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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933211/traumatic-brain-injury-current-treatment-strategies-and-future-endeavors
#1
Michael Galgano, Gentian Toshkezi, Xuecheng Qiu, Thomas Russell, Lawrence Chin, Li-Ru Zhao
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) presents in various forms ranging from mild alterations of consciousness to an unrelenting comatose state and death. In the most severe form of TBI, the entirety of the brain is affected by a diffuse type of injury and swelling. Treatment modalities vary extensively based on the severity of the injury and range from daily cognitive therapy sessions to radical surgery such as bilateral decompressive craniectomies. Guidelines have been set forth regarding the optimal management of TBI, but they must be taken in context of the situation and cannot be used in every individual circumstance...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923408/altered-functional-connectivity-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#2
Hana Burianová, Nahla L Faizo, Marcus Gray, Julia Hocking, Graham Galloway, David Reutens
Growing evidence of altered functional connectivity suggests that mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) alters not only hippocampal networks, but also a number of resting state networks. These highly coherent, yet functionally distinct brain circuits interact dynamically with each other in order to mediate consciousness, memory, and attention. However, little is currently known about the modulation of these networks by epileptiform activity, such as interictal spikes and seizures. The objective of the study was to use simultaneous EEG-fMRI to investigate functional connectivity in three resting state networks: default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and dorsal attentional network (DAN) in patients with mTLE compared to a healthy cohort, and in relation to the onset of interictal spikes and the period immediately prior to the spikes...
September 8, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919868/the-affective-core-of-the-self-a-neuro-archetypical-perspective-on-the-foundations-of-human-and-animal-subjectivity
#3
REVIEW
Antonio Alcaro, Stefano Carta, Jaak Panksepp
Psychologists usually considered the "Self" as an object of experience appearing when the individual perceives its existence within the conscious field. In accordance with such a view, the self-representing capacity of the human mind has been related to corticolimbic learning processes taking place within individual development. On the other hand, Carl Gustav Jung considered the Self as the core of our personality, in its conscious and unconscious aspects, as well as in its actual and potential forms. According to Jung, the Self originates from an inborn dynamic structure integrating the essential drives of our "brain-mind," and leading both to instinctual behavioral actions and to archetypal psychological experiences...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918441/long-lasting-subjective-effects-of-lsd-in-normal-subjects
#4
Yasmin Schmid, Matthias E Liechti
RATIONALE: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and other serotonergic hallucinogens can induce profound alterations of consciousness and mystical-type experiences, with reportedly long-lasting effects on subjective well-being and personality. METHODS: We investigated the lasting effects of a single dose of LSD (200 μg) that was administered in a laboratory setting in 16 healthy participants. The following outcome measures were assessed before and 1 and 12 months after LSD administration: Persisting Effects Questionnaire (PEQ), Mysticism Scale (MS), Death Transcendence Scale (DTS), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)...
September 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898867/cerebral-fat-embolism-clinical-presentation-diagnostic-steps-and-long-term-follow-up
#5
Juliane Dunkel, Christian Roth, Frank Erbguth, Wenke Dietrich, Monika Hügens-Penzel, Andreas Ferbert
OBJECTIVE: Symptomatic cerebral fat embolism (CFE) is a rare complication that occurs after a traumatic injury or orthopaedic surgery and is diagnostically challenging. No data is currently available concerning long-term follow-up. METHODS: We identified from medical records 9 patients with CFE and revised the clinical signs and the diagnostic process. We then analysed long-term follow-up data, targeting clinical course after discharge, neurological impairment, and current quality of life, using the Barthel index and the modified Rankin Scale...
2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872596/survey-of-veterinarians-using-a-novel-physical-compression-squeeze-procedure-in-the-management-of-neonatal-maladjustment-syndrome-in-foals
#6
Monica Aleman, Kalie M Weich, John E Madigan
Horses are a precocious species that must accomplish several milestones that are critical to survival in the immediate post-birth period for their survival. One essential milestone is the successful transition from the intrauterine unconsciousness to an extrauterine state of consciousness or awareness. This transition involves a complex withdrawal of consciousness inhibitors and an increase in neuroactivating factors that support awareness. This process involves neuroactive hormones as well as inputs related to factors such as cold, visual, olfactory, and auditory stimuli...
September 5, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871712/some-quantitative-eeg-features-in-default-mode-resting-state-network-under-general-anaesthesia
#7
Peter Jombík, Michal Drobny, Beata Saniova, Martin Fischer, Petra Kaderjaková, Marianna Lajčiaková, Erika Bakosova, Eva Drobna, Petr Bob, Vladimír Nosáľ
OBJECTIVES: The default mode resting state network (DMRSN) constitutes a circuit which is active in conditions when the subject is at rest. We tested the hypothesis that its function will be altered during unconsciousness. METHODS: Changes in the mean squared coherences in five conventional frequency bands (delta to gamma) in DMRSN during general anaesthesia (GA) were investigated in 39 patients. They were compared with the normal EEG of 86 alert subjects, severely abnormal EEG of 112 patients with dementia and/or encephalopathy, and the mathematical model of brain death...
