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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632770/men-women%C3%A2-who-cares-a-population-based-study-on-sex-differences-and-gender-roles-in-empathy-and-moral-cognition
#1
Sandra Baez, Daniel Flichtentrei, María Prats, Ricardo Mastandueno, Adolfo M García, Marcelo Cetkovich, Agustín Ibáñez
Research on sex differences in empathy has revealed mixed findings. Whereas experimental and neuropsychological measures show no consistent sex effect, self-report data consistently indicates greater empathy in women. However, available results mainly come from separate populations with relatively small samples, which may inflate effect sizes and hinder comparability between both empirical corpora. To elucidate the issue, we conducted two large-scale studies. First, we examined whether sex differences emerge in a large population-based sample (n = 10,802) when empathy is measured with an experimental empathy-for-pain paradigm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615963/frequency-dependent-changes-in-sensorimotor-and-pain-affective-systems-induced-by-empathy-for-pain
#2
Yoshimasa Motoyama, Katsuya Ogata, Sumio Hoka, Shozo Tobimatsu
BACKGROUND: Empathy for pain helps us to understand the pain of others indirectly. To better comprehend the processing of empathic pain, we report the frequency-dependent modulation of cortical oscillations induced by watching movies depicting pain using high-density electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and motor evoked potentials (MEP). METHODS: Event-related desynchronization of EEG and MEG was assessed while participants viewed videos of painful (needle) or neutral (cotton swab) situations...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607375/the-role-of-touch-in-regulating-inter-partner-physiological-coupling-during-empathy-for-pain
#3
Pavel Goldstein, Irit Weissman-Fogel, Simone G Shamay-Tsoory
The human ability to synchronize with other individuals is critical for the development of social behavior. Recent research has shown that physiological inter-personal synchronization may underlie behavioral synchrony. Nevertheless, the factors that modulate physiological coupling are still largely unknown. Here we suggest that social touch and empathy for pain may enhance interpersonal physiological coupling. Twenty-two romantic couples were assigned the roles of target (pain receiver) and observer (pain observer) under pain/no-pain and touch/no-touch conditions, and their ECG and respiration rates were recorded...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606909/-treated-as-a-number-not-treated-as-a-person-a-qualitative-exploration-of-the-perceived-barriers-to-effective-pain-management-of-patients-with-chronic-pain
#4
Muhammad Abdul Hadi, David Phillip Alldred, Michelle Briggs, Kathryn Marczewski, S José Closs
OBJECTIVES: To identify barriers to effective pain management encountered by patients with chronic pain within the UK's National Health Service (NHS). DESIGN: Secondary analysis of face-to-face, semistructured qualitative interviews using thematic analysis. SETTING: A community-based chronic pain clinic jointly managed by a nurse and pharmacist located in the North of England. PARTICIPANTS: Nineteen adult (>18 years) patients with chronic pain discharged from a pain clinic, with the ability to understand and speak the English language...
June 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604575/my-child-my-patient
#5
Rashmi Kumar
Many times, we make decisions in our lives that have unanticipated impacts. Decisions made can change our careers and outlook toward life. As a younger doctor, I considered illness and disease abstractions, and good management with optimal outcomes for the patient was our focus, as we strive toward our professional goals. But having experienced the real pain and helplessness that patients and their parents undergo during critical illnesses, the importance of empathy together with the knowledge and skills needed to treat a child should never be undervalued...
June 9, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593600/developmental-changes-in-empathic-concern-and-self-understanding-in-toddlers-at-genetic-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Susan B Campbell, Elizabeth L Moore, Jessie Northrup, Celia A Brownell
Toddlers with an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and low risk (LR) toddlers were observed at 22, 28, and 34 months during two empathy probes: a crying baby and an adult who pretended to hurt her finger. Toddlers with a later ASD diagnosis showed less empathic concern and self-distress at each age on both empathy probes than LR toddlers. HR toddlers with no diagnosis showed growth in empathic concern between 22 and 34 months in response to the adult's pain, differing from the children with ASD, but not the LR children, by 34 months...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556774/functional-mri-examination-of-empathy-for-pain-in-people-with-schizophrenia-reveals-abnormal-activation-related-to-cognitive-perspective-taking-but-typical-activation-linked-to-affective-sharing
#7
Damien Vistoli, Marie-Audrey Lavoie, Stephanie Sutliff, Philip L Jackson, Amélie M Achim
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with important disturbances in empathy that are related to everyday functioning. Empathy is classically defined as including affective (sharing others' emotions) and cognitive (taking others' cognitive perspectives) processes. In healthy individuals, studies on empathy for pain revealed specific brain systems associated with these sets of processes, notably the anterior middle cingulate (aMCC) and anterior insula (AI) for affective sharing and the bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ) for the cognitive processes, but the integrity of these systems in patients with schizophrenia remains uncertain...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555773/sex-differences-in-empathy-for-pain-what-is-the-role-of-autonomic-regulation
#8
Lincoln M Tracy, Melita J Giummarra
Empathy involves both affective and cognitive components whereby we understand, and express concerns for, the experiences of others. Women typically have superior trait empathy compared with men, which seems to have a neurological basis with sex differences in the structure and function of neural networks involved in empathy. This study investigated sex differences in empathy for pain using the Empathy for Pain Scale, and examined whether these trait differences were associated with disruptions in autonomic regulation, specifically via the parasympathetic nervous system (measured through the square root of the mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals; RMSSD) both at rest and during a socioevaluative stress task (i...
