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Scrub typhus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934071/prevalence-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-orientia-tsutsugamushi-in-rodents-and-mites-from-central-india
#1
Ruchi Bhate, Nilesh Pansare, Sandeep P Chaudhari, Sukhadeo B Barbuddhe, Vijay K Choudhary, Nitin V Kurkure, Sunil W Kolte
Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of scrub typhus in humans, is an obligate intracytosolic bacterium transmitted among animals and to humans by some species of larval trombiculid mites (chiggers) and is hosted mainly by rodents. In this study, we attempted detection of O. tsutsugamushi from blood and tissue samples of rodents trapped from different locations in Central India using PCR targeting the 56 kDa outer membrane protein gene and the 47 kDa high temperature transmembrane protein gene. A total of 59 rodent samples comprising 38 of blood collected from domestic and public surroundings and 21 of tissue from agricultural farm were included in this study...
September 21, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928300/zoonotic-surveillance-for-rickettsiae-in-rodents-and-mapping-of-vectors-of-rickettsial-diseases-in-india-a-multi-centric-study
#2
Rina Tilak, Rajesh Kunwar, P K Tyagi, Anurag Khera, R K Joshi, Urmila B Wankhade
BACKGROUND: The global resurgence of rickettsial diseases and their potential to impact the fitness of military personnel and inflict widespread casualties amongst civil populations has emerged as a major cause of public health concern. Absence of surveillance system, lack of awareness amongst medical fraternity to rickettsial activity along with the difficulty in diagnosis because of their protean clinical manifestations are reasons for the outbreaks of these diseases. OBJECTIVES: To determine rickettsial activity amongst rodents and study vector diversity, abundance and their distribution to enable mapping of rickettsial hotspots...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892515/strong-interferon-gamma-mediated-cellular-immunity-to-scrub-typhus-demonstrated-using-a-novel-whole-cell-antigen-elispot-assay-in-rhesus-macaques-and-humans
#3
Manutsanun Sumonwiriya, Daniel H Paris, Piyanate Sunyakumthorn, Tippawan Anantatat, Kemajittra Jenjaroen, Suchintana Chumseng, Rawiwan Im-Erbsin, Ampai Tanganuchitcharnchai, Suthatip Jintaworn, Stuart D Blacksell, Fazle R Chowdhury, Barbara Kronsteiner, Prapit Teparrukkul, Robin L Burke, Eric D Lombardini, Allen L Richards, Carl J Mason, James W Jones, Nicholas P J Day, Susanna J Dunachie
Scrub typhus is a febrile infection caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi, which causes significant morbidity and mortality across the Asia-Pacific region. The control of this vector-borne disease is challenging due to humans being dead-end hosts, vertical maintenance of the pathogen in the vector itself, and a potentially large rodent reservoir of unclear significance, coupled with a lack of accurate diagnostic tests. Development of an effective vaccine is highly desirable. This however requires better characterization of the natural immune response of this neglected but important disease...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890912/typhoid-and-scrub-typhus-coinfection-in-a-returned-traveler
#4
Christopher Wen-Xing Seow, Veena Logarajah, Natalie Woon Hui Tan
This is a case report of a 12-year-old returned traveler with typhoid and scrub typhus coinfection. The diagnosis of typhoid was made early with blood cultures and Widal Weil Felix serology. Persistent fever despite appropriate antibiotics for typhoid fever prompted a search for concomitant infection, which led to the diagnosis of scrub typhus confirmed by Orientia tsutsugamushi serology. The patient was given doxycycline with good clinical response. Scrub typhus infection should be an early consideration in the differential diagnoses of fever in a returned traveler from regions where it is endemic...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885357/comparative-effectiveness-of-azithromycin-for-treating-scrub-typhus-a-prisma-compliant-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Szu-Chia Lee, Yu-Jyun Cheng, Chao-Hsu Lin, Wei-Te Lei, Hung-Yang Chang, Ming-Dar Lee, Jui-Ming Liu, Ren-Jun Hsu, Nan-Chang Chiu, Hsin Chi, Chun-Chih Peng, Te-Lung Tsai, Chien-Yu Lin
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is a zoonotic disease that remains an important health threat in endemic areas. Appropriate anti-rickettsial treatment ensures a successful recovery. Doxycycline is a recommended drug, but it is contraindicated in pregnant women and young children. Azithromycin is a safer alternative drug, but its effectiveness remains largely unclear. Herein, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effectiveness of azithromycin. METHODS: Studies that investigated azithromycin in treating scrub typhus were systematically identified from electronic databases up to December 2016...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878522/validation-of-geno-sen-s-scrub-typhus-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-kit-by-its-comparison-with-a-serological-elisa-test
#6
Velmurugan Anitharaj, Selvaraj Stephen, Jothimani Pradeep, Pratheesh Pooja, Sridharan Preethi
BACKGROUND: In the recent past, scrub typhus (ST) has been reported from different parts of India, based on Weil-Felix/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)/indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Molecular tests are applied only by a few researchers. AIMS: Evaluation of a new commercial real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kit for molecular diagnosis of ST by comparing it with the commonly used IgM ELISA is our aim. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: ST has been reported all over India including Puducherry and surrounding Tamil Nadu and identified as endemic for ST...
