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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773871/the-somatostatin-secreting-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-in-health-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Patrik Rorsman, Mark O Huising
The somatostatin-secreting δ-cells comprise ~5% of the cells of the pancreatic islets. The δ-cells have complex morphology and might interact with many more islet cells than suggested by their low numbers. δ-Cells contain ATP-sensitive potassium channels, which open at low levels of glucose but close when glucose is elevated. This closure initiates membrane depolarization and electrical activity and increased somatostatin secretion. Factors released by neighbouring α-cells or β-cells amplify the glucose-induced effects on somatostatin secretion from δ-cells, which act locally within the islets as paracrine or autocrine inhibitors of insulin, glucagon and somatostatin secretion...
May 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770221/risperidone-induced-type-2-diabetes-presenting-with-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#2
Clarissa Ern Hui Fang, Mohammed Faraz Rafey, Aine Cunningham, Sean F Dinneen, Francis M Finucane
A 28-year-old male presented with 2 days of vomiting and abdominal pain, preceded by 2 weeks of thirst, polyuria and polydipsia. He had recently started risperidone for obsessive-compulsive disorder. He reported a high dietary sugar intake and had a strong family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). On admission, he was tachycardic, tachypnoeic and drowsy with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 10/15. We noted axillary acanthosis nigricans and obesity (BMI 33.2 kg/m2 ). Dipstick urinalysis showed ketonuria and glycosuria...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764225/initial-combination-therapy-with-vildagliptin-plus-metformin-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-t2dm-a-24-week-real-life-study-from-asia
#3
Manoj Chawla, Tae Ho Kim, Roberto C Mirasol, Pathan Faruque, Kathryn Cooke, Peggy Hours-Zesiger, Abhijit Shete
AIMS: To assess the effectiveness and safety of vildagliptin/metformin initial combination therapy in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: INITIAL was a 24-week prospective, observational study in T2DM patients with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥7.5%, and prescribed vildagliptin/metformin as initial combination therapy. The primary endpoint was change in HbA1c from baseline to week 24. Key secondary endpoints were HbA1c change from baseline to week 12, proportion of patients achieving HbA1c ≤7...
May 15, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763267/top-20-research-studies-of-2017-for-primary-care-physicians
#4
Mark H Ebell, Roland Grad
Based on systematic surveillance of more than 110 medical journals, 247 studies met criteria as POEMs (patient-oriented evidence that matters) in 2017. Members of the Canadian Medical Association identified 20 of these POEMs as most relevant to practice. This article reviews the clinical questions and bottom-line answers from these studies. Blood pressure should be measured after a period of rest, using a bare arm, and orthostatic blood pressure is more predictive when measured after one minute of standing rather than three minutes...
May 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755521/cataract-as-early-ocular-complication-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#5
REVIEW
Marko Šimunović, Martina Paradžik, Roko Škrabić, Ivana Unić, Kajo Bućan, Veselin Škrabić
Cataract is a rare manifestation of ocular complication at an early phase of T1DM in the pediatric population. The pathophysiological mechanism of early diabetic cataract has not been fully understood; however, there are many theories about the possible etiology including osmotic damage, polyol pathway, and oxidative stress. The prevalence of early diabetic cataract in the population varies between 0.7 and 3.4% of children and adolescents with T1DM. The occurrence of diabetic cataract in most pediatric patients is the first sign of T1DM or occurs within 6 months of diagnosis of T1DM...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748118/diaphragmatic-dysfunction-as-the-presenting-symptom-in-neuromuscular-disorders-a-retrospective-longitudinal-study-of-etiology-and-outcome-in-30-german-patients
#6
Matthias Türk, Irina Weber, Gernot Vogt-Ladner, Rolf Schröder, Martin Winterholler
Diaphragmatic dysfunction is well-known in advanced stages of neuromuscular disorders. However, data on its presence as the presenting symptom in neuromuscular disorders is scarce. The goal of this retrospective longitudinal study was to evaluate the etiology and clinical outcome in patients, in whom uni- or bilateral diaphragmatic dysfunction was primarily diagnosed, before a specific neuromuscular disease was found. Patients with critical illness neuropathy/myopathy were excluded from this study. Analysis of the medical records of two tertiary referral centers for patients with neuromuscular diseases identified 30 corresponding patients with diaphragmatic dysfunction (17 unilateral; 13 bilateral)...
April 9, 2018: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746442/community-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-subretinal-abscess-in-a-nonbacteremic-patient-treated-with-internal-drainage-and-retinectomy
#7
Jessica F Yang, Kamal Kishore
PURPOSE: To report a case of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus subretinal abscess that continued to progress, despite intravitreal and systemic antibiotic therapy. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of a 77-year-old female patient with well-controlled diabetes mellitus who developed a left eye endophthalmitis and subretinal abscess from methicillin-resistant S. aureus colonization in the absence of any systemic focus of infection...
