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Conditioned pain modulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822987/effects-of-a-water-extract-of-lepidium-meyenii-root-in-different-models-of-persistent-pain-in-rats
#1
Barbara Tenci, Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, Mario Maresca, Laura Micheli, Giuseppe Pieraccini, Nadia Mulinacci, Carla Ghelardini
Lepidium meyenii (Walp.), commonly called maca, is an Andean crop belonging to the Brassicaceae family. Maca hypocotils are habitually consumed as customary food as well as traditional remedies for pathological conditions such as infertility. Moreover, the characterization of maca extracts revealed the presence of compounds that are able to modulate the nervous system. Aimed to evaluate the efficacy of L. meyenii in persistent pain, the present study analyzed the effects of a commercial root extract from maca in different animal models reproducing the most common causes of chronic painful pathologies...
August 21, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814894/startle-modulation-by-heat-pain-with-varying-threat-levels-in-chronic-pain-patients-and-pain-free-controls
#2
C Horn-Hofmann, D Wolf, S Wolff, M Heesen, K Knippenberg-Bigge, P M Lang, S Lautenbacher
BACKGROUND: Empirical evidence suggests that affective responses to pain are changed in chronic pain. The investigation of startle responses to pain might contribute to clarifying whether such alterations also expand to motivational defensive reactions. We aimed at comparing startle responses to tonic heat pain with high threat (HT) or low threat (LT) in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain and controls. As pain-related anxiety and catastrophizing are typically elevated in chronic pain, we expected to find stronger startle responses in patients specifically under experimental HT...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805288/conditioned-pain-modulation-is-affected-by-occlusion-cuff-conditioning-stimulus-intensity-but-not-duration
#3
A Smith, A Pedler
BACKGROUND: Various conditioned pain modulation (CPM) methodologies have been used to investigate diffuse noxious inhibitory control pain mechanisms in healthy and clinical populations. Occlusion cuff parameters have been poorly studied. We aimed to investigate whether occlusion cuff intensity and/or duration influenced CPM magnitudes. We also investigated the role of physical activity levels on CPM magnitude. METHODS: Two studies were performed to investigate the role of intensity and duration of occlusion cuff conditioning stimulus on test stimulus (tibialis anterior pressure pain thresholds)...
August 14, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802882/chronic-opioid-therapy-modifies-qst-changes-following-ketamine-infusion-in-chronic-pain-patients
#4
Dermot P Maher, Yi Zhang, Shihab Ahmed, Tina Doshi, Charlene Malarick, Kristin Stabach, Jianren Mao, Lucy Chen
The long-term effects of opioids on sensitization processes are believed to be mediated through the NDMA receptor. QST changes observed following a ketamine infusion have been previously described but the effect that chronic opioids will have is not known. The results of this prospective randomized factorial trial compared the thermal QST changes observed following a 0.05 mg/kg ketamine infusion or a saline placebo in chronic pain subjects who were either opioid-naïve or were chronically using opioids for chronic non-cancer pain are presented...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801523/dietary-modulation-of-oxylipins-in-cardiovascular-disease-and-aging
#5
Stephanie P B Caligiuri, Mihir Parikh, Aleksandra Stamenkovic, Grant N Pierce, Harold M Aukema
Oxylipins are a group of fatty acid metabolites generated via oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and are involved in processes such as inflammation, immunity, pain, vascular tone and coagulation. As a result, oxylipins are implicated in many conditions characterized by these processes including cardiovascular disease and aging. The best characterized oxylipins in relation to cardiovascular disease are derived from the ω-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid. These oxylipins generally increase inflammation, hypertension and platelet aggregation, although not universally...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799972/increased-pain-sensitivity-in-accident-related-chronic-pain-patients-with-comorbid-posttraumatic-stress
#6
Henrik Bjarke Vaegter, Tonny Elmose Andersen, Mathea Harvold, Per Grunwald Andersen, Thomas Graven-Nielsen
OBJECTIVES: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is prevalent in chronic pain, and associated with increased pain, hyperalgesia and psychological distress. This study aimed to investigate anti-nociceptive and pro-nociceptive pain mechanisms, pain intensity, and psychological distress (depression, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, and fear of movement) in patients with accident-related chronic spinal pain with (N=44) and without (N=64) comorbid PTSD characteristics. METHODS: Cuff algometry was performed on lower legs to assess pressure pain threshold (cPPT), tolerance (cPTT), temporal summation of pain (TSP: increase in pain scores to ten repeated stimulations), and conditioning pain modulation (CPM: increase in cPPT during cuff pain conditioning on the contralateral leg)...
