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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425501/plant-gum-identification-in-historic-artworks
#1
Clara Granzotto, Julie Arslanoglu, Christian Rolando, Caroline Tokarski
We describe an integrated and straightforward new analytical protocol that identifies plant gums from various sample sources including cultural heritage. Our approach is based on the identification of saccharidic fingerprints using mass spectrometry following controlled enzymatic hydrolysis. We developed an enzyme cocktail suitable for plant gums of unknown composition. Distinctive MS profiles of gums such as arabic, cherry and locust-bean gums were successfully identified. A wide range of oligosaccharidic combinations of pentose, hexose, deoxyhexose and hexuronic acid were accurately identified in gum arabic whereas cherry and locust bean gums showed respectively PentxHexy and Hexn profiles...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425301/development-of-a-novel-rationally-designed-antibiotic-to-inhibit-a-nontraditional-bacterial-target
#2
Pavel Dibrov, Elena Dibrov, Thane G Maddaford, Melissa Kenneth, Jordan Nelson, Craig Resch, Grant N Pierce
The search for new nontraditional targets is a high priority in antibiotic design today. Bacterial membrane energetics based on sodium ion circulation offers potential alternative targets. The present work identifies the Na(+)-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR), a key respiratory enzyme in many microbial pathogens, as indispensible for the Chlamydia trachomatis infectious process. Infection by Chlamydia trachomatis significantly increased first H(+) and then Na(+) levels within the host mammalian cell...
April 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424689/antimicrobial-and-attractant-roles-for-chemerin-in-the-oral-cavity-during-inflammatory-gum-disease
#3
Urszula Godlewska, Piotr Brzoza, Aneta Sroka, Pawel Majewski, Holger Jentsch, Martin Eckert, Sigrun Eick, Jan Potempa, Brian A Zabel, Joanna Cichy
Periodontal inflammation is one of the most common chronic inflammatory conditions in humans. Despite recent advances in identifying and characterizing oral microbiota dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of gum disease, just how host factors maintain a healthy homeostatic oral microbial community or prevent the development of a pathogenic oral microbiota remains poorly understood. An important determinant of microbiota fate is local antimicrobial proteins. Here, we report that chemoattractant protein chemerin, which we recently identified as a potent endogenous antimicrobial agent in body barriers such as the skin, is present in the oral cavity under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423942/natural-gums-of-plant-origin-as-edible-coatings-for-food-industry-applications
#4
Anuradha Saha, Shvetambri Tyagi, Rajinder K Gupta, Yogesh K Tyagi
Natural plant-based gums and their derivatives are widely utilized in food industries, however, their applications as edible coatings to extend fresh fruits and vegetable shelf-life has been explored recently. These natural polymeric polysaccharides have many advantages as compared to synthetic polymers, because they are biodegradable, nontoxic, economical and easily available in the environment. Natural gums can also be semi synthetically modified to produce derivatives, which can easily compete with the synthetic preservatives available on the food market...
April 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420931/paediatrics-primary-myelofibrosis-and-acute-stroke-a-rare-presentation
#5
Wajida Mazher, Ather Hasan Rizvi, Arsalan Majeed Adam, Muhammad Saad Ali Mallick, Ansab Godil
Idiopathic Myelofibrosis is a rare myeloproliferative disorder. In children, it becomes even rarer. Herein, we report a case of idiopathic myelofibrosis of a 6-year old male patient who presented with complaints of pallor, petechiae and bleeding from gums. Bone marrow aspirate showed afragmented haemodiluted smears with erythroid and myeloid precursors scattered throughout. Trephine biopsy showed increased background fibrotic activity along with clusters of histiocytes. A diagnosis of paediatric primary myelofibrosis was made on biopsy...
April 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420283/design-and-characteristics-of-gellan-gum-beads-for-modified-release-of-meloxicam
#6
Tomasz Osmałek, Bartłomiej Milanowski, Anna Froelich, Mirosław Szybowicz, Wojciech Białowąs, Marcin Kapela, Piotr Gadziński, Katarzyna Ancukiewicz
The aim of the presented work was to design, formulate and evaluate the properties of low-acyl gellan macro beads with the potential application as carriers for oral delivery of meloxicam (MLX) in the prophylaxis of colorectal cancer. The beads were obtained by means of ionotropic gelation technique. Calcium chloride (1.0%, 9.0 × 10(-2) M) was used as the cross-linking agent. Nine different polymer, drug and surfactant (Tween®80) mixtures were used for production of the beads. The quantitative compositions of the mixtures were generated with the application of the Design of Experiments (DoE) modulus from the STATISTICA Software...
