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Pouyan Ebrahimi, Javier Vilcáez
This research aimed to elucidate the effect of brine salinity and guar gum on the sorption and transport of Ba in dolomite rocks collected from the Arbuckle formation in Oklahoma, USA. Guar gum represents the most important organic additive used in viscosified fracturing fluids, and Ba constitutes the most common and abundant heavy metal found in unconventional oil and gas (UOG) wastewater. Batch experiments conducted using powdered dolomite rocks (500-600 μm particle size) revealed that at brine salinities of UOG wastewater, chloro-complexation reactions between Ba and Cl ions and pH changes that results from dolomite dissolution are the controlling factors of Ba sorption on dolomite...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Eva Cepova, Martina Cicvakova, Peter Kolarcik, Neda Markovska, Andrea Madarasova Geckova
BACKGROUND: Modification of health literacy (HL) is an important factor for improving and maintaining oral health. The aim of the study is to examine the association of HL with oral health-promoting behaviour (OHPB) and assess possible mediating effects of HL on the impact of socioeconomic status on OHPB. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey on the Slovak general adult population (N = 360, mean age 39) was conducted in 2014 and 2015. The association of HL (9 domains of the Health Literacy Questionnaire) and OHPB was analysed using logistic regression models adjusted for gender, age and educational level...
March 14, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Boudewijn J J Smeets, David J Brinkman, Eelco C J Horsten, Jacqueline A E Langius, Harm J T Rutten, Wouter J de Jonge, Misha D P Luyer
BACKGROUND: Myopenia (low skeletal muscle mass) is associated with an increased risk of complications following colorectal surgery, however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. This study investigates the effect of myopenia on the early postoperative systemic inflammatory response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 78 patients undergoing colorectal surgery, the presence of myopenia was preoperatively assessed using computed tomography images of the third lumbar vertebra...
March 14, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Vo Truong Nhu Ngoc, Trinh Do Van Nga, Dinh-Toi Chu, Le Quynh Anh
Hemophilia-a bleeding disorder due to the lack of clotting factors-is mostly induced by genetic factors. Its most common type is hemophilia A. Hemorrhage in hemophilia A may occur in several different sites of the body, including those inside the oral cavity, such as mucous membrane and gum. However, only a few studies and case reports on dental issues of hemophilia A patients have been conducted. In clinical dentistry, treatment procedures are invasive, possibly leading to more severe bleeding, especially in hemophilia A cases...
March 14, 2018: Special Care in Dentistry
Tomasz Zbigniew Osmałek, Anna Froelich, Barbara Jadach, Marek Krakowski
Purpose Most of the studies concerning gellan have been focused on its application as a food ingredient, however, gellan is often considered as a candidate for the development of novel pharmaceutical formulations. Taking into account that gellan is ion-sensitive, it can be assumed that its initial mechanical properties can change upon contact with body secretions. Therefore, the aim of the work was to investigate the rheological properties of pure high-acyl gellan gum hydrogel (0.4%) and its mixtures with selected simulated body fluids...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Milica Ljaljević Grbić, Nikola Unković, Ivica Dimkić, Peđa Janaćković, Milan Gavrilović, Olja Stanojević, Miloš Stupar, Ljubodrag Vujisić, Aleksa Jelikić, Slaviša Stanković, Jelena Vukojević
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Essential oils obtained from resins of Boswellia carteri Birdw. and Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl., commonly known as frankincense and true myrrh respectively, have been used extensively since 2800 B.C. for the treatment of skin sores, wounds, teeth, inflammation, and urinary tract diseases in traditional medicine; for preparation of mummification balms and unguents; and also as incense and perfumes. Since ancient times, burning of frankincense and myrrh in places of worship for spiritual purposes and contemplation (a ubiquitous practice across various religions) had hygienic functions, to refine the smell and reduce contagion by purifying the indoor air...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Tom M McLellan, Lyndon A Riviere, Kelly W Williams, Dennis McGurk, Harris R Lieberman
OBJECTIVES: Combat deployments are characterized by high operational demands with limited opportunities for sleep leading to fatigue and degraded cognitive and operational performance. Caffeine in moderate doses is recognized as an effective intervention for physical and cognitive decrements associated with sleep loss. METHODS: This report is based on data collected by two separate, independently conducted surveys administered in Afghanistan in 2011-2012. It assessed caffeine use and sleep disruption among U...
