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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565347/vaginal-exposure-to-zika-virus-during-pregnancy-leads-to-fetal-brain-infection
#1
Laura J Yockey, Luis Varela, Tasfia Rakib, William Khoury-Hanold, Susan L Fink, Bernardo Stutz, Klara Szigeti-Buck, Anthony Van den Pol, Brett D Lindenbach, Tamas L Horvath, Akiko Iwasaki
Zika virus (ZIKV) can be transmitted sexually between humans. However, it is unknown whether ZIKV replicates in the vagina and impacts the unborn fetus. Here, we establish a mouse model of vaginal ZIKV infection and demonstrate that, unlike other routes, ZIKV replicates within the genital mucosa even in wild-type (WT) mice. Mice lacking RNA sensors or transcription factors IRF3 and IRF7 resulted in higher levels of local viral replication. Furthermore, mice lacking the type I interferon (IFN) receptor (IFNAR) became viremic and died of infection after a high-dose vaginal ZIKV challenge...
August 25, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462916/p53-elevation-in-human-cells-halt-sv40-infection-by-inhibiting-t-ag-expression
#2
Nir Drayman, Orly Ben-Nun-Shaul, Veronika Butin-Israeli, Rohit Srivastava, Ariel M Rubinstein, Caroline S Mock, Ela Elyada, Yinon Ben-Neriah, Galit Lahav, Ariella Oppenheim
SV40 large T-antigen (T-ag) has been known for decades to inactivate the tumor suppressor p53 by sequestration and additional mechanisms. Our present study revealed that the struggle between p53 and T-ag begins very early in the infection cycle. We found that p53 is activated early after SV40 infection and defends the host against the infection. Using live cell imaging and single cell analyses we found that p53 dynamics are variable among individual cells, with only a subset of cells activating p53 immediately after SV40 infection...
July 21, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423203/alveolar-macrophages-can-control-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-the-absence-of-type-i-interferons
#3
Spyridon Makris, Monika Bajorek, Fiona J Culley, Michelle Goritzka, Cecilia Johansson
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of lower respiratory tract infections. Immunity to RSV is initiated upon detection of the virus by pattern recognition receptors, such as RIG-I-like receptors. RIG-I-like receptors signal via MAVS to induce the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators, including type I interferons (IFNs), which trigger and shape antiviral responses and protect cells from infection. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are amongst the first cells to encounter invading viruses and the ones producing type I IFNs...
2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27411694/pregnancy-experience-nonclinical-studies-and-pregnancy-outcomes-in-the-daclizumab-clinical-study-program
#4
Ralf Gold, Dusan Stefoski, Krzysztof Selmaj, Eva Havrdova, Christopher Hurst, Joan Holman, Belen Tornesi, Surekha Akella, Peter McCroskery
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is more common in women and can occur during childbearing years; thus, information on outcomes following exposure to MS therapy during pregnancy is important. No formal studies of daclizumab have been conducted in pregnant women. Here, we report available nonclinical and clinical data on pregnancy outcomes from the daclizumab clinical study program. METHODS: Reproductive and developmental toxicity studies were conducted in cynomolgus monkeys...
December 2016: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356904/immunization-with-attenuated-equine-herpesvirus-1-strain-kya-induces-innate-immune-responses-that-protect-mice-from-lethal-challenge
#5
Seong K Kim, Akhalesh K Shakya, Dennis J O'Callaghan
UNLABELLED: Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is a major pathogen affecting equines worldwide. The virus causes respiratory disease, abortion, and, in some cases, neurological disease. EHV-1 strain KyA is attenuated in the mouse and equine, whereas wild-type strain RacL11 induces severe inflammation of the lung, causing infected mice to succumb at 4 to 6 days postinfection. Our previous results showed that KyA immunization protected CBA mice from pathogenic RacL11 challenge at 2 and 4 weeks postimmunization and that KyA infection elicited protective humoral and cell-mediated immune responses...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27180225/zika-virus-infection-during-pregnancy-in-mice-causes-placental-damage-and-fetal-demise
#6
Jonathan J Miner, Bin Cao, Jennifer Govero, Amber M Smith, Estefania Fernandez, Omar H Cabrera, Charise Garber, Michelle Noll, Robyn S Klein, Kevin K Noguchi, Indira U Mysorekar, Michael S Diamond
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in pregnant women causes intrauterine growth restriction, spontaneous abortion, and microcephaly. Here, we describe two mouse models of placental and fetal disease associated with in utero transmission of ZIKV. Female mice lacking type I interferon signaling (Ifnar1(-/-)) crossed to wild-type (WT) males produced heterozygous fetuses resembling the immune status of human fetuses. Maternal inoculation at embryonic day 6.5 (E6.5) or E7.5 resulted in fetal demise that was associated with ZIKV infection of the placenta and fetal brain...
