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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346925/microbiota-and-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#1
Sanjay Patole
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an acquired gastrointestinal inflammatory condition with significant mortality and morbidity in preterm very low birth weight infants. The interplay between toll-like receptors, bacterial endotoxins, developmentally regulated excessive proinflammatory responses of the immature innate immune system, hypoxia, ischemia, reperfusion, free radicals, and the presence of substrates and bacterial endotoxins is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of NEC. The association (cause?) of various microbes (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) with NEC has intrigued researchers for many years...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346497/determinants-of-infant-nutritional-status-in-dabat-district-north-gondar-ethiopia-a-case-control-study
#2
Amarech Asratie Wubante
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is the top cause of global burden of disease, disability and mortality among infants. Over two-thirds of deaths of children globally occur during the first year of life (infancy). Malnutrition among infants is substantially high in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study is aimed to assess determinants of infant nutritional status. METHODS: A community based nested case-control study was conducted from February to June 2013 in Dabat district. A total of 80 cases and 320 controls (1:4 ratios) were studied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346109/assessing-process-of-paediatric-care-in-a-resource-limited-setting-a-cross-sectional-audit-of-district-hospitals-in-rwanda
#3
Celestin Hategeka, Jeannie Shoveller, Lisine Tuyisenge, Larry D Lynd
BACKGROUND: Routine assessment of quality of care helps identify deficiencies which need to be improved. While gaps in the emergency care of children have been documented across sub-Saharan Africa, data from Rwanda are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the care of sick infants and children admitted to Rwandan district hospitals and the extent to which it follows currently recommended clinical practice guidelines in Rwanda. METHODS: Data were gathered during a retrospective cross-sectional audit of eight district hospitals across Rwanda in 2012/2013...
March 27, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343557/infants-born-to-opioid-dependent-women-in-ontario-2002-2014
#4
Susan B Brogly, Suzanne Turner, Katherine Lajkosz, Greg Davies, Adam Newman, Ana Johnson, Kimberly Dow
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data characterizing mother-infant pairs with prenatal opioid dependence in Canada. We therefore conducted a study of relevant births in Ontario from 2002 to 2014. METHODS: We used data from the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, the linked databases of coded population-based Ontario health services records. Differences in characteristics of opioid-dependent mother-neonate pairs and infant hospital costs by year were assessed using linear regression, and we calculated rates of preterm birth, low birth weight, birth defects, mortality, and neonatal abstinence syndrome...
March 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343176/proactive-approach-at-the-limits-of-viability-improves-the-short-term-outcome-of-neonates-born-after-23-weeks-gestation
#5
Patrik Šimják, Jan Smíšek, Michal Koucký, Tereza Lamberská, Richard Plavka, Zdeněk Hájek
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this single-center study was to identify factors that affect the short-term outcome of newborns delivered around the limits of viability. METHODS: A group of 137 pregnant women who gave birth between 22+0/7 and 25+6/7 weeks of gestation was retrospectively studied. The center supports a proactive approach to infants around the limits of viability. Perinatal and neonatal characteristics were obtained and statistically evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 166 live-born infants were enrolled during a 6-year period; 162 (97...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342684/persistent-pulmonary-hypertension-of-the-newborn
#6
REVIEW
Mamta Fuloria, Judy L Aschner
Failure of the normal circulatory adaptation to extrauterine life results in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Although this condition is most often secondary to parenchymal lung disease or lung hypoplasia, it may also be idiopathic. PPHN is characterized by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance with resultant right-to-left shunting of blood and hypoxemia. Although the preliminary diagnosis of PPHN is often based on differential cyanosis and labile hypoxemia, the diagnosis is confirmed by echocardiography...
March 23, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341901/hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome-is-not-associated-with-worse-clinical-or-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-than-other-cardiac-pathologies-after-the-norwood-sano-operation
#7
Billie-Jean Martin, I De Villiers Jonker, Ari R Joffe, Gwen Y Bond, Bryan V Acton, David B Ross, Charlene M T Robertson, Ivan M Rebeyka, Joseph Atallah
There is evidence to suggest that patients undergoing a Norwood for non-HLHS anatomy may have lower mortality than classic HLHS, but differences in neurodevelopmental outcome have not been assessed. Our objective was to compare survival and neurodevelopmental outcome during the same surgical era in a large, well-described cohort. All subjects who underwent a Norwood-Sano operation between 2005 and 2014 were included. Follow-up clinical, neurological, and developmental data were obtained from the Western Canadian Complex Pediatric Therapies Follow-up Program database...