April 19, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419504/sensory-and-rheological-characteristics-of-thickened-liquids-differing-concentrations-of-a-xanthan-gum-based-thickener
#7
Hyeri Kim, Han-Im Hwang, Ki-Won Song, Jeehyun Lee
The objectives of this study were to develop and compare sensory characteristics of beverages and soups thickened with different concentrations of a xanthan gum-based thickener, and to examine, using rheological measurement, whether the viscosity of the thickened liquids conformed to the recommendations of the National Dysphagia Diet Task Force. Beverages tested included water, plum juice, apple juice, orange juice, milk, soymilk, and Yakult. The thickening agent was added to samples at concentrations of 1%, 2%, or 3%...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419499/periodontitis-changes-renal-structures-by-oxidative-stress-and-lipid-peroxidation
#8
Luiz Felipe de Carvalho França, Any Carolina Cardoso Guimarães Vasconcelos, Felipe Rodolfo Pereira da Silva, Even Herlany Pereira Alves, Joaquina Dos Santos Carvalho, David Di Lenardo, Luan Kelves Miranda de Souza, André Luiz Dos Reis Barbosa, Jand-Venes Rolim Medeiros, Jefferson Soares de Oliveira, Daniel Fernando Pereira Vasconcelos
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether experimental periodontitis cause changes to the renal tissues and imbalance in oxidative stress in kidneys. METHODS: Twenty-two female Wistar rats were separated into two groups: control and periodontitis. We assessed the following parameters: gingival bleeding index (GBI), tooth mobility, gum malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, probing pocket depth (PPD), alveolar bone loss (ABL) for periodontal tissues; histomorphometric measures associated with renal corpuscle and histopathological aspects (evaluation of brush border) for kidneys; as also blood and urine biomarkers...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416880/frying-of-rice-flour-dough-strands-containing-gum-arabic-texture-sensory-attributes-and-microstructure-of-products
#9
J Shanthilal, Suvendu Bhattacharya
The effects of rice flour (50-56%, w/w) and gum Arabic (0-5%, w/w) on the physical, sensory and structural features of the fried dough strands were investigated. Up to 25.8% reduction in oil was possible by the incorporation of gum Arabic. The wide variations in failure force (13.8-25.3 N) and failure strain (11.0-28.6%) indicated the formation of snacks varying in texture from a soft-to-bite brittle product to a hard-to-eat less brittle sample. The snacks possessed a porous microstructure with air cells, pores and vacuoles; the cell walls were more than 100 μm in thickness...
April 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415967/chewing-gum-for-intestinal-function-recovery-after-caesarean-section-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Zunjia Wen, Meifen Shen, Chao Wu, Jianping Ding, Binbin Mei
BACKGROUND: Gum chewing has been reported to enhance the intestinal function recovery after caesarean section, current perspectives and practice guidelines vary widely on the use of gum chewing, more studies on the role of gum chewing after caesarean section are needed. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive, systematic meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficacy of gum chewing after caesarean section. Studies were identified by searching EMBASE et al database (until June 30, 2016)...
April 18, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415492/antibacterial-activity-of-novel-peptide-derived-from-cry1ab16-toxin-and-development-of-lbl-films-for-foodborne-pathogens-control
#11
Alexandra Plácido, Idalina Bragança, Mariela Marani, Alyne Rodrigues de Araujo, Andreanne Gomes Vasconcelos, Krystallenia Batziou, Valentina F Domingues, Peter Eaton, José Roberto S A Almeida Leite, Cristina Delerue-Matos
Escherichia coli is one of the most common etiological agents of diarrhea in developing countries. The appearance of resistant E. coli prevents treatment of these infections. Biotechnological products incorporating antimicrobial peptides are currently being considered in applications to prevent intestinal infections by these bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the peptide PcL342-354C, which is derived from the toxin Cry1Ab16 from Bacillus thuringiensis, against E. coli strains...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415476/cellular-compatibility-of-nanocomposite-scaffolds-based-on-hydroxyapatite-entrapped-in-cellulose-network-for-bone-repair
#12
Faranak Beladi, Samaneh Saber-Samandari, Saeed Saber-Samandari
In the past few decades, artificial graft materials for bone tissue engineering have gained much importance. In this study, novel porous 3D nanocomposite scaffolds composed of polyacrylamide grafted cellulose and hydroxyapatite were proposed. They were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The swelling behavior of the scaffolds was examined in both water and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415414/bionanocomposite-systems-based-on-montmorillonite-and-biopolymers-for-the-controlled-release-of-olanzapine
#13
Artur S Oliveira, Ana C S Alcântara, Sibele B C Pergher
Olanzapine (OLZ) is a drug that is used in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychoses, and it belongs to the thienobenzodiazepine class. The OLZ molecule has low solubility decreasing bioavailability, but has high permeability in membrane biological being classified as a Class II drug substance according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. It was reported many side effects of administering OLZ orally. So, in order to increase the bioavailability of drug and possibly reducing some of side effects, this paper proposes a new material able to controllably release the drug in the body...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415411/quality-by-design-approach-for-an-in-situ-gelling-microemulsion-of-lorazepam-via-intranasal-route
