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Altered conscious state

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422113/increased-spontaneous-meg-signal-diversity-for-psychoactive-doses-of-ketamine-lsd-and-psilocybin
#1
Michael M Schartner, Robin L Carhart-Harris, Adam B Barrett, Anil K Seth, Suresh D Muthukumaraswamy
What is the level of consciousness of the psychedelic state? Empirically, measures of neural signal diversity such as entropy and Lempel-Ziv (LZ) complexity score higher for wakeful rest than for states with lower conscious level like propofol-induced anesthesia. Here we compute these measures for spontaneous magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals from humans during altered states of consciousness induced by three psychedelic substances: psilocybin, ketamine and LSD. For all three, we find reliably higher spontaneous signal diversity, even when controlling for spectral changes...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419776/the-involuntary-nature-of-binge-drinking-goal-directedness-and-awareness-of-intention
#2
Nuria Doñamayor, Daniela Strelchuk, Kwangyeol Baek, Paula Banca, Valerie Voon
Binge drinking represents a public health issue and is a known risk factor in the development of alcohol use disorders. Previous studies have shown behavioural as well as neuroanatomical alterations associated with binge drinking. Here, we address the question of the automaticity or involuntary nature of the behaviour by assessing goal-directed behaviour and intentionality. In this study, we used a computational two-step task, designed to discern between model-based/goal-directed and model-free/habitual behaviours, and the classic Libet clock task, to study intention awareness, in a sample of 31 severe binge drinkers (BD) and 35 matched healthy volunteers...
April 16, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416429/-life-threatening-sleepwalking-elpenor-s-syndrome-in-a-10-year-old-child
#3
M-A Madigand-Tordjman, P-J Egler, F Bertran, M Jokic, F Guénolé
Though benign in the majority of cases, sleepwalking sometimes causes injuries due, among other causes, to falls. Such accidents can be life-threatening - a situation that has been termed Elpenor syndrome (in reference to an accident experienced by a character in Homer's epic The Odyssey) - in particular when entailing defenestration. This syndrome has been described in adults and adolescents; we report here a case in a child. OBSERVATION: This 10-year-old girl was admitted at night to our hospital after a 3-m fall at home...
April 14, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414588/prehospital-predictors-of-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-in-victoria-australia
#4
Alaa O Oteir, Karen Smith, Johannes Stoelwinder, James W Middleton, Shelley Cox, Lisa N Sharwood, Paul A Jennings
OBJECTIVES: To identify the predictors of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) and describe the differences between confirmed and potential TSCI cases in the prehospital setting. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study including all adult patients over a six-year period (2007-12) with potential TSCI who were attended and transported by Ambulance Victoria (AV). We extracted potential TSCI cases from the AV data warehouse and linked with the Victorian State Trauma Registry to compare with final hospital diagnosis...
April 17, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399715/prevalence-of-coma-recovery-scale-revised-signs-of-consciousness-in-patients-in-minimally-conscious-state
#5
Sarah Wannez, Olivia Gosseries, Deborah Azzolini, Charlotte Martial, Helena Cassol, Charlène Aubinet, Jitka Annen, Géraldine Martens, Olivier Bodart, Lizette Heine, Vanessa Charland-Verville, Aurore Thibaut, Camille Chatelle, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Athena Demertzi, Caroline Schnakers, Anne-Françoise Donneau, Steven Laureys
Different behavioural signs of consciousness can distinguish patients with an unresponsive wakefulness syndrome from patients in minimally conscious state (MCS). The Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) is the most sensitive scale to differentiate the different altered states of consciousness and eleven items detect the MCS. The aim of this study is to document the prevalence of these items. We analysed behavioural assessments of 282 patients diagnosed in MCS based on the CRS-R. Results showed that some items are particularly frequent among patients in MCS, namely fixation, visual pursuit, and reproducible movement to command, which were observed in more than 50% of patients...
April 11, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390511/disorders-of-consciousness
#6
REVIEW
Blessen C Eapen, Jason Georgekutty, Bruno Subbarao, Sheital Bavishi, David X Cifu
Disorder of consciousness (DOC) is a state of prolonged altered consciousness, which can be categorized into coma, vegetative state, or minimally conscious state based on neurobehavioral function. The pathophysiology of DOC is poorly understood but recent advances in neuroimaging and advanced electrophysiological techniques may provide an improved understanding for the neural network involved with consciousness. The primary aim of DOC rehabilitation programs is to promote arousal while preventing secondary medical complications while providing education and training to families...
May 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386699/dreamlike-effects-of-lsd-on-waking-imagery-in-humans-depend-on-serotonin-2a-receptor-activation
#7
Rainer Kraehenmann, Dan Pokorny, Leonie Vollenweider, Katrin H Preller, Thomas Pokorny, Erich Seifritz, Franz X Vollenweider
RATIONALE: Accumulating evidence indicates that the mixed serotonin and dopamine receptor agonist lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) induces an altered state of consciousness that resembles dreaming. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to test the hypotheses that LSD produces dreamlike waking imagery and that this imagery depends on 5-HT2A receptor activation and is related to subjective drug effects. METHODS: Twenty-five healthy subjects performed an audiorecorded guided mental imagery task 7 h after drug administration during three drug conditions: placebo, LSD (100 mcg orally) and LSD together with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (40 mg orally)...