March 11, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Jozo Grgic, Eric T Trexler, Bruno Lazinica, Zeljko Pedisic
Background: Caffeine is commonly used as an ergogenic aid. Literature about the effects of caffeine ingestion on muscle strength and power is equivocal. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize results from individual studies on the effects of caffeine intake on muscle strength and power. Methods: A search through eight databases was performed to find studies on the effects of caffeine on: (i) maximal muscle strength measured using 1 repetition maximum tests; and (ii) muscle power assessed by tests of vertical jump...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Roy S Rubinfeld, R Doyle Stulting, Glenwood G Gum, Jonathan H Talamo
PURPOSE: To compare the corneal stromal riboflavin concentration and distribution using 2 transepithelial corneal crosslinking (CXL) systems. SETTING: Absorption Systems, San Diego, California, USA. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: The stromal riboflavin concentration of 2 transepithelial CXL systems was compared in rabbit eyes in vivo. The systems were the CXLO (Group 1) and Paracel/Vibex Xtra, containing TRIS and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and an isotonic solution of riboflavin 0...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Marcin Andrzej Kurek, Sabina Karp, Adrian Stelmasiak, Ewelina Pieczykolan, Karolina Juszczyk, Anne Rieder
In this study, β-glucan was extracted from wholegrain oat and barley flours by a novel extraction and purification method employing natural flocculants (chitosan, guar gum and gelatin). The use of flocculants decreased the total amount of extracted gum, which was highest in control samples (9.07 and 7.9% for oat and barley, respectively). The β-glucan specific yield, however, increased with the use of chitosan and guar gum, which were able to remove protein and ash impurities resulting in gums with a higher purity...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Claudia Pelosi, Giuseppe Capobianco, Giorgia Agresti, Giuseppe Bonifazi, Fabio Morresi, Sara Rossi, Ulderico Santamaria, Silvia Serranti
The aim of this work is to investigate the stability to simulated solar radiation of some paintings samples through a new methodological approach adopting non-invasive spectroscopic techniques. In particular, commercial watercolours and iron oxide based pigments were used, these last ones being prepared for the experimental by gum Arabic in order to propose a possible substitute for traditional reintegration materials. Reflectance spectrophotometry in the visible range and Hyperspectral Imaging in the short wave infrared were chosen as non-invasive techniques for evaluation the stability to irradiation of the chosen pigments...
March 5, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Nimisha Joshi, Feixue Liu, Mathew Paul Watts, Heather Williams, Victoria S Coker, Doris Schmid, Thilo Hofmann, Jonathan R Lloyd
Engineered nanoparticles offer the potential for remediation of land and water that has been contaminated by organics and metals. Microbially synthesized nano-scale magnetite, prepared from Fe(III) oxides by subsurface Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, offers a scalable biosynthesis route to such a nano-scale remediation reagent. To underpin delivery of "bionanomagnetite" (BNM) nanomaterial during in situ treatment options, we conducted a range of batch and column experiments to assess and optimise the transport and reactivity of the particles in porous media...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sonal Singh, Caitrin W McDonough, Yan Gong, Wael A Alghamdi, Meghan J Arwood, Salma A Bargal, Leanne Dumeny, Wen-Yi Li, Mai Mehanna, Bradley Stockard, Guang Yang, Felipe A de Oliveira, Natalie C Fredette, Mohamed H Shahin, Kent R Bailey, Amber L Beitelshees, Eric Boerwinkle, Arlene B Chapman, John G Gums, Stephen T Turner, Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff, Julie A Johnson
BACKGROUND: Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics are first-line medications for treating uncomplicated hypertension. However, their use has been associated with adverse metabolic events, including hyperglycemia and incident diabetes mellitus, with incompletely understood mechanisms. Our goal was to identify genomic variants associated with thiazide-like diuretic/chlorthalidone-induced glucose change. METHODS AND RESULTS: Genome-wide analysis of glucose change after treatment with chlorthalidone was performed by race among the white (n=175) and black (n=135) participants from the PEAR-2 (Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses-2)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Abid Mehmood, Tariq Abduljabbar, Nawwaf Al-Hamoudi, Elham Gholamiazizi, Sergio Varela Kellesarian, Fahim Vohra, Fawad Javed