July 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833968/endoscopic-characteristics-of-infection-associated-peptic-ulcers
#7
Seong-Hyung Choi, Dong-Min Kim, Jun Lee, Na Ra Yun
BACKGROUND: Aside from Helicobacter pylori, another cause for the development or worsening of gastrointestinal ulcers is scrub typhus, an acute febrile disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. We aimed to compare the endoscopic characteristics of peptic ulcers caused by these infectious agents. METHODS: This retrospective case-control study involved patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at Chosun University Hospital in Korea. We compared endoscopic features and demographic characteristics between patients with H...
August 18, 2017: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823118/epidemiologic-characteristics-of-scrub-typhus-in-jeju-island-korea
#8
Sung Uk Lee
Purpose: Scrub typhus is the most common febrile disease in Autumn season. Jeju Island is the largest island in South Korea and has a distinctive oceanic climate. This study aimed to identify epidemiological characteristics of scrub typhus in Jeju. Methods: From January 2011 to December 2016, total 446 patients were diagnosed with scrub typhus in Jeju. Patient's personal and environmental factors that may relate to scrub typhus had been investigated and retrospectively analyzed...
August 18, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821641/reply-to-tantibhedhyangkul-et-al-suspected-mycoplasma-contamination-in-the-study-toll-like-receptor-2-recognizes-orientia-tsutsugamushi-and-increases-susceptibility-to-murine-experimental-scrub-typhus
#9
Mohammad Gharaibeh, Monica Hagedorn, Stefanie Lilla, Matthias Hauptmann, Holger Heine, Bernhard Fleischer, Christian Keller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820719/central-nervous-system-infection-associated-with-orientia-tsutsugamushi-in-south-korea
#10
Han Sang Lee, Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Seon-Jae Ahn, Jangsup Moon, Jung-Ah Lim, Jin-Sun Jun, Woo-Jin Lee, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Ki-Young Jung, Sang Kun Lee, Kon Chu
Orientia tsutsugamushi is a major cause of vector-borne infection in Asia. Prompt recognition and appropriate treatment are crucial because of its potentially fatal complications and lack of response to beta-lactam antibiotics. The present study retrospectively evaluated the clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of 16 patients with scrub typhus-related central nervous system (CNS) infections. Single titers ≥ 1:40 of total serum antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi detected by an indirect immunofluorescent assay were considered as positive results...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820712/scrub-typhus-as-an-etiology-of-acute-febrile-illness-in-gorakhpur-uttar-pradesh-india-2016
#11
Jeromie Wesley Vivian Thangraj, Mahima Mittal, Valsan Philip Verghese, C P Girish Kumar, Winsley Rose, R Sabarinathan, Ashok Kumar Pandey, Nivedita Gupta, Manoj Murhekar
Seasonal outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) with high mortality occur every year in Gorakhpur region of Uttar Pradesh, India. Earlier studies indicated the role of scrub typhus as the important etiology of AES in the region. AES cases were hospitalized late in the course of their illness. We established surveillance for acute febrile illness (AFI) (fever ≥ 4 days duration) in peripheral health facilities in Gorakhpur district to understand the relative contribution of scrub typhus. Of the 224 patients enrolled during the 3-month period corresponding to the peak of AES cases in the region, about one-fifth had immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against Orientia tsutsugamushi...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816212/scrub-typhus-a-prospective-observational-study-during-an-outbreak-in-rajasthan-india
#12
Rajendra Prasad Takhar, Moti Lal Bunkar, Savita Arya, Nitin Mirdha, Arif Mohd
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus, a potentially fatal rickettsial infection, is common in India. It usually presents with acute febrile illness along with multi-organ involvement caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. As there was an outbreak of scrub typhus in the Hadoti region of Rajasthan and there is a paucity of data from this region, we studied this entity to describe the diverse epidemiological, clinico-radiological, laboratory parameters and outcome profile of patients with scrub typhus in a tertiary care hospital...