May 19, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27160972/effects-of-cytokines-and-tlr-ligands-on-the-production-of-plgf-and-svegfr1-in-primary-trophoblasts
#7
Erina Kato, Tatsuo Yamamoto, Fumihisa Chishima
AIM: Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma (IFN-x03B3;) play an important role in maintaining pregnancy. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have also been associated with innate immune responses during pregnancy. Placenta growth factor (PlGF) is one of the angiogenic factors and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sVEGFR1) is one of the antiangiogenic factors that regulate PlGF function. To elucidate the effects of cytokines and TLR ligands on the production of angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors in trophoblasts, we examined the production of PlGF and sVEGFR1 from trophoblasts following stimulation with cytokines and TLR ligands...
May 10, 2016: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147487/therapeutic-effects-of-wharton-jelly-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-rat-abortion-models
#8
Xiaojing Chen, Xiaoqing Yang, Rongrong Wu, Weiwei Chen, Huihui Xie, Xia Qian, Yuquan Zhang
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects and mechanism of Wharton jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSC) in a spontaneous-abortion rat model. METHODS: An abortion model was established using intravenous injection of bromocriptine. WJ-MSC were isolated and cultured from Wharton jelly of the human umbilical cord. The pathologic changes of placenta decidual tissues were observed after hematoxylin-eosin staining. The embryo absorption rate was counted...
August 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090619/equine-herpesvirus-1-infection-disrupts-interferon-regulatory-factor-3-irf-3-signaling-pathways-in-equine-endothelial-cells
#9
Sanjay Sarkar, Udeni B R Balasuriya, David W Horohov, Thomas M Chambers
Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) is a major respiratory viral pathogen of horses, causing upper respiratory tract disease, abortion, neonatal death, and neurological disease that may lead to paralysis and death. EHV-1 replicates initially in the respiratory epithelium and then spreads systemically to endothelial cells lining the small blood vessels in the uterus and spinal cord leading to abortion and EHM in horses. Like other herpesviruses, EHV-1 employs a variety of mechanisms for immune evasion including suppression of type-I interferon (IFN) production in equine endothelial cells (EECs)...
May 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26920382/interferon-beta-exposure-during-first-trimester-is-safe-in-women-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-prospective-cohort-study-from-the-german-multiple-sclerosis-and-pregnancy-registry
#10
Sandra Thiel, Annette Langer-Gould, Milena Rockhoff, Aiden Haghikia, Annette Queisser-Wahrendorf, Ralf Gold, Kerstin Hellwig
BACKGROUND: Available data suggest that pregnancy exposure to interferon-beta might result in lower mean birth weight and preterm birth. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of interferon-beta exposure during pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes in multiple sclerosis patients. METHODS: We compared the pregnancy outcomes of women exposed to interferon-beta with pregnancies unexposed to disease-modifying therapies. Women were enrolled into the German Multiple Sclerosis and Pregnancy Registry...