August 5, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870587/the-value-of-midbrain-morphology-in-predicting-prognosis-in-chronic-disorders-of-consciousness-a-preliminary-ultrasound-study
#8
Antonino Chillura, Antonino Naro, Katia Micchia, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Transcranial sonography (TCS) of the brainstem is currently used to support the clinical diagnosis of movement disorders. The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of midbrain TCS in assessing outcome in patients with Chronic Disorders of Consciousness (DOC). Eleven patients with Minimally Conscious State (MCS) and Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) were included in the study. We measured the area and echogenicity of the midbrain by encoding and digitally analyzing the corresponding images from the orbitomeatal plane, the morphology of brain parenchyma from the thalamic and cella media plane, and the intracranial circulation...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836922/a-neutral-control-condition-for-hypnosis-experiments-wiki-text
#9
Katalin Varga, Zoltán Kekecs, P S Myhre, Emese Józsa
A new control condition called Wiki is introduced. Key themes of each test suggestion of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C, were matched by a corresponding extract from Wikipedia.org. The authors compared phenomenological reports of participants across 4 conditions: hypnosis split into high and low hypnotizable subgroups, music, and Wiki condition, using the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory. High hypnotizables undergoing hypnosis reported higher altered experience and altered states of awareness than individuals in the Wiki condition, supporting the authors' hypothesis that the Wiki condition does not evoke an altered state of consciousness (internal dialogue, volitional control, and self-awareness did not differ)...
October 2017: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819211/dynamic-local-connectivity-uncovers-altered-brain-synchrony-during-propofol-sedation
#10
Rose Dawn Bharath, Rajanikant Panda, Jitender Saini, Kamath Sriganesh, G S Umamaheswara Rao
Human consciousness is considered a result of the synchronous "humming" of multiple dynamic networks. We performed a dynamic functional connectivity analysis using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) in 14 patients before and during a propofol infusion to characterize the sedation-induced alterations in consciousness. A sliding 36-second window was used to derive 59 time points of whole brain integrated local connectivity measurements. Significant changes in the connectivity strength (Z Corr) at various time points were used to measure the connectivity fluctuations during awake and sedated states...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810588/chronic-disorders-of-consciousness
#11
Qiuyou Xie, Xiaoxiao Ni, Ronghao Yu, Yuanqing Li, Ruiwang Huang
Over the last 20 years, studies have provided greater insight into disorders of consciousness (DOC), also known as altered state of consciousness. Increased brain residual functions have been identified in patients with DOC due to the successful application of novel next-generation imaging technologies. Many unconscious patients have now been confirmed to retain considerable cognitive functions. It is hoped that greater insight regarding the psychological state of patients may be achieved through the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging and brain-computer interfaces...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800575/disruption-of-frontal-parietal-connectivity-during-conscious-sedation-by-propofol-administration
#12
Pil-Jong Kim, Hong-Gee Kim, Gyu-Jeong Noh, Yong-Seo Koo, Teo Jeon Shin
The sedative state is a transitional state from wakefulness to general anesthesia. However, little is understood regarding the mechanism of conscious sedation, different from general anesthesia while maintaining wakefulness. In this study, we aimed to investigate changes in functional connectivity of the parietal-frontal network, implicated in wakefulness during conscious sedation induced by propofol infusion. The electroencephalography was obtained at the frontal and parietal areas of adult volunteers who maintain wakefulness during low-dose propofol infusion (1...
September 27, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743752/thalamocortical-synchronization-during-induction-and-emergence-from-propofol-induced-unconsciousness
#13
Francisco J Flores, Katharine E Hartnack, Amanda B Fath, Seong-Eun Kim, Matthew A Wilson, Emery N Brown, Patrick L Purdon
General anesthesia (GA) is a reversible drug-induced state of altered arousal required for more than 60,000 surgical procedures each day in the United States alone. Sedation and unconsciousness under GA are associated with stereotyped electrophysiological oscillations that are thought to reflect profound disruptions of activity in neuronal circuits that mediate awareness and cognition. Computational models make specific predictions about the role of the cortex and thalamus in these oscillations. In this paper, we provide in vivo evidence in rats that alpha oscillations (10-15 Hz) induced by the commonly used anesthetic drug propofol are synchronized between the thalamus and the medial prefrontal cortex...