May 9, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745913/benefits-of-early-screening-and-proper-treatment-in-patient-with-significant-risk-factors-for-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-case-report
#8
V Limani
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) occurs in 2-9% of all pregnancies. Evidence suggests that the use of insulin in treating hyperglycemia in GDM patients reduces the risk of perinatal morbidity. Pregnancy is an exciting time in a woman's life. However, once patient is diagnosed with GDM, she will be managed more intensively. GDM is managed using diet and exercise but one in six women with GDM requires insulin. A 35-year-old woman at the 14th gestational week of her tenth pregnancy was seen for routine prenatal care...
April 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745906/mild-case-of-insulin-resistance-in-a-patient-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-case-report
#9
A Mucha
Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and relative insulin deficiency. There are rare cases when even higher doses of insulin are insufficient to control the values of glycemia. The insulin resistance can be mild, moderate or severe. Authors present a clinical case report of a mild insulin resistance in a 46 year-old female patient with clinical symptoms of insulin resistance (including obesity), treated for seven years with oral antidiabetic drugs...
April 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744822/study-protocol-for-the-initial-choice-of-dpp-4-inhibitor-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-effect-of-linagliptin-on-qol-intel-qol-trial
#10
Tomoya Mita, Toru Hiyoshi, Hidenori Yoshii, Hiroko Chimori, Kazuo Ikeda, Junko Sato, Hirotaka Watada
INTRODUCTION: Consideration of treatment-related quality of life (QOL) is important in diabetes management. However, no studies have compared the influence of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors versus metformin on treatment-related QOL when used as first-line therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: This study is a prospective, randomized, open-label, multicenter, parallel-group, comparative study. Between June 2016 and December 2017, 44 participants who failed to achieve glycemic control despite diet and exercise therapy were recruited at 14 clinics and randomly allocated to linagliptin or metformin therapy...
May 9, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743117/a-robust-response-to-combination-immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-therapy-in-hpv-related-small-cell-cancer-a-case-report
#11
Won Jin Ho, Lisa Rooper, Sarah Sagorsky, Hyunseok Kang
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus-related small cell carcinoma of the head and neck is an extremely rare, aggressive subtype with poor outcomes. Therapeutic options are limited and are largely adopted from small cell lung cancer treatment paradigms. CASE PRESENTATION: This report describes a 69-year old male who was diagnosed of HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer with mixed small cell and squamous cell pathology which was clinically aggressive and progressed through multimodal platinum-based therapies...
May 9, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735297/utilization-patterns-of-lipid-lowering-therapies-in-patients-with-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-or-diabetes-a-population-based-study-in-south-korea
#12
Siin Kim, Hyungtae Kim, Eunju Kim, Sola Han, Pratik P Rane, Kathleen M Fox, Zhongyun Zhao, Yi Qian, Hae Sun Suh
PURPOSE: We aimed to study the utilization patterns of lipid-lowering treatment (LLT), including treatment modification, adherence, and possible statin intolerance, in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or diabetes using national claims data in South Korea. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from the Korean Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service claims database. Patients aged ≥18 years with >1 outpatient pharmacy claim for a statin and/or ezetimibe dated January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2014, were identified and categorized into the following cohorts: patients with ASCVD, and patients with diabetes mellitus without ASCVD...
May 4, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732161/rapid-onset-diabetic-ketoacidosis-secondary-to-nivolumab-therapy
#13
Senhong Lee, Aparna Morgan, Sonali Shah, Peter R Ebeling
We report a case of a 67-year-old man with type 2 diabetes presented with diabetic ketoacidosis, two weeks after his first dose of nivolumab therapy for non-small-cell lung carcinoma. He was started on empagliflozin two days prior in the setting of hyperglycaemia after the initiation of nivolumab therapy. Laboratory evaluation revealed an undetectable C-peptide and a positive anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibody. He was treated with intravenous fluids and insulin infusion and was subsequently transitioned to subcutaneous insulin and discharged home...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726082/clinical-effectiveness-of-liraglutide-versus-basal-insulin-in-a-real-world-setting-evidence-for-improved-glycaemic-and-weight-control-in-obese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#14
Jetty Overbeek, Edith Heintjes, Eline Huisman, Christian Tikkanen, Arnout van Diermen, Fernie Penning-van Beest, Ron Herings
AIM: To compare real-world anti-diabetic treatment outcomes over 12 months in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients who previously received oral anti-diabetic (OAD) therapy and then initiated a first injectable therapy with liraglutide or basal insulin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective, propensity score-matched, longitudinal cohort study using real-world data (January 2010 to December 2015) from the Dutch PHARMO Database Network. Adult obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥35 kg/m2 ) T2DM patients with ≥2 dispensing dates for liraglutide or basal insulin therapy (BOT) were selected...
