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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938484/long-noncoding-rnas-potential-regulators-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#1
Yu-Dong Liu, Ying Li, Shu-Xian Feng, De-Sheng Ye, Xin Chen, Xing-Yu Zhou, Shi-Ling Chen
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility in women of reproductive age, and its etiology remains poorly understood. Altered activities of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been associated with human diseases and development. However, the roles of lncRNAs are unknown in reproductive medicine. We investigated the potential role of lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of PCOS, using human granulosa cells (GCs) and the KGN cell line. We used microarrays to compare lncRNA expression profiles in GCs from 7 PCOS patients and 7 matched women...
August 31, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937963/ki67-and-lymphocytes-in-the-pretherapeutic-core-biopsy-of-primary-invasive-breast-cancer-positive-markers-of-therapy-response-prediction-and-superior-survival
#2
REVIEW
Claus M Schlotter, Lothar Tietze, Ulf Vogt, Carlos Villena Heinsen, Antje Hahn
Background Core needle biopsy plays a crucial role as diagnostic tool for BC. Both Ki67 and likely tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the near future are determining the kind of systemic therapy. The role of TILs in BC is still an issue for clinical research, albeit preliminary results of neoadjuvant and adjuvant clinical studies already now highlight the crucial impact of TILs on therapy response and survival. Methods Evaluation of related publications (pubmed) and meeting abstracts (ASCO, SABCS). Results The monoclonal antibody Ki67 recognizing a nuclear antigene in proliferating cells is a positive marker of therapy response and superior survival...
September 22, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934376/managing-menopausal-symptoms-and-associated-clinical-issues-in-breast-cancer-survivors
#3
Richard J Santen, Cynthia A Stuenkel, Susan R Davis, JoAnn V Pinkerton, Anne Gompel, Mary Ann Lumsden
Objective: Review evidence to guide the management of menopausal signs and symptoms in women after breast cancer and make recommendations accordingly. Evidence: Randomized controlled clinical trials, observational studies, evidence- based guidelines, and expert opinion from professional societies. Background: Several symptoms and clinical problems associated with estrogen depletion -sleep disorders, vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA), vasomotor symptoms (VMS), mood changes, depressive symptoms, cardiovascular disease, osteopenia and osteoporosis- confront the estimated 9...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933369/epigenetic-mechanisms-of-tamoxifen-resistance-in-luminal-breast-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Hany A Abdel-Hafiz
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers and the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cancer is the most frequent subtype representing more than 70% of breast cancers. These tumors respond to endocrine therapy targeting the ER pathway including selective ER modulators (SERMs), selective ER downregulators (SERDs) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs). However, resistance to endocrine therapy associated with disease progression remains a significant therapeutic challenge...
July 6, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931393/successful-pregnancy-and-live-birth-from-a-hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism-woman-with-low-serum-estradiol-concentrations-despite-numerous-oocyte-maturations-a-case-report
#5
Kaori Matsumoto, Kazuhiko Imakawa, Chuyu Hayashi
BACKGROUND: The increase in serum estradiol (E2) concentrations during the follicular phase becomes the index of oocyte maturation in vivo. When ovarian stimulation is performed to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) patients with only follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), proper increase in serum E2 concentrations is not observed. Even if oocytes are obtained, which usually have low fertilization rate. In this report, we would like to present an unique case, in which under low E2 concentrations and without luteinizing hormone (LH) administration, numerous mature oocytes could be obtained and a healthy baby delivered...
September 20, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926141/working-at-the-membrane-interface-ligand-induced-changes-in-dynamic-conformation-and-oligomeric-structure-in-human-aromatase
#6
Giovanna Di Nardo, Giuseppe Cimicata, Roberta Baravalle, Valentina Dell'Angelo, Alberto Ciaramella, Gianluca Catucci, Piero Ugliengo, Gianfranco Gilardi
Aromatase catalyses the biosynthesis of estrogens from androgens. Due to the physiological importance of this conversion of lipophilic substrates, the interaction with the lipid bilayer for this cytochrome P450 is crucial for its dynamics that must allow an easy access to substrates and inhibitors. Here, aromatase-anastrozole interaction is studied combining computational methods to identify possible access/egress routes with the protein inserted in the membrane and experimental tools aimed at the investigation of the effect of the inhibitor on the protein conformation...