May 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26764007/trim5%C3%AE-degradation-via-autophagy-is-not-required-for-retroviral-restriction
#11
Sabrina Imam, Sarah Talley, Rachel S Nelson, Adarsh Dharan, Christopher O'Connor, Thomas J Hope, Edward M Campbell
UNLABELLED: TRIM5α is an interferon-inducible retroviral restriction factor that prevents infection by inducing the abortive disassembly of capsid cores recognized by its C-terminal PRY/SPRY domain. The mechanism by which TRIM5α mediates the disassembly of viral cores is poorly understood. Previous studies demonstrated that proteasome inhibitors abrogate the ability of TRIM5α to induce premature core disassembly and prevent reverse transcription; however, viral infection is still inhibited, indicating that the proteasome is partially involved in the restriction process...
January 13, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26721521/inflammation-and-thrombophilia-in-pregnancy-complications-implications-for-risk-assessment-and-clinical-management
#12
REVIEW
Francesca La Farina, Valeria Raparelli, Laura Napoleone, Fiorella Guadagni, Stefania Basili, Patrizia Ferroni
In Italy, each year 500,000 couples refer to specialized centers due to reproductive problems. Among them, recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) represents a problem of great importance, given that it affects up to 5% of women of childbearing age. Infertility, on the other hand, is a condition that currently covers 10-20% of couples of reproductive age, being idiopathic in 20% of cases. Accumulating evidence support the concept that changes of blood coagulation, generically defined as the presence of a thrombophilic state (congenital or acquired), are the basis of 40-70% of cases of multiple abortions or infertility...
2016: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26656686/abortively-infected-astrocytes-appear-to-represent-the-main-source-of-interferon-beta-in-the-virus-infected-brain
#13
Cathleen Pfefferkorn, Carsten Kallfass, Stefan Lienenklaus, Julia Spanier, Ulrich Kalinke, Martina Rieder, Karl-Klaus Conzelmann, Thomas Michiels, Peter Staeheli
UNLABELLED: Interferon beta (IFN-β) is a key component of cellular innate immunity in mammals, and it constitutes the first line of defense during viral infection. Studies with cultured cells previously showed that almost all nucleated cells are able to produce IFN-β to various extents, but information about the in vivo sources of IFN-β remains incomplete. By applying immunohistochemistry and employing conditional-reporter mice that express firefly luciferase under the control of the IFN-β promoter in either all or only distinct cell types, we found that astrocytes are the main producers of IFN-β after infection of the brain with diverse neurotropic viruses, including rabies virus, Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus...
February 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26648778/cytokines-in-the-blood-and-semen-of-infertile-patients
#14
Anna Havrylyuk, Valentyna Chopyak, Yaryna Boyko, Iryna Kril, Maciej Kurpisz
Cytokines have been important mediators of the immunity and can be involved in numerous processes in the male genital tract including acting as immunomodulatory elements within the male gonad. The aims of this study were: 1) to detect pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in the control group and subgroups of infertile men; and 2) to set up the practical recommendations concerning determination of cytokine levels for the male infertility diagnosis. Observations were performed in a group of 82 men: healthy controls (n = 27) and infertile patients (n = 55)...
2015: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26622461/brucella-melitensis-16m%C3%AE-tcfsr-as-a-potential-live-vaccine-allows-for-the-differentiation-between-natural-and-vaccinated-infection
#15
Zhiqiang Li, Junbo Zhang, K E Zhang, Qiang Fu, Zhen Wang, Tiansen Li, Hui Zhang, Fei Guo, Chuangfu Chen
Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that poses a serious threat to public health and safety. Although the live attenuated vaccines targeting brucellosis, such as M5-90, are effective, there are a number of drawbacks to their use. For example, the vaccines are unable to differentiate between the natural and vaccinated forms of the infection, and these vaccines have also been shown to cause abortion in pregnant animals. Therefore, a safer and more potent vaccine is required. In the present study, a B. melitensis 16M TcfSR promoter mutant (16MΔTcfSR) was constructed in an attempt to overcome these drawbacks...