May 3, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725970/predominant-improvement-of-alpha-cell-function-after-steroid-therapy-in-a-patient-with-autoimmune-pancreatitis-case-report
#15
Ken Takeshima, Hiroyuki Ariyasu, Hiroshi Iwakura, Shintaro Kawai, Shinsuke Uraki, Hidefumi Inaba, Machi Furuta, Kenji Warigaya, Shin-Ichi Murata, Takashi Akamizu
INTRODUCTION: Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a subset of inflammatory pancreatic disease, responsive to corticosteroid therapy. It is prone to being affected by diabetes mellitus, but the effectiveness of steroid therapy on pancreatic endocrine function is still controversial. We present a case of AIP, focusing on pancreatic endocrine function after steroid therapy. CASE REPORT: The patient was referred to our hospital with exacerbation of diabetic control and pancreatic swelling...
May 3, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724122/a-meta-analysis-of-the-association-between-diabetic-patients-and-avf-failure-in-dialysis
#16
Yan Yan, Dan Ye, Liu Yang, Wen Ye, Dandan Zhan, Li Zhang, Jun Xiao, Yan Zeng, Qinkai Chen
PURPOSE: The most preferable vascular access for patients with end-stage renal failure needing hemodialysis is native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) on account of its access longevity, patient morbidity, hospitalization costs, lower risks of infection and fewer incidence of thrombotic complications. Meanwhile, according to National Kidney Foundation (NKF)̸Dialysis Out-comes Quality Initiative (DOQI) guidelines, AVF is more used than before. However, a significant percentage of AVF fails to support dialysis therapy due to lack of adequate maturity...
November 2018: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720539/its-reticulated-the-liver-at-the-heart-of-atherosclerosis
#17
Prabhakara R Nagareddy, Sunil K Noothi, Michelle Christine Flynn, Andrew Murphy
Platelets play a critical role in both the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, and even more so in the ensuing atherothrombotic complications. Low-dose aspirin remains the mainstay of antiplatelet therapy in high-risk patients by reducing the risk of myocardial ischemia (MI), stroke, or death due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, antiplatelet therapies lose their efficacy in people with diabetes mellitus (DM), increasing the risk of future atherothrombotic events. The molecular mechanisms that promote platelet hyperactivity remain unclear but could be due to glycation-induced conformational changes of platelet membranes resulting in impaired aspirin entry, or less-efficient acetylation/compensatory increase in COX-2 expression in newborn platelets...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713649/treatment-discontinuation-and-clinical-events-in-type-2-diabetes-patients-treated-with-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-or-nph-insulin-as-third-line-therapy
#18
Cristiano S Moura, Zale B Rosenberg, Michal Abrahamowicz, Sasha Bernatsky, Hassan Behlouli, Louise Pilote
Objective: To compare dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors with neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin, in terms of effectiveness and safety for the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) not controlled on metformin and sulfonylureas. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of individuals with DM2 newly dispensed with either DPP-4 inhibitors or NPH as third-line therapy, after metformin and sulfonylurea. Treatment discontinuation, macrovascular outcomes, and hypoglycemia were compared using multivariable Cox regression models, adjusted for sex, age, year of cohort entry, place of residence, hypertension, past history of hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, comorbidities, and number of visits to emergency departments, outpatient physician, and hospitalizations...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707227/diabetes-mellitus-remission-in-a-cat-with-pituitary-dependent-hyperadrenocorticism-after-trilostane-treatment
#19
Adriana Cunha Muschner, Fernanda Venzon Varela, Katarina Hazuchova, Stijn Jm Niessen, Álan Gomes Pöppl
Case summary: An 8-year-old male neutered Persian cat was presented with polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia and muscle weakness associated with a 7 month history of diabetes mellitus (DM). The cat had initially been treated with neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin 2 U q12h, followed by porcine lente insulin 2 U q12h and, most recently, 3 U glargine insulin q12h, without improvement of clinical signs. The cat also suffered from concurrent symmetrical bilateral alopecia of thorax and forelimbs, abdominal distension and lethargy...
January 2018: JFMS Open Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704920/hypertension-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-targets-and-management
#20
REVIEW
Dimitra I Pavlou, Stavroula Α Paschou, Panagiotis Anagnostis, Michael Spartalis, Eleftherios Spartalis, Andromachi Vryonidou, Nicholas Tentolouris, Gerasimos Siasos
Two-thirds of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have arterial hypertension. Hypertension increases the incidence of both micro- and macrovascular complications in these patients, while the co-existence of these two major risk factors leads to a four-fold increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with normotensive non-diabetic controls. The aim of this article is to comprehensively review the literature and present updated information on targets for blood pressure (BP) and on the management of hypertension in patients with T2DM...
June 2018: Maturitas
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