March 2017: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799306/scrub-typhus-the-most-common-cause-of-febrile-jaundice-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-himalayan-state
#13
Jatinter Mokta, Rahul Yadav, Kiran Mokta, Prashant Panda, Asha Ranjan
BACKGROUND: Most common cause of jaundice in south east Asia is of infective etiology. Combination of fever with jaundice can cause diagnostic problem as this duo is present in many infective diseases. Timely diagnosis by simple laboratory investigations can save a lot of time and prevent morbidity and mortality. Our main aim was to determine the most common etiology of infectious jaundice in a tertiary care hospital of Himalayan state and to study their clinical profile. METHODOLOGY: This was a prospective observational study done in one year...
August 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799301/rickettsial-infections-in-goa-not-just-scrub-typhus
#14
Kedareshwar Narvencar, Gurleen Kaur, Savio Rodrigues
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Rickettsial infections are an important cause of undifferentiated febrile illness in tropics. While scrub typhus was reported from Goa, other rickettsial infections have not been reported earlier. The present study was planned to identify pattern of rickettsial infections in Goa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients presenting with undiagnosed acute febrile illness were recruited over a two-year period. Other causes of febrile illness were ruled out by appropriate tests...
August 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764167/comment-on-serological-evidence-of-scrub-typhus-among-cases-of-puo-in-the-kashmir-valley-a-hospital-based-study
#15
Bhuvanesh Sukhlal Kalal, Siddharudha Shivalli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763150/pneumonia-in-the-tropics
#16
REVIEW
Tow Keang Lim, Wen Ting Siow
Pneumonia in the tropics poses a heavy disease burden. The complex interplay of climate change, human migration influences and socio-economic factors lead to changing patterns of respiratory infections in tropical climate but also increasingly in temperate countries. Tropical and poorer countries, especially South East Asia, also bear the brunt of the global tuberculosis (TB) pandemic, accounting for almost one-third of the burden. But, as human migration patterns evolve, we expect to see more TB cases in higher income as well as temperate countries, and rise in infections like scrub typhus from ecotourism activities...
August 1, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752281/eschar-of-scrub-typhus-hidden-in-umbilicus
#17
Nowneet Kumar Bhat, Rashmi Jindal, Minakshi Dhar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 28, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750012/increased-level-and-interferon-%C3%AE-production-of-circulating-natural-killer-cells-in-patients-with-scrub-typhus
#18
Seung-Ji Kang, Hye-Mi Jin, Young-Nan Cho, Seong Eun Kim, Uh Jin Kim, Kyung-Hwa Park, Hee-Chang Jang, Sook-In Jung, Seung-Jung Kee, Yong-Wook Park
BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK) cells are essential immune cells against several pathogens. Not much is known regarding the roll of NK cells in Orientia tsutsugamushi infection. Thus, this study aims to determine the level, function, and clinical relevance of NK cells in patients with scrub typhus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study enrolled fifty-six scrub typhus patients and 56 health controls (HCs). The patients were divided into subgroups according to their disease severity...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742087/type-1-skewed-neuroinflammation-and-vascular-damage-associated-with-orientia-tsutsugamushi-infection-in-mice
#19
Lynn Soong, Thomas R Shelite, Yan Xing, Harica Kodakandla, Yuejin Liang, Brandon J Trent, Paulina Horton, Kathryn C Smith, Zhenyang Zhao, Jiaren Sun, Donald H Bouyer, Jiyang Cai
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is a life-threatening disease, due to infection with O. tsutsugamushi, a Gram-negative bacterium that preferentially replicates in endothelial cells and professional phagocytes. Meningoencephalitis has been reported in scrub typhus patients and experimentally-infected animals; however, the neurological manifestation and its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. To address this issue, we focused on Orientia tsutsugamushi Karp strain (OtK), and examined host responses in the brain during lethal versus self-healing scrub typhus disease in our newly established murine models...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726619/serologic-evidence-of-scrub-typhus-in-the-peruvian-amazon
#20
Claudine Kocher, Ju Jiang, Amy C Morrison, Roger Castillo, Mariana Leguia, Steev Loyola, Julia S Ampuero, Manuel Cespedes, Eric S Halsey, Daniel G Bausch, Allen L Richards
Using a large, passive, febrile surveillance program in Iquitos, Peru, we retrospectively tested human blood specimens for scrub typhus group orientiae by ELISA, immunofluorescence assay, and PCR. Of 1,124 participants, 60 (5.3%) were seropositive, and 1 showed evidence of recent active infection. Our serologic data indicate that scrub typhus is present in the Peruvian Amazon.
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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