August 9, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799796/immune-modulation-by-curcumin-the-role-of-interleukin-10
#7
Hamid Mollazadeh, Arrigo F G Cicero, Christopher N Blesso, Matteo Pirro, Muhammed Majeed, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Cytokines are small secreted proteins released by different types of cells with specific effects on cellular signaling and communication via binding to their receptors on the cell surface. IL-10 is known to be a pleiotropic and potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokine that is produced by both innate and adaptive immunity cells including dendritic cells, macrophages, mast cells, natural killer cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, B cells, CD8(+) T cells, and TH1, TH2, and TH17 and regulatory T cells...
August 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782305/sensory-over-responsiveness-among-healthy-subjects-is-associated-with-a-pro-nociceptive-state
#8
Irit Weissman-Fogel, Yelena Granovsky, Tami Bar-Shalita
OBJECTIVE: Chronic pain patients show hypersensitivity to sensory non-painful stimuli. Sensory over-responsiveness (SOR) to innocuous daily stimuli, experienced as painful, is prevalent in 10% of the healthy population. This altered sensory processing may be an expression of over facilitation, or a less efficient pain inhibitory process in the pain pathways. We therefore aimed at investigating specifically the pain inhibitory system of subjects with SOR who are otherwise healthy, not studied as of yet...
August 7, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780187/validation-of-a-smart-shoe-for-estimating-foot-progression-angle-during-walking-gait
#9
Haisheng Xia, Junkai Xu, Jianren Wang, Michael A Hunt, Peter B Shull
The foot progression angle is an important measurement related to knee loading, pain, and function for individuals with knee osteoarthritis, however current measurement methods require camera-based motion capture or floor-embedded force plates confining foot progression angle assessment to facilities with specialized equipment. This paper presents the validation of a customized smart shoe for estimating foot progression angle during walking. The smart shoe is composed of an electronic module with inertial and magnetometer sensing inserted into the sole of a standard walking shoe...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777177/chronic-insomnia-disorder
#10
Alon Y Avidan, David N Neubauer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurologists, along with all health care providers, commonly encounter patients with insomnia, which is a condition that impacts patients' underlying neurologic conditions in a bidirectional manner. While chronic insomnia is one of the most common sleep disturbances, only a small proportion of individuals with this condition discuss their sleep problems with their providers. When insomnia is described, it is more often in relationship to another medical problem, as opposed to an independent condition...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757051/physiological-and-pharmacological-properties-of-inhibitory-postsynaptic-currents-mediated-by-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-1%C3%AE-2-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-2-and-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-2-gabaa-receptors
#11
Xiumin Chen, Angelo Keramidas, Joseph W Lynch
α5-containing GABAARs are potential therapeutic targets for clinical conditions including age-related dementia, stroke, schizophrenia, Down syndrome, anaesthetic-induced amnesia, anxiety and pain. α5-containing GABAARs are expressed in layer 5 cortical neurons and hippocampal pyramidal neurons where they mediate both tonic currents and slow inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs). A range of drugs has been developed to specifically modulate these receptors. The main α5-containing GABAARs that are likely to exist in vivo are the α5β1γ2, α5β2γ2 and α5β3γ2 isoforms...
July 27, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752857/insights-into-the-mechanisms-of-deep-brain-stimulation
#12
REVIEW
Keyoumars Ashkan, Priya Rogers, Hagai Bergman, Ismail Ughratdar
Despite long-term and widespread use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in a variety of neurological conditions, the underlying mechanisms of action have been elusive. Growing evidence suggests that DBS acts through multimodal mechanisms that are not limited to inhibition and excitation of basal ganglia circuits. DBS also seems to act over variable time spans - for example, the effects on tremor are immediate, whereas the effects on dystonia emerge over several weeks - suggesting that large networks are targeted...
July 28, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752491/predictors-of-osteoarthritis-pain-the-importance-of-resilience
#13
REVIEW
Emily J Bartley, Shreela Palit, Roland Staud
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common and disabling forms of arthritis worldwide, with joint pain being a primary symptom. Given that clinical symptoms often show poor concordance with tissue damage in OA, processes other than joint remodeling likely play a role in the condition. Using the biopsychosocial model of pain as a guiding framework, the purpose of this review is to highlight the extra-articular mechanisms that contribute to pain and dysfunction in OA, with a specific focus on resilience...
September 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743290/pneumatosis-intestinalis-with-a-benign-clinical-course-a-report-of-two-cases
#14
Aya Takase, Nobuhiro Akuzawa, Hiroshi Naitoh, Jun Aoki
BACKGROUND: Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) is a rare condition characterized by the presence of gas within the gastrointestinal tract wall. Most cases of PI have a benign clinical course, although some have serious outcomes. Mechanical stress on or bacterial infection of the gastrointestinal tract wall may be responsible for the onset of PI, but the detailed mechanism of PI pathogenesis is still unclear. Here, we describe two Japanese patients presenting with benign PI. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1, a 37-year-old previously healthy male patient, had a 1-week history of abdominal pain, and case 2, a 78-year-old female diabetic patient, had a 2-week history of voglibose treatment and abdominal pain...