April 7, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370498/bilateral-rolandic-operculum-processing-underlying-heartbeat-awareness-reflects-changes-in-bodily-self-consciousness
#8
Maria Laura Blefari, Roberto Martuzzi, Roy Salomon, Javier Bello-Ruiz, Bruno Herbelin, Andrea Serino, Olaf Blanke
Exteroceptive bodily signals (including tactile, proprioceptive, and visual signals) are important information contributing to self-consciousness. Moreover, prominent theories proposed that visceral signals about internal bodily states are equally or even more important. Neuroimaging studies have described several brain regions which process signals related to bodily self-consciousness (BSC) based on the integration of exteroceptive signals (e.g. the premotor cortex, the angular gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus and the extrastriate body area), and that another brain region, the insula/operculum which is involved in interoception and interoceptive awareness, processes signals critical for self-awareness...
March 30, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368687/self-transcendence-sexual-desire-and-sexual-frequency
#9
Rui Miguel Costa, José Pestana, David Costa
Self-forgetfulness is a facet of self-transcendence characterized by tendency to experience altered states of consciousness. We examined associations of self-forgetfulness with sexual desire and frequency. 261 Portuguese completed the self-forgetfulness subscale of the Temperament and Character Inventory - Revised, a measure of openness to experience, and a questionnaire on desired and actual frequency of vaginal intercourse, noncoital sex, and masturbation in the past month. In simple and partial correlations controlling for openness to experience and relationship status, women's self-forgetfulness correlated with desired frequency of intercourse and noncoital sex...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341824/posterior-cingulate-cross-hemispheric-functional-connectivity-predicts-the-level-of-consciousness-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Haosu Zhang, Rui Dai, Pengmin Qin, Weijun Tang, Jin Hu, Xuchu Weng, Xing Wu, Ying Mao, Xuehai Wu, Georg Northoff
Previous studies have demonstrated that altered states of consciousness are related to changes in resting state activity in the default-mode network (DMN). Anatomically, the DMN can be divided into anterior and posterior regions. The anterior DMN includes the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex and other medial prefrontal cortical regions, whereas the posterior DMN includes regions such as the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the temporal parietal junction (TPJ). Although differential roles have been attributed to the anterior and posterior DMN regions, their exact contributions to consciousness levels remain unclear...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331010/presynaptic-and-extrasynaptic-regulation-of-posterior-nucleus-of-thalamus
#11
Anthony Park, Ying Li, Radi Masri, Asaf Keller
The posterior nucleus of thalamus (PO) is a higher-order nucleus involved in sensorimotor processing, including nociception. An important characteristic of PO is its wide range of activity profiles that vary across states of arousal, thought to underlie differences in somatosensory perception subject to attention and degree of consciousness. Further, PO loses the ability to down-regulate its activity level in some forms of chronic pain, suggesting that regulatory mechanisms underlying the normal modulation of PO activity may be pathologically altered...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326935/identifying-functional-populations-among-the-interneurons-in-laminae-i-iii-of-the-spinal-dorsal-horn
#12
Andrew J Todd
The spinal dorsal horn receives input from primary afferent axons, which terminate in a modality-specific fashion in different laminae. The incoming somatosensory information is processed through complex synaptic circuits involving excitatory and inhibitory interneurons, before being transmitted to the brain via projection neurons for conscious perception. The dorsal horn is important, firstly because changes in this region contribute to chronic pain states, and secondly because it contains potential targets for the development of new treatments for pain...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293468/a-method-for-independent-component-graph-analysis-of-resting-state-fmri
#13
Demetrius Ribeiro de Paula, Erik Ziegler, Pubuditha M Abeyasinghe, Tushar K Das, Carlo Cavaliere, Marco Aiello, Lizette Heine, Carol di Perri, Athena Demertzi, Quentin Noirhomme, Vanessa Charland-Verville, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Johan Stender, Francisco Gomez, Jean-Flory L Tshibanda, Steven Laureys, Adrian M Owen, Andrea Soddu
INTRODUCTION: Independent component analysis (ICA) has been extensively used for reducing task-free BOLD fMRI recordings into spatial maps and their associated time-courses. The spatially identified independent components can be considered as intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) of non-contiguous regions. To date, the spatial patterns of the networks have been analyzed with techniques developed for volumetric data. OBJECTIVE: Here, we detail a graph building technique that allows these ICNs to be analyzed with graph theory...