September 19, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922787/optimal-duration-of-extended-adjuvant-endocrine-therapy-for-early-breast-cancer-results-of-the-ideal-trial-boog-2006-05
#7
Erik J Blok, Judith R Kroep, Elma Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, Marjolijn Duijm-de Carpentier, Hein Putter, Joan van den Bosch, Eduard Maartense, A Elise van Leeuwen-Stok, Gerrit-Jan Liefers, Johan W R Nortier, Emiel J Th Rutgers, Cornelis J H van de Velde
Background: The optimal duration of extended endocrine therapy beyond five years after initial aromatase inhibitor-based adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer is still unknown. Therefore, we conducted a clinical trial to compare two different extended endocrine therapy durations. Methods: In the randomized phase III IDEAL trial, postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer were randomly allocated to either 2...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922781/toxicity-of-extended-adjuvant-therapy-with-aromatase-inhibitors-in-early-breast-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Hadar Goldvaser, Tristan A Barnes, Boštjan Šeruga, David W Cescon, Alberto Ocaña, Domen Ribnikar, Eitan Amir
Background: A number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have reported improvement in breast cancer outcomes from extending treatment with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) beyond the initial five years after diagnosis. However, the toxicity profile of extended AIs is uncertain. Methods: We identified RCTs that compared extended AIs to placebo or no treatment using MEDLINE and a review of abstracts from key conferences between 2013 and 2016. Odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), absolute risks, and the number needed to harm (NNH) were computed for prespecified safety and tolerability outcomes including cardiovascular events, bone fractures, second cancers (excluding new breast cancer), treatment discontinuation for adverse events, and death without recurrence...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919302/obesity-and-breast-cancer-role-of-estrogens-and-the-molecular-underpinnings-of-aromatase-regulation-in-breast-adipose-tissue
#9
REVIEW
Céline Gérard, Kristy A Brown
One in eight women will develop breast cancer over their lifetime making it the most common female cancer. The cause of breast cancer is multifactorial and includes hormonal, genetic and environmental cues. Obesity is now an accepted risk factor for breast cancer in postmenopausal women, particularly for the hormone-dependent subtype of breast cancer. Obesity, which is characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat, is at the origin of chronic inflammation of white adipose tissue and is associated with dramatic changes in the biology of adipocytes leading to their dysfunction...
September 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911882/aromatase-inhibitors-a-new-approach-for-controlling-ovarian-function-in-cattle
#10
M J Yapura, E M Zwiefelhofer, R A Pierson, G P Adams
Numerous treatments and protocols have been used to control the reproductive cycle in cattle, with varying effectiveness and many involving the administration of steroid hormones. Steroid hormones, such as estradiol, are perceived as having a negative impact on consumer health. This internationally shared opinion has led to a ban on the use of steroid hormones in food producing animals in many countries (i.e., European Union, New Zealand, and Australia). Letrozole, a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor, inactivates the aromatase enzyme responsible for the synthesis of estrogens by reversibly binding to the "heme" group of the P450 subunit...
September 11, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911176/new-insights-into-the-role-of-estrogens-in-male-fertility-based-on-findings-in-aromatase-deficient-zebrafish
#11
Haipei Tang, Yu Chen, Yun Liu, Yike Yin, Gaofei Li, Yin Guo, Xiaochun Liu, Haoran Lin
It has been demonstrated that estrogens are indispensable for male fertility in mammals. Aromatase (encoded by CYP19) catalyzes the final step of estradiol biosynthesis. However, less is known about the role of aromatase in male fertility in nonmammalian species. Fish aromatase is encoded by two separate genes: the gonad-specific cyp19a1a and the brain-specific cyp19a1b. In a recent study, we used transcription activatorlike effector nucleases to systematically generate cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b mutant lines and a cyp19a1a;cyp19a1b double-mutant line in zebrafish and demonstrated that cyp19a1a was indispensable for sex differentiation...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911174/sex-reversal-and-comparative-data-undermine-the-w-chromosome-and-support-z-linked-dmrt1-as-the-regulator-of-gonadal-sex-differentiation-in-birds
#12
Claire E Hirst, Andrew T Major, Katie L Ayers, Rosie J Brown, Mylene Mariette, Timothy B Sackton, Craig A Smith
The exact genetic mechanism regulating avian gonadal sex differentiation has not been completely resolved. The most likely scenario involves a dosage mechanism, whereby the Z-linked DMRT1 gene triggers testis development. However, the possibility still exists that the female-specific W chromosome may harbor an ovarian determining factor. In this study, we provide evidence that the universal gene regulating gonadal sex differentiation in birds is Z-linked DMRT1 and not a W-linked (ovarian) factor. Three candidate W-linked ovarian determinants are HINTW, female-expressed transcript 1 (FET1), and female-associated factor (FAF)...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904441/everolimus-associated-acute-kidney-injury-in-patients-with-metastatic-breast-cancer
#13
A Chandra, N S Rao, K P Malhotra, M Rastogi, R Khurana
Recently, everolimus (Evl) has been introduced in the management of hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer, in combination with aromatase inhibitors. Evl-induced acute kidney injury has hitherto been described in other malignancies, especially renal cell cancer, but only once before in a patient with breast cancer. We describe two cases of Evl-associated nephrotoxicity in patients with breast cancer, one of whom underwent a renal biopsy showing acute tubular necrosis. Both our patients improved after withdrawal of the offending agent and have normal renal functions on follow-up...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902684/estrogens-synthesized-and-acting-within-a-spinal-oligomer-suppress-spinal-endomorphin-2-antinociception-ebb-and-flow-over-the-rat-reproductive-cycle
#14
Nai-Jiang Liu, Vijaya Murugaiyan, Emiliya M Storman, Stephen A Schnell, Martin W Wessendorf, Alan R Gintzler
The magnitude of antinociception elicited by intrathecal endomorphin 2 (EM2), an endogenous mu-opioid receptor (MOR) ligand, varies across the rat estrous cycle. We now report that phasic changes in analgesic responsiveness to spinal EM2 result from plastic interactions within a novel membrane-bound oligomer containing estrogen receptors (mERs), aromatase (aka estrogen synthase), metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1), and MOR. During diestrus, spinal mERs, activated by locally synthesized estrogens, act with mGluR1 to suppress spinal EM2/MOR antinociception...