July 25, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742263/progesterone-receptor-modulators-for-endometriosis
#15
REVIEW
Jing Fu, Hao Song, Min Zhou, Huili Zhu, Yuhe Wang, Hengxi Chen, Wei Huang
BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue (glands and stroma) outside the uterine cavity. This condition is oestrogen-dependent and thus is seen primarily during the reproductive years. Owing to their antiproliferative effects in the endometrium, progesterone receptor modulators (PRMs) have been advocated for treatment of endometriosis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of PRMs primarily in terms of pain relief as compared with other treatments or placebo or no treatment in women of reproductive age with endometriosis...
July 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740338/localization-and-role-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-subtype-5-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#16
REVIEW
Andrea Ferrigno, Clarissa Berardo, Laura G Di Pasqua, Veronica Siciliano, Plinio Richelmi, Mariapia Vairetti
Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) is a Group I mGlu subfamily of receptors coupled to the inositol trisphosphate/diacylglycerol pathway. Like other mGluR subtypes, mGluR5s contain a phylogenetically conserved, extracellular orthosteric binding site and a more variable allosteric binding site, located on the heptahelical transmembrane domain. The mGluR5 receptor has proved to be a key pharmacological target in conditions affecting the central nervous system (CNS) but its presence outside the CNS underscores its potential role in pathologies affecting peripheral organs such as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and accessory digestive organs such as the tongue, liver and pancreas...
July 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724985/increased-neural-noise-and-impaired-brain-synchronization-in-fibromyalgia-patients-during-cognitive-interference
#17
A J González-Villar, N Samartin-Veiga, M Arias, M T Carrillo-de-la-Peña
Fibromyalgia (FM) and other chronic pain syndromes are associated with cognitive dysfunction and attentional deficits, but the neural basis of such alterations is poorly understood. Dyscognition may be related to high levels of neural noise, understood as increased random electrical fluctuations that impair neural communication; however, this hypothesis has not yet been tested in any chronic pain condition. Here we compared electroencephalographic activity (EEG) in 18 FM patients -with high self-reported levels of cognitive dysfunction- and 22 controls during a cognitive control task...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722815/influence-of-morphine-and-naloxone-on-pain-modulation-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-fibromyalgia-and-controls-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-cross-over-study
#18
Linda Hermans, Jo Nijs, Patrick Calders, Luc De Clerck, Greta Moorkens, Guy Hans, Sofie Grosemans, Tine Roman De Mettelinge, Joanna Tuynman, Mira Meeus
BACKGROUND: Impaired pain inhibitory and enhanced pain facilitatory mechanisms are repeatedly reported in patients with central sensitization pain. However, the exact effects of frequently prescribed opioids on central pain modulation are still unknown. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial was carried out. Ten CFS/FM patients, 11 RA patients and 20 controls were randomly allocated to the experimental (10 mg morphine or 0.2 mg/ml Naloxone) and placebo (2 ml Aqua) group...
July 19, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722022/opioid-release-after-high-intensity-interval-training-in-healthy-human-subjects
#19
Tiina Saanijoki, Lauri Tuominen, Jetro J Tuulari, Lauri Nummenmaa, Eveliina Arponen, Kari Kalliokoski, Jussi Hirvonen
Central opioidergic mechanisms may modulate the positive effects of physical exercise such as mood elevation and stress reduction. How exercise intensity and concomitant effective changes affect central opioidergic responses is unknown. We studied the effects of acute physical exercise on the cerebral μ-opioid receptors (MOR) of 22 healthy recreationally active males using positron emission tomography (PET) and the MOR-selective radioligand [(11)C]carfentanil. MOR binding was measured in three conditions on separate days: after a 60-min aerobic moderate-intensity exercise session, after a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) session, and after rest...
July 19, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719422/polarity-independent-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-over-the-bilateral-opercular-somatosensory-region-a-magnetoencephalography-study
#20
Kei Nakagawa, Soichiro Koyama, Koji Inui, Satoshi Tanaka, Ryusuke Kakigi, Norihiro Sadato
The opercular somatosensory region (OP) plays an indispensable role in pain perception. In the present study, we investigated the neurophysiological effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the OP. Somatosensory-evoked magnetic fields following noxious intraepidermal electrical stimulation to the left index finger (pain-SEFs) were recorded before and after tDCS with a single-blind, sham-controlled, cross-over trial design. Three tDCS conditions of left anodal/right cathodal tDCS, left cathodal/right anodal tDCS (each, 2 mA, 12 min), and sham tDCS (2 mA, 15 s) were applied...
September 6, 2017: Neuroreport
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