March 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278590/evidence-of-altered-pressure-pain-thresholds-in-persons-with-disorders-of-consciousness-as-measured-by-the-nociception-coma-scale-italian-version
#14
Davide Sattin, Caroline Schnakers, Marco Pagani, Francesca Arenare, Guya Devalle, Fabrizio Giunco, GianBattista Guizzetti, Maurizio Lanfranchi, Ambra M Giovannetti, Venusia Covelli, Anna Bersano, Anna Nigri, Ludovico Minati, Davide Rossi Sebastiano, Eugenio Parati, MariaGrazia Bruzzone, Silvana Franceschetti, Matilde Leonardi
Pain assessment in patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC) is a controversial issue for clinicians, who require tools and standardised procedures for testing nociception in non-communicative patients. The aims of the present study were, first, to analyse the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Nociception Coma Scale and, second, to evaluate pressure pain thresholds in a group of patients with DoC. The authors conducted a multi-centre study on 40 healthy participants and 60 DoC patients enrolled from six hospitals in Italy...
February 28, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266890/examination-of-the-phenomenology-of-the-ibogaine-treatment-experience-role-of-altered-states-of-consciousness-and-psychedelic-experiences
#15
Annamarie Heink, Steve Katsikas, Tiffany Lange-Altman
Psychedelic drugs have historically been used for ritualistic purposes and to help individuals gain insight. Ibogaine, a naturally occurring psychoactive substance, has been reported to have anti-addictive properties that aid in the treatment of substance use disorders. An online survey obtained retrospective data from individuals who used ibogaine in the past. Individuals who used ibogaine tended to describe thematically similar experiences post-treatment. This study adds to the literature by using the 5d-ASC, a psychometrically sound measure of altered states of consciousness (ASCs), to examine the ASCs induced by ibogaine and discusses the demographic characteristics of those who seek ibogaine treatment (N = 27)...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249943/psychedelics-and-the-science-of-self-experience
#16
EDITORIAL
Matthew M Nour, Robin L Carhart-Harris
Altered self-experiences arise in certain psychiatric conditions, and may be induced by psychoactive drugs and spiritual/religious practices. Recently, a neuroscience of self-experience has begun to crystallise, drawing upon findings from functional neuroimaging and altered states of consciousness occasioned by psychedelic drugs. This advance may be of great importance for psychiatry.
March 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246074/delirium-after-mechanical-ventilation-in-intensive-care-units-the-cognitive-and-psychosocial-assessment-capa-study-protocol
#17
Daniella Bulic, Michael Bennett, Helen Rodgers, Mary Nourse, Patrick Rubie, Jeffrey Cl Looi, Frank Van Haren
BACKGROUND: In the intensive care unit (ICU), critical illness delirium occurs in the context of multiple comorbidities, multi-organ failure, and invasive management techniques, such as mechanical ventilation, sedation, and lack of sleep. Delirium is characterized by an acute confusional state defined by fluctuating mental status, inattention, and either disorganized thinking or an altered level of consciousness. The long-term cognitive and psychosocial function of patients that experience delirium in the ICU is of crucial interest because preliminary data suggest a strong association between ICU-related delirium and long-term cognitive impairment...
February 28, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245989/fmri-study-of-graduated-emotional-charge-for-detection-of-covert-activity-using-passive-listening-to-narratives
#18
Anna Sontheimer, François Vassal, Betty Jean, Fabien Feschet, Vincent Lubrano, Jean-Jacques Lemaire
Detection of awareness in patients with consciousness disorders is a challenge that can be facilitated by functional neuroimaging. We elaborated a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol to detect covert activity in altered states of consciousness. We hypothesized that passive listening to narratives with graduated emotional charge triggers graduated cerebral activations. The fMRI protocol was designed in healthy subjects for further clinical applications. The emotional charge was graduated using voice familiarity and long-term declarative memory content: low emotional charge, unknown person telling general semantic memory; mean emotional charge, relative telling the same narratives; high emotional charge, same relative telling autobiographical memory...
February 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167076/brain-network-alterations-in-the-inflammatory-soup-animal-model-of-migraine
#19
Lino Becerra, James Bishop, Gabi Barmettler, Vanessa Kainz, Rami Burstein, David Borsook
Advances in our understanding of the human pain experience have shifted much of the focus of pain research from the periphery to the brain. Current hypotheses suggest that the progression of migraine depends on abnormal functioning of neurons in multiple brain regions. Accordingly, we sought to capture functional brain changes induced by the application of an inflammatory cocktail known as inflammatory soup (IS), to the dura mater across multiple brain networks. Specifically, we aimed to determine whether IS alters additional neural networks indirectly related to the primary nociceptive pathways via the spinal cord to the thalamus and cortex...
April 1, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148581/delirium-a-guide-for-the-general-physician
#20
Oliver M Todd, Elizabeth A Teale
Delirium describes a sudden onset change in mental status of fluctuating course. This is a state of altered consciousness characterised chiefly by inattention or lack of arousal, but can also include new impairment of language, perception and behaviour. Certain predisposing factors can make an individual more susceptible to delirium in the face of a stressor. Stressors include direct insults to the brain, insults peripheral to the brain or external changes in the environment of an individual. Delirium is varied in its presentation, and can be categorised by the psychomotor profile as: hyperactive type (overly vigilant, agitated, often wandersome), hypoactive type (sedate or withdrawn) or mixed types...
February 2017: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
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