September 2015: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26608311/the-interferon-type-i-iii-response-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-airway-epithelial-cells-can-be-attenuated-or-amplified-by-antiviral-treatment
#16
K M McCutcheon, R Jordan, M E Mawhorter, S L Noton, J G Powers, R Fearns, T Cihlar, M Perron
UNLABELLED: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes acute, and occasionally fatal, lower respiratory illness in young infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients. Therapeutic interventions able to cut short viral replication and quickly return the airways to normal function are needed. An understanding of antiviral activities and their effects on host defense mechanisms is important for the design of safe and effective therapy. We targeted functionally and temporally distinct steps within the viral life cycle using small-molecule RSV inhibitors and studied their antiviral activities and their effects on innate interferon responses of airway epithelial cells in vitro...
November 25, 2015: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26546155/la-piedad-michoac%C3%A3-n-mexico-virus-v-protein-antagonizes-type-i-interferon-response-by-binding-stat2-protein-and-preventing-stats-nuclear-translocation
#17
Giuseppe Pisanelli, Maudry Laurent-Rolle, Balaji Manicassamy, Alan Belicha-Villanueva, Juliet Morrison, Bernardo Lozano-Dubernard, Felipa Castro-Peralta, Giuseppe Iovane, Adolfo García-Sastre
La Piedad Michoacán Mexico Virus (LPMV) is a member of the Rubulavirus genus within the Paramyxoviridae family. LPMV is the etiologic agent of "blue eye disease", causing a significant disease burden in swine in Mexico with long-term implications for the agricultural industry. This virus mainly affects piglets and is characterized by meningoencephalitis and respiratory distress. It also affects adult pigs, causing reduced fertility and abortions in females, and orchitis and epididymitis in males. Viruses of the Paramyxoviridae family evade the innate immune response by targeting components of the interferon (IFN) signaling pathway...
February 2, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26513380/the-association-of-hla-g-and-immune-markers-in-recurrent-miscarriages
#18
Fatma Eskicioğlu, Alper Tunga Özdemir, Rabia Bilge Özdemir, Gülüzar Arzu Turan, Zafer Akan, Solmaz Pınar Hasdemir
OBJECTIVE: To determine role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G, CD8, CD16, CD56, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α for recurrent miscarriages in feto-maternal interface. METHOD: Chorion and decidua samples were obtained from 11 women with unwanted pregnancies (healthy pregnancy, HP) and 10 women with missed abortion diagnosis after at least two pregnancy losses (recurrent miscarriage, RM). In addition, endometrial tissues were obtained from 10 non-pregnant women (NonP)...
September 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26307092/soluble-human-leukocyte-antigen-g5-polarizes-differentiation-of-macrophages-toward-a-decidual-macrophage-like-phenotype
#19
Cheuk-Lun Lee, YiFan Guo, Kam-Hei So, Madhavi Vijayan, Yue Guo, Vera H H Wong, YuanQing Yao, Kai-Fai Lee, Philip C N Chiu, William S B Yeung
STUDY QUESTION: What are the actions of soluble human leukocyte antigen G5 (sHLAG5) on macrophage differentiation? SUMMARY ANSWER: sHLAG5 polarizes the differentiation of macrophages toward a decidual macrophage-like phenotype, which could regulate fetomaternal tolerance and placental development. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: sHLAG5 is a full-length soluble isoform of human leukocyte antigen implicated in immune tolerance during pregnancy. Low or undetectable circulating level of sHLAG5 in first trimester of pregnancy is associated with pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia and spontaneous abortion...
October 2015: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26275803/equine-herpesvirus-1-suppresses-type-i-interferon-induction-in-equine-endothelial-cells
#20
Sanjay Sarkar, Udeni B R Balasuriya, David W Horohov, Thomas M Chambers
Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) is one of the most common and important respiratory viral pathogens of horses. EHV-1 in horses replicates initially in the respiratory epithelium and then spreads systematically to endothelial cells lining the small blood vessels in the uterus and spinal cord, and highly pathogenic virus strains can produce aborted fetuses or myeloencephalopathy. Like other herpes viruses, EHV-1 employs a variety of mechanisms for immune evasion. Some herpes viruses down-regulate the type-I interferon (IFN) response to infection, but such activity has not been described for EHV-1...
October 15, 2015: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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