BACKGROUND: It is hypothesized that (a) self-perceived oral symptoms (OSs) are worse in intravenous heroin addicts (IHA) than controls; and (b) clinical periodontal inflammatory parameters (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP], PD and clinical attachment loss [AL]), number of missing teeth (MT) and radiographic marginal bone loss (MBL) are higher in IHA compared with controls. The aim was to compare the self-perceived OSs and periodontal parameters among young IHA and controls...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Antony J Fairbanks
N -Glycan oxazolines have found widespread use as activated donor substrates for endo-β- N -acetylglucosaminidase (ENGase) enzymes, an important application that has correspondingly stimulated interest in their production, both by total synthesis and by semi-synthesis using oligosaccharides isolated from natural sources. Amongst the many synthetic approaches reported, the majority rely on the fabrication (either by total synthesis, or semi-synthesis from locust bean gum) of a key Manβ(1-4)GlcNAc disaccharide, which can then be elaborated at the 3- and 6-positions of the mannose unit using standard glycosylation chemistry...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
Rachel Margaret Coyle, Ada Rose Miltz, Fiona C Lampe, Janey Sewell, Andrew N Phillips, Andrew Speakman, Jyoti Dhar, Lorraine Sherr, S Tariq Sadiq, Stephen Taylor, Daniel R Ivens, Simon Collins, Jonathan Elford, Jane Anderson, Alison Rodger
OBJECTIVES: In the UK, people of black ethnicity experience a disproportionate burden of HIV and STI. We aimed to assess the association of ethnicity with sexual behaviour and sexual health among women and heterosexual men attending genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics in England. METHODS: The Attitudes to and Understanding of Risk of Acquisition of HIV is a cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire study of HIV negative people recruited from 20 GUM clinics in England, 2013-2014...
March 8, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Chiara Berlangieri, Giovanna Poggi, Sergio Murgia, Maura Monduzzi, Luigi Dei, Emiliano Carretti
A dynamic, rheological, and structural characterization of aqueous gel-like systems containing hydroxypropyl guar gum (HPG), borax and glycerol is presented in this paper. The role of glycerol, which is introduced as a plasticizer in the formulation, is investigated by means of11 B NMR and1 H NMR PGSTE measurements in order to clarify its contribution to the gel network formation and its interaction with borax, with whom it forms a complex. The effect of gels components on the rheological behaviour and on the activation energy related to the relaxation process of the system was assessed by means of rheology...
February 13, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
N Prasad, R Manjunath, D Rangaswamy, A Jaiswal, V Agarwal, D Bhadauria, A Kaul, R Sharma, A Gupta
Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are the preferred drugs for treatment of childhood steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) who are also resistant to cyclophosphamide (CYC). Although few studies have shown a benefit of one over the other, efficacy and safety of either CNIs (tacrolimus [TAC] or cyclosporine [CSA]) in this special population remained to be assessed in long-term studies. Forty-five children with SRNS who were also resistant to CYC (CYC-SRNS) from January 2006 to June 2011, were included in the study...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Nephrology
Ping Yang, Wu Jun Long, Li Wei
Background: A number of studies with conflicting results have evaluated the effect of chewing gum on post-operative gastrointestinal recovery in patients after major colorectal surgery. Objective: The objective of the study was to study the efficacy of chewing gum in patients with rectal cancer after elective open proctectomy only. Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was performed. We recruited patients who would undergo elective open proctectomy for rectal cancer in Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences and Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital...
2018: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
Soazig Clifton, Katy Town, Martina Furegato, Michelle Cole, Hamish Mohammed, Sarah C Woodhall, J Kevin Dunbar, Helen Fifer, Gwenda Hughes
OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that treatment of STIs with azithromycin may facilitate development of azithromycin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) by exposing the organism to suboptimal doses. We investigated whether treatment history for non-rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) or NG (proxies for azithromycin exposure) in sexual health (GUM) services was associated with susceptibility of NG to azithromycin. METHODS: Azithromycin susceptibility data from the Gonococcal Resistance to Antimicrobials Surveillance Programme (GRASP 2013-2015, n=4606) and additional high-level azithromycin-resistant isolates (HL-AziR) identified by the Public Health England reference laboratory (2013-2016, n=54) were matched to electronic patient records in the national GUMCAD STI surveillance dataset (2012-2016)...
March 6, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
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