May 27, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532892/a-decade-of-studying-implicit-racial-ethnic-bias-in-healthcare-providers-using-the-implicit-association-test
#9
Ivy W Maina, Tanisha D Belton, Sara Ginzberg, Ajit Singh, Tiffani J Johnson
Disparities in the care and outcomes of US racial/ethnic minorities are well documented. Research suggests that provider bias plays a role in these disparities. The implicit association test enables measurement of implicit bias via tests of automatic associations between concepts. Hundreds of studies have examined implicit bias in various settings, but relatively few have been conducted in healthcare. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize the current knowledge on the role of implicit bias in healthcare disparities...
May 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532273/childhood-trauma-affects-processing-of-social-interactions-in-borderline-personality-disorder-an-event-related-potential-study-investigating-empathy-for-pain
#10
Vera Flasbeck, Björn Enzi, Martin Brüne
OBJECTIVES: Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have difficulties in empathising with others and show disturbances in social interactions. Using a 'Social Interaction Empathy Task', we found that BPD patients judged neutral and psychologically painful conditions as more painful than healthy subjects. Here, we present the neural correlates underlying these differences in empathy for pain. METHODS: Female BPD patients and healthy controls completed the 'Social Interaction Empathy Task' during EEG recording...
June 15, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523733/the-development-of-cognitive-empathy-and-concern-in-preschool-children-a-behavioral-neuroscience-investigation
#11
Jean Decety, Kimberly L Meidenbauer, Jason M Cowell
This developmental neuroscience study examined the electrophysiological responses (EEG and ERPs) associated with perspective taking and empathic concern in preschool children, as well as their relation to parental empathy dispositions and children's own prosocial behavior. Consistent with a body of previous studies using stimuli depicting somatic pain in both children and adults, larger early (~200 ms) ERPs were identified when perceiving painful versus neutral stimuli. In the slow wave window (~800 ms), a significant interaction of empathy condition and stimulus type was driven by a greater difference between painful and neutral images in the empathic concern condition...
May 18, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512439/long-time-exposure-to-violent-video-games-does-not-show-desensitization-on-empathy-for-pain-an-fmri-study
#12
Xuemei Gao, Wei Pan, Chao Li, Lei Weng, Mengyun Yao, Antao Chen
As a typical form of empathy, empathy for pain refers to the perception and appraisal of others' pain, as well as the corresponding affective responses. Numerous studies investigated the factors affecting the empathy for pain, in which the exposure to violent video games (VVGs) could change players' empathic responses to painful situations. However, it remains unclear whether exposure to VVG influences the empathy for pain. In the present study, in terms of the exposure experience to VVG, two groups of participants (18 in VVG group, VG; 17 in non-VVG group, NG) were screened from nearly 200 video game experience questionnaires...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504364/mindfulness-meditation-regulates-anterior-insula-activity-during-empathy-for-social-pain
#13
Davide Laneri, Sören Krach, Frieder M Paulus, Philipp Kanske, Verena Schuster, Jens Sommer, Laura Müller-Pinzler
Mindfulness has been shown to reduce stress, promote health, and well-being, as well as to increase compassionate behavior toward others. It reduces distress to one's own painful experiences, going along with altered neural responses, by enhancing self-regulatory processes and decreasing emotional reactivity. In order to investigate if mindfulness similarly reduces distress and neural activations associated with empathy for others' socially painful experiences, which might in the following more strongly motivate prosocial behavior, the present study compared trait, and state effects of long-term mindfulness meditation (LTM) practice...