#14
Vidhi Shah, Mukesh Sharma, Radhika Pandya, Rajesh K Parikh, Bhavesh Bharatiya, Atindra Shukla, Hsieh-Chih Tsai
The present study illustrates the application of the concept of Quality by Design for development, optimization and evaluation of Lorazepam loaded microemulsion containing ion responsive In situ gelator gellan gum and carbopol 934. A novel approach involving interactions between surfactant and polymer was employed to achieve controlled drug release and reduced mucociliary clearance. Microemulsion formulated using preliminary solubility study and pseudo ternary phase diagrams showed significantly improved solubilization capacity of Lorazepam with 54...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412977/noma-as-a-complication-of-false-teeth-ebiino-extraction-a-case-report
#15
Martin Tungotyo
BACKGROUND: Ebiino, also known as false tooth extraction, is a traditional practice done mainly in the remote areas of African countries, including Uganda. It involves the extraction of tooth buds in babies with common childhood illnesses such as fever, cough, and diarrhea. It is thought that the tooth buds are responsible for the ailments seen in these infants. The practice is performed by traditional healers using unsterile instruments. The complications associated with this dangerous practice have been mentioned in the literature and include anemia and septicemia, among others...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411548/the-production-of-injectable-hydrazone-crosslinked-gellan-gum-hyaluronan-hydrogels-with-tunable-mechanical-and-physical-properties
#16
Jennika Karvinen, Janne T Koivisto, Ilari Jönkkäri, Minna Kellomäki
Gellan gum (GG) has been proposed for use in tissue engineering (TE) due to its structural and functional similarities with alginate. The most traditional crosslinking methods of GG, ionical and photocrosslinking, have downsides such as loss of stability or phototoxicity, which can limit their use in certain applications. In this study, an alternative hydrazone crosslinking method is introduced. Hydrazone crosslinking is a simple method that produces no toxic reagents or side-products. The method enables the fabrication of injectable hydrogels...
April 7, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411332/evaluation-of-rosin-gum-and-eudragit%C3%A2-rs-po-as-a-functional-film-coating-material
#17
Suélen Plaza Pomin, Isabela Angeli de Lima, Rogério Ribeiro Pezarini, Osvaldo Albuquerque Cavalcanti
Polymers are essential tools in the research and development of new therapeutic devices. The diversity and flexibility of these materials have generated high expectations in the composition of new materials with extraordinary abilities, especially in the design of new systems for the modified release of pharmaceutically active ingredients. The natural polymer rosin features moisture protection and pH-dependent behavior (i.e., it is sensitive to pH > 7.0), suggesting its possible use in pharmaceutical systems...
April 14, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409740/quit-methods-used-by-us-adult-cigarette-smokers-2014-2016
#18
Ralph S Caraballo, Paul R Shafer, Deesha Patel, Kevin C Davis, Timothy A McAfee
To quantify the prevalence of 10 quit methods commonly used by adult cigarette smokers, we used data from a nationally representative longitudinal (2014-2016) online survey of US adult cigarette smokers (n = 15,943). Overall, 74.7% of adult current cigarette smokers used multiple quit methods during their most recent quit attempt. Giving up cigarettes all at once (65.3%) and reducing the number of cigarettes smoked (62.0%) were the most prevalent methods. Substituting some cigarettes with e-cigarettes was used by a greater percentage of smokers than the nicotine patch, nicotine gum, or other cessation aids approved by the US Food and Drug Administration...
April 13, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407909/effect-of-temperature-and-relative-humidity-on-stability-following-simulated-gastro-intestinal-digestion-of-microcapsules-of-bordo-grape-skin-phenolic-extract-produced-with-different-carrier-agents
#19
Luiza Siede Kuck, Júlia Lerina Wesolowski, Caciano Pelayo Zapata Noreña
The stability of microparticles of Bordo grape skin aqueous extract, produced by spray-drying and freeze-drying using polydextrose (5%) and partially hydrolyzed guar gum (5%), was evaluated under accelerated conditions (75 and 90% relative humidity, at 35, 45, and 55°C for 35days) and simulated gastrointestinal digestion. The temperature had a significant effect on the reduction of phenolics content, with retentions varying from 82.5 to 93.5%. The retention of total monomer anthocyanins were in the range of 3...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407904/characterization-and-functionalities-study-of-hemicellulose-and-cellulose-components-isolated-from-sorghum-bran-bagasse-and-biomass
#20
Shuang Qiu, Madhav P Yadav, Lijun Yin
This study was undertaken to isolate and characterize three carbohydrate-rich fractions: Hemicellulose A (Hemi. A), Hemicellulose B (Hemi. B) and cellulose-rich residue (CRF) from sorghum bran (SBR), sorghum bagasse (SBA) and sorghum biomass (SBI). The monosaccharide composition of the Hemi. A and Hemi. B fractions was determined, indicating that SBR has a highly branched structure. The analysis of insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and total dietary fiber (TDF) showed that TDF and IDF contents in original sorghum materials were in the following order: SBA˃SBI˃SBR...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
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