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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148565/tobacco-cessation-interventions-for-young-people
#1
REVIEW
Thomas R Fanshawe, William Halliwell, Nicola Lindson, Paul Aveyard, Jonathan Livingstone-Banks, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce
BACKGROUND: Most tobacco control programmes for adolescents are based around prevention of uptake, but teenage smoking is still common. It is unclear if interventions that are effective for adults can also help adolescents to quit. This is the update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of strategies that help young people to stop smoking tobacco. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialized Register in June 2017...
November 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146361/rheological-characterization-of-gum-and-starch-nanoparticle-blends
#2
Mariana Perez Herrera, Thava Vasanthan
Commercial interest on the application of starch nanoparticles (SNP) in food is rapidly growing. Since gums are commonly used in food processing for their texturizing functionality, it is important to understand the influence of SNP on gum rheology. λ-Carrageenan and xanthan gum were selected in this study due to their wide range of applications in food systems. SNP isolated from waxy (0% amylose) and high amylose maize (71% amylose) were used. Binary blends consisting of 0.5% (w/v) gum and different concentrations of SNP were prepared and their flow behaviors evaluated using a rheometer...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146214/-treatments-of-steroid-dependent-nephrotic-syndrome-in-children
#3
A Couderc, E Bérard, V Guigonis, I Vrillon, J Hogan, V Audard, V Baudouin, C Dossier, O Boyer
Primary nephrotic syndrome (NS) is the most common glomerular disease in children. It is characterized by massive proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia. It typically has a sudden onset and more than 70% of patients will experience at least one relapse. An immunological origin has long been postulated, although the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the disease remain debated. Steroids are the first-line therapy with cumulative dose and duration of initial treatment varying among countries. Steroid-sparing agents may be indicated in case of steroid-dependency or frequent relapses...
November 13, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144073/evaluation-of-certain-food-additives
#4
(no author information available yet)
This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee’s evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for 10 food additives (Allura Red AC; carob bean gum; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid (OSA)– modified gum arabic; pectin; Quinoline Yellow; rosemary extract; steviol glycosides; tartrazine; and xanthan gum) and five groups of flavouring agents (alicyclic, alicyclic-fused and aromatic-fused ring lactones; aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; cinnamyl alcohol and related substances; and tetrahydrofuran and furanone derivatives)...
2017: World Health Organization Technical Report Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141191/microbial-lipids-and-added-value-metabolites-production-by-yarrowia-lipolytica-from-pork-lard
#5
Marlene Lopes, Andreia S Gomes, Carla M Silva, Isabel Belo
Yarrowia lipolytica is a suitable microbial platform to convert low-value hydrophobic substrates into microbial oils and other important metabolites. In this work, this yeast species was used to simultaneously synthetize ex novo lipids and produce citric acid and lipase from animal fat (pork lard) adding higher value to the low-cost fatty substrate. The effect of pH, lard concentration, arabic gum concentration and oxygen mass transfer rate (OTR) on lipids accumulation on Y. lipolytica batch cultures was assessed by an experimental design based on Taguchi method...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139190/a-man-before-his-time-russell-s-insights-into-nicotine-smoking-treatment-and-curbing-the-smoking-problem
#6
Ann McNeill, Debbie Robson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This narrative review aimed to provide a brief overview of five key research 'classics' produced by the innovative and radical thought leader, Professor Michael Anthony Hamilton Russell (1932-2009), drawing upon his other work wherever feasible. METHODS: Narrative review. From more than 250 publications, we selected papers we considered seminal texts, published in 1971, 1976, 1978, 1979 and 1991. RESULTS: Russell was among the first researchers to explain that smoking was a dependence disorder caused by the drug nicotine decades before this was recognized formally...