March 24, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341800/variability-in-very-preterm-stillbirth-and-in-hospital-mortality-across-europe
#8
Elizabeth S Draper, Bradley N Manktelow, Marina Cuttini, Rolf F Maier, Alan C Fenton, Patrick Van Reempts, Anna-Karin Bonamy, Jan Mazela, Klaus Bᴓrch, Corinne Koopman-Esseboom, Heili Varendi, Henrique Barros, Jennifer J Zeitlin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Stillbirth and in-hospital mortality rates associated with very preterm births (VPT) vary widely across Europe. International comparisons are complicated by a lack of standardized data collection and differences in definitions, registration, and reporting. This study aims to determine what proportion of the variation in stillbirth and in-hospital VPT mortality rates persists after adjusting for population demographics, case-mix, and timing of death. METHODS: Standardized data collection for a geographically defined prospective cohort of VPTs (22(+0)-31(+6) weeks gestation) across 16 regions in Europe...
March 24, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338487/the-evolution-of-disease-chronic-lung-disease-of-infancy-and-pulmonary-hypertension
#9
Michael C Tracy, David N Cornfield
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or chronic lung disease of infancy BPD was originally described 50 years ago, in 1967 by Northway et al. This article possesses two fundamental objectives to provide: a brief historical perspective on BPD; and an update relative to current notions of epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and clinical management of BPD complicated by vascular disease. The review highlights areas of consensus and ongoing uncertainty. RECENT FINDINGS: The clinical cause and presentation of infants with BPD has evolved over the past several decades...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337207/gastrointestinal-microbiome-dysbiosis-in-infant-mice-alters-peripheral-cd8-t-cell-receptor-signaling
#10
Gabriela Gonzalez-Perez, Esi S N Lamousé-Smith
We recently reported that maternal antibiotic treatment (MAT) of mice in the last days of pregnancy and during lactation dramatically alters the density and composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota of their infants. MAT infants also exhibited enhanced susceptibility to a systemic viral infection and altered adaptive immune cell activation phenotype and function. CD8(+) effector T cells from MAT infants consistently demonstrate an inability to sustain interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production in vivo following vaccinia virus infection and in vitro upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335737/cytomegalovirus-infection-in-hiv-infected-versus-non-infected-infants-and-hiv-disease-progression-in-cytomegalovirus-infected-versus-non-infected-infants-early-treated-with-cart-in-the-anrs-12140-pediacam-study-in-cameroon
#11
Anfumbom K W Kfutwah, Paul Alain T Ngoupo, Casimir Ledoux Sofeu, Francis Ateba Ndongo, Georgette Guemkam, Suzie Tetang Ndiang, Félicité Owona, Ida Calixte Penda, Patrice Tchendjou, Christine Rouzioux, Josiane Warszawski, Albert Faye, Mathurin Cyrille Tejiokem
BACKGROUND: The outcome of CMV/HIV co-infection in infants treated early with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) in resource-limited settings has not been described. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and identify factors associated with early CMV infection in HIV-infected and non-infected infants included in a study in Cameroon, and to compare HIV disease progression and survival after 1 year of early cART, following infants' CMV status. METHODS: HIV-infected infants followed from birth or from HIV diagnosis before 7 months old and HIV-uninfected infants born to HIV-infected or uninfected mothers were tested for CMV at a median age of 4...
March 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334811/causes-and-predictors-of-neonatal-post-neonatal-and-maternal-deaths-in-india-analysis-of-a-nationwide-district-level-household-survey-4-dlhs-4-2012-13
#12
Jaya P Tripathy, Sanskruti Mishra
Introduction: There is lack of reliable mortality estimates in India about maternal, neonatal and infant deaths. As we move towards achieving the targets under Sustainable Development Goals, information on cause of death is essential to prioritize our resources and planning. Therefore, the present study describes the causes and characteristics of neonatal, post-neonatal and maternal deaths in India. Methods: The study analysed nationwide District-Level Household Survey-4 conducted by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, in 2014...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333257/comparative-effectiveness-of-linezolid-versus-vancomycin-as-definitive-antibiotic-therapy-for-heterogeneously-resistant-vancomycin-intermediate-coagulase-negative-staphylococcal-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#13
A C Blanchard, E Fortin, C Laferrière, I Goyer, A Moussa, J Autmizguine, C Quach
Objectives: Heterogeneously resistant vancomycin-intermediate coagulase-negative staphylococci (hVICoNS) are emerging pathogens causing central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients. Given the burden of disease associated with CLABSI and the current lack of therapeutic guidelines, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of linezolid versus vancomycin used as the definitive antibiotic therapy for hVICoNS CLABSI. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of infants with hVICoNS CLABSI from a single NICU between 2009 and 2014, treated with either linezolid or vancomycin as definitive antibiotic therapy...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332298/impact-of-maternal-obesity-on-very-preterm-infants
#14
Rubia Khalak, Asha Rijhsinghani, Sarah E McCallum
OBJECTIVE: Infants born at less than  34 weeks' gestational age are at higher risk for morbidity and mortality. Data are limited on the impact of maternal obesity on the very preterm infant. This study reviewed whether maternal obesity further increases the intensive care needs of very preterm infants of less than 34 weeks' gestation. METHODS: Maternal and neonatal data for live-born singleton births of 23 0/7 to 33 6/7 weeks' gestation delivering in upstate New York were reviewed...
