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Altered conscious state

Anthony G Hudetz, Jeannette A Vizuete, Siveshigan Pillay, George A Mashour
Consciousness has been linked to the repertoire of brain states at various spatiotemporal scales. Anesthesia is thought to modify consciousness by altering information integration in cortical and thalamocortical circuits. At a mesoscopic scale, neuronal populations in the cortex form synchronized ensembles whose characteristics are presumably state-dependent but this has not been rigorously tested. In this study, spontaneous neuronal activity was recorded with 64-contact microelectrode arrays in primary visual cortex of chronically instrumented, unrestrained rats under stepwise decreasing levels of desflurane anesthesia (8%, 6%, 4%, and 2% inhaled concentrations) and wakefulness (0% concentration)...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience
Kathryn R Klement, Ellen M Lee, James K Ambler, Sarah A Hanson, Evelyn Comber, David Wietting, Michael F Wagner, Valerie R Burns, Bert Cutler, Nadine Cutler, Elwood Reid, Brad J Sagarin
Participation in extreme rituals (e.g., fire-walking, body-piercing) has been documented throughout history. Motivations for such physically intense activities include religious devotion, sensation-seeking and social bonding. The present study aims to explore an extreme ritual within the context of bondage/discipline, dominance/submission and sadism/masochism (BDSM): the 'Dance of Souls', a 160-person ritual involving temporary piercings with weights or hooks attached and dancing to music provided by drummers...
October 14, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
R J Brown
Dissociation has been cited as a possible psychologic mechanism underpinning functional neurologic disorders (FND) since the 19th century. Since that time, changes in psychiatric classification have created confusion about what the term dissociation actually means. The available evidence suggests that it now refers to at least two qualitatively distinct types of phenomena: detachment (an altered state of consciousness characterized by a sense of separation from the self or world) and compartmentalization (a reversible loss of voluntary control over apparently intact processes and functions), as well as their underlying mechanisms...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Jared B Smith, Zhifeng Liang, Glenn D R Watson, Kevin D Alloway, Nanyin Zhang
The claustrum is a brain region whose function remains unknown, though many investigators suggest it plays a role in conscious attention. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has revealed how anesthesia alters many functional connections in the brain, but the functional role of the claustrum with respect to the awake versus anesthetized states remains unknown. Therefore, we employed a combination of seed-based RS-fMRI and neuroanatomical tracing to reveal how the anatomical connections of the claustrum are related to its functional connectivity during quiet wakefulness and the isoflurane-induced anesthetic state...
October 6, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Matthias E Liechti, Patrick C Dolder, Yasmin Schmid
RATIONALE: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is used recreationally and in clinical research. Acute mystical-type experiences that are acutely induced by hallucinogens are thought to contribute to their potential therapeutic effects. However, no data have been reported on LSD-induced mystical experiences and their relationship to alterations of consciousness. Additionally, LSD dose- and concentration-response functions with regard to alterations of consciousness are lacking. METHODS: We conducted two placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over studies using oral administration of 100 and 200 μg LSD in 24 and 16 subjects, respectively...
October 7, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Mohamed Said Abbas, Mohammad Najm AlBerawi, Issam Al Bozom, Nissar F Shaikh, Khalid Yacout Salem
BACKGROUND Pituitary macroadenoma is a common benign tumor that usually presents with visual field defects or hormonal abnormalities. Cerebral infarction can be a complication of a large pituitary adenoma. We report a rare case of bilateral anterior cerebral arteries infarcts by a large pituitary macroadenoma with apoplexy. CASE REPORT A 48-year-old male patient presented with altered conscious level and sudden loss of vision for one-day duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a large seller and suprasellar hemorrhagic mass of pituitary origin, with associated bilateral areas of diffusion restriction in the frontal parasagittal regions, consistent with infarctions...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Mariachiara Longarzo, M Quarantelli, M Aiello, M Romano, A Del Prete, C Cimminiello, S Cocozza, G Olivo, C Loguercio, L Trojano, D Grossi
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by visceral hypersensitivity likely related to altered processing of sensory stimuli along the brain-gut axis. Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated structural and functional alteration of several brain areas involved in bodily representation, e.g. the insula, in patients with IBS. By means of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) we searched for alteration of functional connectivity within the network involved in self-bodily consciousness...
October 4, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
J E Rhodes, L J Healey
The study aimed to investigate the experience of adults with a diagnosis of psychosis and who have survived childhood physical abuse. We interviewed eight participants and used interpretative phenomenological analysis to generate themes. The main themes were of perceiving an everyday world of aggression and contempt by others, pervasive mistrust, feeling isolated and for some, attacking oneself with hate. Most participants were also able to reflect on what they saw as 'paranoia' or 'voices'. Paranoia was described as a fluctuating compulsive 'thread' of meaning, feeling and sometimes a transformation of the self...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Petr Bob, Matthew Laker
According to recent findings stressful experiences may influence various physiological disturbances and also neuroanatomical changes and some studies also show that psychotherapy and meditation may influence brain functions. Traumatic stress is frequently related to a dissociative response that disintegrates conscious experience. In this context, self-reflection is an essential principle in the process of posttraumatic growth related to spiritual experiences and meditation states that enable mental integration and create the novel integrated self...
September 24, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Sherri A Braksick, Jennifer M Martinez-Thompson, Eelco F M Wijdicks
Neurological complications of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) include altered states of consciousness, seizures, ischaemic stroke and encephalopathy. Adult-onset HUS is uncommon, and there is only a limited literature reporting neurological complications in this population. We report an adult with Shiga toxin-associated HUS complicated by focal-onset non-convulsive status epilepticus, who made a full neurological recovery.