November 15, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137788/ultrasonic-assisted-manufacturing-of-new-hydrogel-nanocomposite-biosorbent-containing-calcium-carbonate-nanoparticles-and-tragacanth-gum-for-removal-of-heavy-metal
#7
Shadpour Mallakpour, Amir Abdolmaleki, Farbod Tabesh
This article reports the first incorporation of calcium carbonate nanoparticles (CC NPs) into tragacanth gum (TG) to prepare a new hydrogel nanocomposite (HNC) system using a green, safe, and eco-friendly method, ultrasound irradiation as an efficient biosorbent of heavy metal ions from wastewater. Morphological studies revealed that the surface of obtained HNCs is rough, homogeneous, and porous-like due to the embedding of CC NPs as well as sonication in comparison to the neat TG which has a smooth surface...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137157/in-situ-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-in-a-hydrogel-of-carboxymethyl-cellulose-with-phthalated-cashew-gum-as-a-promising-antibacterial-and-healing-agent
#8
Ana Karina Marques Fortes Lustosa, Antônia Carla de Jesus Oliveira, Patrick Veras Quelemes, Alexandra Plácido, Francilene Vieira da Silva, Irisdalva Sousa Oliveira, Miguel Peixoto de Almeida, Adriany das Graças Nascimento Amorim, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Rita de Cássia Meneses de Oliveira, Durcilene Alves da Silva, Peter Eaton, José Roberto de Souza de Almeida Leite
Silver nanoparticles have been shown to possess considerable antibacterial activity, but in vivo applications have been limited due to the inherent, but low, toxicity of silver. On the other hand, silver nanoparticles could provide cutaneous protection against infection, due to their ability to liberate silver ions via a slow release mechanism, and their broad-spectrum antimicrobial action. Thus, in this work, we describe the development of a carboxymethyl cellulose-based hydrogel containing silver nanoparticles...
November 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136816/simultaneous-determination-of-tert-butylhydroquinone-propyl-gallate-and-butylated-hydroxyanisole-by-flow-injection-analysis-with-multiple-pulse-amperometric-detection
#9
Dmytro Bavol, Anastasios Economou, Jiri Zima, Jiri Barek, Hana Dejmkova
We report the first amperometric method for the simultaneous determination of tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), propyl gallate (PG), and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) using flow injection analysis coupled to multiple-pulse amperometry. A sequence of potential pulses was selected in order to detect tBHQ, PG, and BHA separately in a single injection step at a glassy carbon electrode without the need of a preliminary separation. A mixture of methanol and 0.040M Britton-Robinson buffer was used both as a carrier solution and for dilution of analyzed solutions before injection...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134589/encapsulation-of-listeria-phage-a511-by-alginate-to-improve-its-thermal-stability
#10
Hanie Ahmadi, Qi Wang, Loong-Tak Lim, S Balamurugan
Microencapsulation is a versatile method for enhancing the stability of bacteriophages under harsh conditions, such as those which occur during thermal processing. For food applications, encapsulation in food-grade polymer matrices is desirable owing to their nontoxicity and low cost. Here, we describe the encapsulation of Listeria phage A511 using sodium alginate, gum arabic, and gelatin to maximize its viability during thermal processing.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133097/biological-and-textural-properties-of-underutilized-exudate-gums-of-jammu-and-kashmir-india
#11
Mudasir Bashir, Tuba Usmani, Sundaramoorthy Haripriya, Tanveer Ahmed
Three different exudate gums were studied for their in-vitro antioxidant activity, functional and textural properties. In-vitro antioxidant activity of the gum exudates was evaluated in terms of DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, reducing power and phenolic content assays. Among the gum exudates, almond gum exhibited maximum DPPḢ inhibition of 35.52±1.125% followed by apricot gum and gum arabic at the concentration of 1mg/mL. Gum arabic had significantly higher reducing power than the other exudate gums...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133089/cellulose-gum-and-copper-nanoparticles-based-hydrogel-as-antimicrobial-agents-against-urinary-tract-infection-uti-pathogens
#12
Abdullah M Al-Enizi, Tansir Ahamad, Abdullah Baker Al-Hajji, Jahangeer Ahmed, Anis Ahmad Chaudhary, Saad M Alshehri
In the present study, stable copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) were successfully prepared in the hydrogel matrix. The prepared nanocomposite (HCuNPs) was characterized via x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive (EDX) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) studies. The wide scan XPS spectra support the presence of C, N and O in neat hydrogel; while, the XPS spectra of HCuNPs demonstrate the presence of Cu along with C, N, and O elements. TEM studies show the formation of spherical shaped CuNPs in the size range from 7 to 12nm...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132321/the-role-of-the-specialized-team-in-the-operation-of-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-a-single-center-experience
#13
Harin Rhee, Gum Sook Jang, Miyeun Han, In Seong Park, Il Young Kim, Sang Heon Song, Eun Young Seong, Dong Won Lee, Soo Bong Lee, Ihm Soo Kwak
BACKGROUND: The requirement of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is increasing with the growing incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI). The decision to initiate CRRT is not difficult if an adequate medical history is obtained. However, the handling and maintenance of CRRT constitute a labor-intensive intervention that requires specialized skills. For these reasons, our center organized a specialized CRRT team in March 2013. The aim of this study is to report on the role of a specialized CRRT team and to evaluate the team's outcome...