August 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733248/pupil-dilations-induced-by-barely-conscious-reward-goal-priming
#14
Yudai Takarada, Daichi Nozaki
The topic of unconscious influences on behavior has long been explored as a way of understanding human performance and the neurobiological correlates of intention, motivation and action. Previous research using transcranial magnetic stimulation has demonstrated that barely visible priming of an action concept, when combined with reward in the form of a consciously perceived positive stimulus, can alter the state of the motor system and enhance the maximal voluntary force level. One possible explanation is that positive stimulus-induced reward signals are processed by the dopaminergic system in the basal ganglia, motivating individuals to increase the effort they invest in particular behaviors, or to recruit the resources necessary for maintaining those behaviors...
July 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712840/current-validity-of-diagnosis-of-permanent-vegetative-state-a-longitudinal-study-in-a-sample-of-patients-with-altered-states-of-consciousness
#15
E Noé, J Olaya, C Colomer, B Moliner, P Ugart, C Rodriguez, R Llorens, J Ferri
INTRODUCTION: Altered states of consciousness have traditionally been associated with poor prognosis. At present, clinical differences between these entities are beginning to be established. METHOD: Our study included 37 patients diagnosed with vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) and 43 in a minimally conscious state (MCS) according to the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). All patients were followed up each month for at least 6 months using the CRS-R...
July 13, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711736/two-dose-investigation-of-the-5-ht-agonist-psilocybin-on-relative-and-global-cerebral-blood-flow
#16
Candace R Lewis, Katrin H Preller, Rainer Kraehenmann, Lars Michels, Philipp Staempfli, Franz X Vollenweider
Psilocybin, the active compound in psychedelic mushrooms, is an agonist of various serotonin receptors. Seminal psilocybin positron emission tomography (PET) research suggested regional increases in glucose metabolism in frontal cortex (hyperfrontality). However, a recent arterial spin labeling (ASL) study suggests psilocybin may lead to hypo-perfusion in various brain regions. In this placebo-controlled, double-blind study we used pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) to measure perfusion changes, with and without adjustment for global brain perfusion, after two doses of oral psilocybin (low dose: 0...
July 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702347/tdcs-modulates-cortical-excitability-in-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#17
Yang Bai, Xiaoyu Xia, Jiannan Kang, Yi Yang, Jianghong He, Xiaoli Li
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been reported to be a promising technique for consciousness improvement for patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). However, there has been no direct electrophysiological evidence to demonstrate the efficacy of tDCS on patients with DOC. Therefore, we aim to measure the cortical excitability changes induced by tDCS in patients with DOC, to find electrophysiological evidence supporting the therapeutic efficacy of tDCS on patients with DOC. In this study, we enrolled sixteen patients with DOC, including nine vegetative state (VS) and seven minimally conscious state (MCS) (six females and ten males)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701924/frontal-connectivity-in-eeg-gamma-30-45-hz-respond-to-spinal-cord-stimulation-in-minimally-conscious-state-patients
#18
Yang Bai, Xiaoyu Xia, Zhenhu Liang, Yong Wang, Yi Yang, Jianghong He, Xiaoli Li
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has become a valuable brain-intervention technique used to rehabilitate patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). To explore how the SCS affects the cerebral cortex and what possible electrophysiological mechanism of SCS effects on the cortex, the present study investigated the functional connectivity and network properties during SCS in minimally conscious state (MCS) patients. MCS patients received both SCS and sham sessions. Functional connectivity of the phase lock value (PLV) in the gamma band (30-45 Hz) was investigated at the pre-, on- and post-SCS stages...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679339/characteristics-of-a-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-induced-porcine-sepsis-model-for-multi-organ-metabolic-flux-measurements
#19
Gabriella A M Ten Have, Renske C I Deutz, Mariëlle P K J Engelen, Robert R Wolfe, Nicolaas E P Deutz
Survival of sepsis is related to loss of muscle mass. Therefore, it is imperative to further define and understand the basic alterations in nutrient metabolism in order to improve targeted sepsis nutritional therapies. We developed and evaluated a controlled hyperdynamic severe sepsis pig model that can be used for in vivo multi-organ metabolic studies in a conscious state. In this catheterized pig model, bacteremia was induced intravenously with 10(9) CFU/h Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) in 13 pigs for 18 h...
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649298/neuroimaging-the-traumatized-self-fmri-reveals-altered-response-in-cortical-midline-structures-and-occipital-cortex-during-visual-and-verbal-self-and-other-referential-processing-in-women-with-ptsd
#20
Paul Frewen, Elizabeth Thornley, Daniela Rabellino, Ruth Lanius
Background: Changes to the diagnostic criteria for PTSD in DSM-5 reflect an increased emphasis on negative cognition referring to self and other, including self-blame, and related pervasive negative affective states including for self-conscious emotions such as guilt and shame. Objective: Investigate the neural correlates of valenced self-referential processing (SRP) and other-referential processing (ORP) in persons with PTSD. Method: We compared response to the Visual-Verbal Self-Other Referential Processing Task in an fMRI study of women with (n = 20) versus without (n = 24) PTSD primarily relating to childhood and interpersonal trauma histories using statistical parametric mapping and group independent component analysis...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
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