- and person-dependent effects. We examined how sexual sadistic contexts influenced the effects of the oxytocinergic system on empathic-related behaviors and brain activity in healthy adults. Combining genetic neuroimaging, pharmacological techniques and a psychological paradigm of empathy, we recorded EEG neural responses in female OXTR rs53756 G/G and A/A carriers and measured subjective empathic ratings after intranasal administration of oxytocin/placebo in healthy male adults during the perception of painful facial expressions in sadistic/general social contexts...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956347/unending-narrative-one-sided-empathy-and-problematic-contexts-of-interaction-in-david-foster-wallace-s-the-depressed-person
#13
Ellen Defossez
In 1997, David Foster Wallace published "The Depressed Person," a short story about a privileged, deeply unhappy woman dedicated to exploring and recounting the texture and etiology of her chronic depression. This essay argues that "The Depressed Person" challenges the long-standing assumption that narrativizing the pain of depression is crucial to overcoming it, and the contemporary view that empathic responses from others promote recovery of the depressed. Taken together, these two critiques inform Wallace's portrayal of chronic depression as an interactive phenomenon that is articulated, sustained, and regenerated through problematic contexts of interaction...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951236/the-effects-of-dissociation-on-willingness-to-eat-meat-are-moderated-by-exposure-to-unprocessed-meat-a-cross-cultural-demonstration
#14
Jonas R Kunst, Christian Andrés Palacios Haugestad
Dissociating meat from its animal origins helps consumers deal with the cognitive dissonance resulting from liking meat but disliking causing pain to animals. Extending previous research, we tested whether dissociation would play less of a role for meat consumption in a country where average consumers are more frequently exposed to unprocessed meat (i.e., Ecuador) than where such exposure is rare (i.e., the US). Specifically, we randomly showed Ecuadorians and US Americans a pork roast with the head present or removed...
January 1, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947790/the-effect-of-sleep-restriction-on-empathy-for-pain-an-fmri-study-in-younger-and-older-adults
#15
Sandra Tamm, Gustav Nilsonne, Johanna Schwarz, Claus Lamm, Göran Kecklund, Predrag Petrovic, Håkan Fischer, Torbjörn Åkerstedt, Mats Lekander
Age and sleep both affect emotional functioning. Since sleep patterns change over the lifespan, we investigated the effects of short sleep and age on empathic responses. In a randomized cross-over experimental design, healthy young and older volunteers (n = 47 aged 20-30 years and n = 39 aged 65-75 years) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) after normal sleep or night sleep restricted to 3 hours. During fMRI, participants viewed pictures of needles pricking a hand (pain) or Q-tips touching a hand (control), a well-established paradigm to investigate empathy for pain...
September 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928643/how-situational-context-impacts-empathic-responses-and-brain-activation-patterns
#16
Yawei Cheng, Chenyi Chen, Jean Decety
Clinical empathy, which is defined as the ability to understand the patient's experience and feelings from the patient's perspective, is acknowledged to be an important aspect of quality healthcare. However, how work experience modulates the empathic responses and brain activation patterns in medical professions remains elusive. This fMRI study recruited one hundred female nurses, who varied the length of work experience, and examined how their neural response, functional connectivity, and subjective evaluations of valence and arousal to perceiving another individual in physical pain are modulated by the situational context in which they occur (i...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921770/does-an-observer-s-empathy-influence-my-pain-effect-of-perceived-empathetic-or-unempathetic-support-on-a-pain-test
#17
C Fauchon, I Faillenot, A M Perrin, C Borg, V Pichot, F Chouchou, L Garcia-Larrea, R Peyron
The physiological and behavioural effects of empathy for other's pain have been widely investigated, while the opposite situation, i.e. the influence on one's pain of empathetic feedback from others, remains largely unexplored. Here, we assessed whether and how empathetic and unempathetic comments from observers modulate pain and associated vegetative reactions. In Study 1, conversations between observers of a pain study were recorded by professional actors. Comments were prepared to be perceived as empathetic, unempathetic or neutral, and were validated in 40 subjects...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904379/a-screening-mechanism-differentiating-true-from-false-pain-during-empathy
#18
Ya-Bin Sun, Xiao-Xiao Lin, Wen Ye, Ning Wang, Jin-Yan Wang, Fei Luo
Empathizing with another's suffering is important in social interactions. Empathic behavior is selectively elicited from genuine, meaningful pain but not from fake, meaningless scenarios. However, the brain's screening mechanism of false information from meaningful events and the time course for the screening process remains unclear. Using EEG combined with principle components analysis (PCA) techniques, here we compared temporal neurodynamics between the observation of pain and no-pain pictures as well as between true (painful expressions and needle-penetrated arms) and false (needle-penetrated faces with neutral expressions) pain pictures...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891381/the-impact-of-empathy-and-reappraisal-on-emotional-intensity-recognition
#19
Navot Naor, Simone G Shamay-Tsoory, Gal Sheppes, Hadas Okon-Singer
Empathy represents a fundamental ability that allows for the creation and cultivation of social bonds. As part of the empathic process, individuals use their own emotional state to interpret the content and intensity of other people's emotions. Therefore, the current study was designed to test two hypotheses: (1) empathy for the pain of another will result in biased emotional intensity judgment; and (2) changing one's emotion via emotion regulation will modulate these biased judgments. To test these hypotheses, in experiment one we used a modified version of a well-known task that triggers an empathic reaction We found that empathy resulted in biased emotional intensity judgment...
September 11, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884471/the-complexity-of-empathy-during-medical-school-training-evidence-for-positive-changes
#20
Karen E Smith, Greg J Norman, Jean Decety
CONTEXT: Empathy is an essential aspect of clinical care, associated with improved patient satisfaction, increased adherence to treatment, and fewer malpractice complaints. Previous studies suggest that empathy declines during medical training. However, past research relied on a single narrowly operationalised, self-report measure of empathy. As empathy is a complex socio-emotional construct, it is critical to assess changes across its distinct components using multiple measures in order to better understand how it is influenced by medical training...
November 2017: Medical Education
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