March 22, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331868/a-novel-practical-equation-for-treatment-of-emergent-hypernatremia-and-dehydration-phase-in-infants
#15
Saba Ghaffary, Azadeh Moghaddas, Mehrnoush Dianatkhah
Serum sodium (Na) concentration more than 145 mmol/L is defined as hypernatremia. Hypernatremia carries an acute morbidity and mortality, especially in neonates and infants. Rapid correction of hypernatremia leads to severe cerebral damages, and seizure is the most common neurological complication of hypernatremia. Selection and calculation of an appropriate fluid and its amount is one of the tremendous challenges. It is important to choose the correct amount of suitable fluid and adjust rehydration rate. In this study, we have suggested practical equation to determine the amount of fluid that should be administered to the neonates and infants with hypernatremia...
January 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329897/maternal-labor-delivery-and-perinatal-outcomes-associated-with-placental-abruption-a-systematic-review
#16
Katheryne L Downes, Katherine L Grantz, Edmond D Shenassa
Objective Risk factors for placental abruption have changed, but there has not been an updated systematic review investigating outcomes. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, SCOPUS, and CINAHL for publications from January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2016. We reviewed English-language publications reporting estimated incidence and/or risk factors for maternal, labor, delivery, and perinatal outcomes associated with abruption. We excluded case studies, conference abstracts, and studies that lacked a referent/comparison group or did not clearly characterize placental abruption...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329178/intraoperative-coronary-revision-but-not-coronary-pattern-is-associated-with-mortality-after-arterial-switch-operation%C3%A2
#17
Matteo Trezzi, Angelo Polito, Antonio Albano, Sonia B Albanese, Enrico Cetrano, Adriano Carotti
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine differences in baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes in a consecutive series of patients undergoing arterial switch operation (ASO), assessing the effect of coronary anatomy on postoperative mortality, both overall and adjusted for surgical era. METHODS: From January 2000 to May 2015, 283 consecutive patients underwent ASO for transposition of the great arteries. A total of 103 patients (36.4%) had an associated ventricular septal defect and 23 (8...
March 18, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325959/perinatal-mortality-associated-with-positive-postmortem-cultures-for-common-oral-flora
#18
Mai He, Alison R Migliori, Patricia Lauro, C James Sung, Halit Pinar
Introduction. To investigate whether maternal oral flora might be involved in intrauterine infection and subsequent stillbirth or neonatal death and could therefore be detected in fetal and neonatal postmortem bacterial cultures. Methods. This retrospective study of postmortem examinations from 1/1/2000 to 12/31/2010 was searched for bacterial cultures positive for common oral flora from heart blood or lung tissue. Maternal age, gestational age, age at neonatal death, and placental and fetal/neonatal histopathological findings were collected...
2017: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325678/early-neonatal-deaths-associated-with-perinatal-asphyxia-in-infants-%C3%A2-2500g-in-brazil
#19
Maria Fernanda Branco de Almeida, Mandira Daripa Kawakami, Lícia Maria Oliveira Moreira, Rosa Maria Vaz Dos Santos, Lêni Márcia Anchieta, Ruth Guinsburg
OBJECTIVE: To assess the annual burden of early neonatal deaths associated with perinatal asphyxia in infants weighing ≥2500g in Brazil from 2005 to 2010. METHODS: The population study enrolled all live births of infants with birth weight ≥2500g and without malformations who died up to six days after birth with perinatal asphyxia, defined as intrauterine hypoxia, asphyxia at birth, or meconium aspiration syndrome. The cause of death was written in any field of the death certificate, according to International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (P20...
March 19, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325079/dietary-guidelines-for-the-asia-pacific-region
#20
Colin W Binns, Mi Kyung Lee, Masaharu Kagawa, Wah Yun Low, Qiu Liqian, Georgia S Guldan, Tomiko Hokama, Keiko Nanishi, Sreymom Oy, Li Tang, Alfred Zerfas
Nutrition is a major determinant of health throughout all stages of life and together with smoking is the most important risk factor for morbidity and mortality in the Asia Pacific Region. The workshop participants examined Dietary Guidelines and Food Guides that are in use in our region, together with additional materials from the World Health Organization, UNICEF and the World Cancer Research Foundation. The resulting set of guidelines is meant as a reminder of the main issues to be covered in a general public health education program...
March 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
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