June 21, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894848/risk-reduction-strategies-in-breast-cancer-prevention
#15
REVIEW
Mauricio Costa, Paula Saldanha
Evaluating the risk of breast cancer makes it possible to identify women with a high risk of developing breast cancer in the future. Adopting a healthier lifestyle, involving diet and exercise, is one way of reducing this risk-but there are other, non-modifiable risk factors, such as family history, genetics and diagnosis of premalignant lesions. In this high-risk population, the tracking must be rigorous and involve the participation of the patient herself, earlier and more frequent clinical assessment, and the use of imaging screening...
July 2017: Eur J Breast Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893547/17%C3%AE-estradiol-modulates-cell-proliferation-of-medullary-cords-during-ovarian-differentiation-of-the-lepidochelys-olivacea-sea-turtle
#16
Verónica Díaz-Hernández, Alma Vázquez-Gómez, Alejandro Marmolejo-Valencia, Luis Manuel Montaño, Horacio Merchant-Larios
In turtles undergoing temperature sex determination (TSD), bipotential gonads express Sox9 in medullary cords at both female- (FPT) and male-producing temperatures (MPT). Subsequently, when the sex fate of medullary cords becomes dimorphic, at FPT, Sox9 is downregulated, whereas at MPT, its expression is maintained. Medullary cords in the ovary turn into ovarian lacuna, whereas in the testis they differentiate as seminiferous cords. When embryos of Lepidochelys olivacea sea turtle are incubated at MPT and treated with estradiol, Sox9 expression persists in the medullary cords in the form of tiny ovotestis-like formations...
September 8, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891264/hormonal-and-genetic-factors-interact-to-control-aromatase-expression-in-the-developing-brain
#17
REVIEW
Carla Daniela Cisternas, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, María Julia Cambiasso
The brain expression of the enzyme P450-aromatase has been extensively studied. Since the aromatization hypothesis established brain aromatase as a key factor to convert gonadal testosterone to oestradiol, several studies have investigated the regulation of aromatase during the critical period of brain sexual differentiation. Here, we review previous and recent findings concerning regulation of aromatase. The role of gonadal hormones, sex chromosome genes and neurosteroids is analysed in term of their contribution to aromatase expression and the implications for the organizational effect of steroids during development...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890443/stress-and-sex-does-cortisol-mediate-sex-change-in-fish
#18
Alexander Goikoetxea, Erica Todd, Neil Gemmell
Cortisol is the main glucocorticoid in fish and the hormone most directly associated with stress. Recent research suggests that this hormone may act as a key factor linking social environmental stimuli and the onset of sex change by initiating a shift in steroidogenesis from estrogens to androgens. For many teleost fish, sex change occurs as a usual part of the life cycle. Changing sex is known to enhance the lifetime reproductive success of these fish and the modifications involved (behavioral, gonadal, morphological) are well studied...
September 10, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889761/safety-issues-associated-with-using-medication-to-treat-overactive-bladder
#19
George Araklitis, Linda Cardozo
The mainstay of overactive bladder treatment is the use of anticholinergic medication with its common side effects well known. This review focused on three less well-known safety issues when treating OAB. Areas covered: Patients with increased anticholinergic load are at risk of cognitive decline, dementia or even death. The elderly are particularly at risk due to polypharmacy. Botulinum toxin carries the risk of high urinary residuals, urinary tract infection and need to self catheterise. The use of vaginal oestrogens may improve OAB symptoms, but there is concern in those with a history of breast cancer...
September 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888137/independent-self-construal-mediates-the-association-between-cyp19a1-gene-variant-and-subjective-well-being
#20
Xing Yang, Yafang Yang, Mengying Xue, Pengpeng Fang, Guomin Shen, Kejin Zhang, Xiaocai Gao, Rongjun Yu, Pingyuan Gong
Testosterone and estrogen are involved in self-related behavioral dispositions and experiences of subjective well-being. In this study, we investigated to what extent the aromatase (CYP19A1) gene, which encodes an enzyme in converting testosterone into estrogen, contributes to subjective well-being and in another self-related disposition: independent and interdependent self-construal. In study 1, a meta-analysis showed that the GG genotype of CYP19A1 (a G/A substitution at Val80, rs700518) was associated with higher testosterone and lower estradiol...
September 6, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
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