May 15, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501312/preschoolers-social-experiences-and-empathy-based-responding-relate-to-their-fair-resource-allocation
#14
Markus Paulus, Miriam Leitherer
Although the development of fairness has become a topic of wide interest, little is known about the correlates and factors that relate to the early ontogeny of fairness-related decision making in preschoolers. The current study assessed 5-year-old children's consideration of existing inequalities in their resource allocation decisions, that is, their tendency to allocate more resources to poor others than to rich others. In addition, children's prosocial responding toward others in pain, the amount of their social interaction experiences, and their social-cognitive abilities were assessed...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494105/empathy-in-pediatric-intensive-care-nurses-part-2-neural-correlates
#15
Philip L Jackson, Margot Latimer, Fanny Eugène, Emily Macleod, Tara Hatfield, Etienne Vachon-Presseau, Pierre-Emmanuel Michon, Kenneth M Prkachin
AIMS: To determine if there are brain activity differences between pediatric intensive care nurses and allied health professionals during pain intensity rating tasks and test whether these differences are related to the population observed (infant or adult) and professional experience. BACKGROUND: The underestimation of patients' pain by healthcare professionals has generally been associated with patterns of change in neural response to vicarious pain, notably reduced activation in regions associated with affective sharing and increased activation in regions associated with regulation, compared with controls...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493595/empathy-in-pediatric-intensive-care-nurses-part-1-behavioral-and-psychological-correlates
#16
Margot Latimer, Philip L Jackson, Fanny Eugène, Emily Macleod, Tara Hatfield, Etienne Vachon-Presseau, Pierre-Emmanuel Michon, Kenneth M Prkachin
AIM: To determine if differences exist between pediatric intensive care nurses and allied health professionals in empathy, secondary trauma, burnout, pain exposure and pain ratings of self and others. Early and late career differences were also examined. BACKGROUND: Nurses are routinely exposed to patient pain expression. This work context may make them vulnerable to adverse outcomes such as desensitization to patient pain or a compromise in personal wellbeing. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493169/empathy-for-distress-in-humans-and-rodents
#17
REVIEW
Jun Chen
Empathy is traditionally thought to be a unique ability of humans to feel, understand, and share the emotional state of others. However, the notion has been greatly challenged by the emerging discoveries of empathy for pain or distress in rodents. Because empathy is believed to be fundamental to the formation of prosocial, altruistic, and even moral behaviors in social animals and humans, studies associated with decoding the neural circuits and unraveling the underlying molecular and neural mechanisms of empathy for pain or distress in rodents would be very important and encouraging...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483718/the-impact-of-individuation-on-the-bases-of-human-empathic-responding
#18
John E Kiat, Jacob E Cheadle
While there is substantial overlap in the neural systems underlying empathy for people we know as opposed to strangers, social distance has been shown to significantly moderate empathic neural responses towards the negative experiences of others. Intriguingly however, variance in empathic neural responses towards known and unknown targets has not been reflected by behavioral differences as indexed by self-reported empathic ratings. One explanation for this disconnect is that empathic evaluations of known and unknown individuals draw on different bases (e...
May 5, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471255/reducing-the-cost-of-caring-in-cancer-care-evaluation-of-a-pilot-interprofessional-compassion-fatigue-resiliency-programme
#19
Kathryn A Pfaff, Laurie Freeman-Gibb, Linda J Patrick, Rita DiBiase, Olivia Moretti
Compassion fatigue (CF) is a combination of secondary traumatic stress and burnout. Empathy becomes depleted among professional caregivers due to repeated exposure to emotional pain. Negative effects include decreased general wellbeing, impaired caregiver health and diminished team functioning. Intervention is needed to support caregiver quality of life and team relationships in high-stress work environments. This pilot study evaluated the impact of a pilot CF resiliency (CFR) programme on interprofessional staff at a regional cancer centre...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449372/the-impact-of-mood-on-empathy-for-pain-evidence-from-an-eeg-study
#20
Xiang Li, Xianxin Meng, Hong Li, Jiemin Yang, Jiajin Yuan
The current work investigated whether the neural correlates of empathy for pain are altered by mood valence of observers. Following mood induction, participants watched pictures representing painful or nonpainful situations. We used EEG to record neural activity and assessed event-related desynchronization at central sites during pain observation. Greater mu desynchronization was observed during painful relative to nonpainful situations in positive and neutral mood but not in negative mood. We also found that the pain empathy effect, indexed by mu suppression differences between painful and nonpainful conditions, was smaller in negative than in neutral and positive mood, while this effect was similar between neutral and positive mood...
April 27, 2017: Psychophysiology
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