September 26, 2016: Practical Neurology
Francesco Drago, Giulia Ciccarese, Arianna Fay Agnoletti, Francesca Sarocchi, Aurora Parodi
Sweet's syndrome (SS) is an inflammatory disease characterized by fever, leucocytosis and distinctive skin lesions that histologically consist of a dermal infiltrate of neutrophils with nuclear fragmentation. Aseptic neutrophilic inflammation may occur also in other organs. Central nervous system involvement in SS, Neuro-Sweet's syndrome (NSS), is rare and reported especially among Asian patients. A systematic review of the literature has been performed to find articles reporting cases of SS with neurological involvement...
September 22, 2016: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Lukas Bündgens, Frank Tacke, Christian Trautwein, Alexander Koch
Poisoning with impaired mental state is a frequent cause for hospital admission. The initial management includes assessment of vital functions and airway management followed by focussed diagnostics. Poison Emergency Centers can provide valuable assistance in acute intoxications. Clinically important agents causing mental state alterations include opiates, benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants, alcohol, methanol and ethylene glycol, carbon monoxide and salicylates. Most important therapeutic measures comprise supportive care, decontamination or elimination...
September 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Veer Bahadur Singh, Harish Kumar, Babu Lal Meena, Subhash Chandra, Jatin Agrawal, Naresh Kanogiya
INTRODUCTION: Malaria is the most important parasitic disease of humans causes clinical illness over 300-500 million people globally and over one million death every year globally. The involvement of the nervous system in malaria is studied in this paper, to help formulate a strategy for better malaria management. AIM: To study the Neuropsychiatric manifestation in malaria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective observational study in 170 patients with a clinical diagnosis of malaria admitted in various medical wards of medicine department of PBM Hospital, Bikaner during epidemic of malaria...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Zdeněk Fryšák, David Karásek
UNLABELLED: Decrease of blood glucose levels below 3 mmol/l is in fully developed cases accompanied by neuroglycopenic symptoms that may even lead to altered state of consciousness. The treating physician frequently faces a complicated situation. This may be due to inappropriately administered drugs including cases motivated by self-harm intentions (insulin, insulin secretagogues), or alcohol abuse. Undernourished people, or those afflicted with a serious systemic infection, end-stage liver or kidney diseases or with a failing heart, belong to a risk group...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Akio Kimura, Kentaro Kobayashi, Hitoshi Yamaguchi, Takeshi Takahashi, Masahiro Harada, Hideki Honda, Yoshio Mori, Keika Hirose, Noriko Tanaka
OBJECTIVE: To ensure good outcomes in the management of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), accurate prediction is crucial for initial assessment of patients presenting with acute headache. We conducted this study to develop a new clinical decision rule using only objectively measurable predictors to exclude SAH, offering higher specificity than the previous Ottawa SAH Rule while maintaining comparable sensitivity. DESIGN: Multicentre prospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary-care emergency departments of five general hospitals in Japan from April 2011 to March 2014...
2016: BMJ Open
Joseph E LeDoux, Daniel S Pine
Tremendous progress has been made in basic neuroscience in recent decades. One area that has been especially successful is research on how the brain detects and responds to threats. Such studies have demonstrated comparable patterns of brain-behavior relationships underlying threat processing across a range of mammalian species, including humans. This would seem to be an ideal body of information for advancing our understanding of disorders in which altered threat processing is a key factor, namely, fear and anxiety disorders...
September 9, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Benjamin C Nephew, Wei Huang, Guillaume L Poirier, Laurellee Payne, Jean A King
The use of a variety of neuroanatomical techniques has led to a greater understanding of the adverse effects of stress on psychiatric health. One recent advance that has been particularly valuable is the development of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) in clinical studies. The current study investigates changes in RSFC in F1 adult female rats exposed to the early life chronic social stress (ECSS) of the daily introduction of a novel male intruder to the cage of their F0 mothers while the F1 pups are in the cage...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Fangfang Xie, Wu Xing, Xiaoyi Wang, Weihua Liao, Wei Shi
: A disturbance in the level of consciousness is a classical clinical sign of several seizure types. Recent studies have shown that altered states of consciousness in seizures are associated with structural and functional changes of several brain regions. Prominent among these are the thalamus, the brain stem, and the default mode network (DMN), which is part of the consciousness system. Our study used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to evaluate these brain regions in patients with three different types of epilepsies that are associated with altered consciousness: complex partial seizures (CPS),primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (PGTCS) or secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (SGTCS)...
August 30, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Stephen L Thaler
Random connection weight disturbances within an assembly of artificial neural networks (ANN) drive a progression of activation patterns that are tantamount to the memories and ideas nucleating within the brain's cortex. The numerical evaluation of these pattern-based notions by another, more placid system of ANNs governs the magnitude of weight disturbances administered to the former assembly, that perturbative intensity in turn controlling the novelty of the resulting ideational stream as well as the retention of newly formed concepts...
September 2016: Medical Hypotheses
M Butlin, K Connolly, B Spronck, D Georgevsky, C Mceneiry, I Wilkinson, A Avolio
OBJECTIVE: High salt consumption is associated with increased blood pressure and vascular changes in humans. This association is confounded by other lifestyle factors that could equally influence cardiovascular function. This study examines effects of high salt diet on aortic function in a controlled animal study. DESIGN AND METHOD: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either high salt (8% sodium chloride, n = 6) or normal chow (0.26% sodium chloride, n = 5) from weaning...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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