November 13, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127610/pvp-va64-as-a-novel-release-modifier-for-sustained-release-mini-matrices-prepared-via-hot-melt-extrusion
#14
Yongcheng Li, Ming Lu, Chuanbin Wu
The purpose of this study was to explore poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVP VA64) as a novel release-modifier to tailor the drug release from ethylcellulose (EC)-based mini-matrices prepared via hot melt extrusion (HME). Quetiapine fumarate (QF) was selected as model drug. QF/EC/PVP VA64 mini-matrices were extruded with 30% drug loading. The physical state of QF in extruded mini-matrices was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, and confocal Raman microscopy...
November 10, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126810/sensory-trick-splint-as-a-multimodal-therapy-for-oromandibular-dystonia
#15
Kazuya Yoshida
PURPOSE: Many patients with oromandibular dystonia, which is characterized by involuntary masticatory, lower facial, and/or tongue muscle contractions, experience relief of symptoms through sensory tricks such as eating chewing gum or candy. The aim of this study was to identify the factors influencing the effects of splints in patients with oromandibular dystonia. METHODS: Occlusal splints were inserted in 128 patients (89 women, 39 men) with oromandibular dystonia (102 with jaw closing dystonia, 20 with lingual dystonia, 5 with jaw deviation dystonia, 4 with jaw opening dystonia, 3 with lip dystonia, and 2 with jaw protrusion dystonia)...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125078/-from-war-to-priority-battle-blood-transfusion-as-a-medical-innovation-during-world-war-i
#16
T van Helvoort
The logistics system for blood transfusion was first developed on the Western Front during World War I. This article focuses on the people who played a major role in this development. It discusses the people who came up with the idea of preventing coagulation through addition of citrate and who discovered the stabilisation of blood by adding glucose. The inclusion of citrate can be regarded as having been simultaneously developed in several countries, while the stabilisation of erythrocytes was discovered by American researchers...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122714/diethanolamine-modified-pectin-based-core-shell-composites-as-dual-working-gastroretentive-drug-cargo
#17
Hriday Bera, Sanoj Kumar
The current study aimed at developing diethonolamine-modified high-methoxyl pectin (DMP)-alginate (ALG) based core-shell composites for controlled intragastric delivery of metformin HCl (MFM) by combined approach of floating and bioadhesion. DMP with degree of amidation of 48.72% was initially accomplished and characterized by FTIR, DSC and XRD analyses. MFM-loaded core matrices were then fabricated by ionotropic gelation technique employing zinc acetate as cross-linker. The core matrices were further coated by fenugreek gum (FG)-ALG gel membrane via diffusion-controlled interfacial complexation method...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122352/microbial-community-response-to-silver-nanoparticles-and-ag-in-nitrifying-activated-sludge-revealed-by-ion-semiconductor-sequencing
#18
Carley A Gwin, Emilie Lefevre, Christina L Alito, Claudia K Gunsch
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which are known to act as biocides, are incorporated into medical and consumer products including athletic clothing, stuffed animals, liquid dietary supplements, and more. The increasing use of AgNPs in these products is likely to lead to their entry into both natural and engineered systems, which has the potential to disrupt bacterial processes including those involved in nutrient cycling in wastewater treatment. In the present study, sequencing batch reactors (SBR) mimicking secondary wastewater treatment were operated to determine the effects of AgNPs on the microbial communities contained within activated sludge of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP)...
November 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122066/oral-and-dental-aspects-of-child-abuse-and-neglect
#19
Susan A Fisher-Owens, James L Lukefahr, Anupama Rao Tate
In all 50 states, health care providers (including dentists) are mandated to report suspected cases of abuse and neglect to social service or law enforcement agencies. The purpose of this report is to review the oral and dental aspects of physical and sexual abuse and dental neglect in children and the role of pediatric care providers and dental providers in evaluating such conditions. This report addresses the evaluation of bite marks as well as perioral and intraoral injuries, infections, and diseases that may raise suspicion for child abuse or neglect...
July 15, 2017: Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121338/efficacy-of-%C3%AE-mannanase-on-broiler-growth-performance-and-energy-utilization-in-the-presence-of-increasing-dietary-galactomannan
#20
R E Latham, M P Williams, H G Walters, B Carter, J T Lee
An experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of β-mannanase inclusion on growth performance, viscosity, and energy utilization in broilers fed diets varying in galactomannan (GM) concentrations. Treatments were arranged as a 3 (GM concentration) × 3 (β-mannanase inclusion) factorial randomized complete block design with 12 replicates of 29 male broilers per replicate for a 42-d experiment. Efforts were made to reduce the amount of soybean meal, and thus GM, in the basal diet with guar gum included at 0, 0...
November 7, 2017: Poultry Science
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