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Altered conscious state

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876453/-i-can-t-tell-whether-it-s-my-hand-a-pilot-study-of-the-neurophenomenology-of-body-representation-during-the-rubber-hand-illusion-in-trauma-related-disorders
#1
Daniela Rabellino, Sherain Harricharan, Paul A Frewen, Dalila Burin, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth A Lanius
BACKGROUND: Early traumatic experiences are thought to be causal factors in the development of trauma-related dissociative experiences, including depersonalization and derealization. The rubber hand illusion (RHI), a well-known paradigm that measures multi-sensorial integration of a rubber hand into one's own body representation, has been used to investigate alterations in the experience of body ownership and of body representation. Critically, however, it has never been studied in individuals with trauma-related disorders...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858890/mild-encephalopathy-with-a-reversible-splenial-lesion-mimicking-transient-ischemic-attack-a-case-report
#2
Kai Dong, Qian Zhang, Jianping Ding, Liankun Ren, Zhen Zhang, Longfei Wu, Wuwei Feng, Haiqing Song
BACKGROUND: Reversible splenial lesion syndrome (RESLES) is a newly recognized syndrome, and a reversible progress associated with transiently reduced diffusion lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) is the typical pathological finding. The routine clinical symptoms include mildly altered states of consciousness, delirium, and seizures. METHODS: We presented a 14-year-old patient with signs suggestive of transient ischemic attack (TIA), including triple episodic weakness on the right upper limb, slurred speech, and bucking, lasting several hours in each time 2 days ago...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858712/self-consciousness-deficits-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-frontotemporal-dementia
#3
Eva Ma Arroyo-Anlló, Adèle Turpin Boustonb, Marie-Noëlle Fargeau, Begoña Orgaz Baz, Roger Gil
Self-consciousness (SC) is multifaceted and considered to be the consciousness of one's own mental states. The main aim of this paper is to compare SC in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Three groups (control and patient groups) of 23 subjects each were assessed using an SC questionnaire. Both types of dementia clearly induce an alteration of SC. The bvFTD group showed a greater impairment in SC than the AD and control groups. The SC score was strongly associated with frontal functions...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856683/the-challenging-experience-questionnaire-characterization-of-challenging-experiences-with-psilocybin-mushrooms
#4
Frederick S Barrett, Matthew P Bradstreet, Jeannie-Marie S Leoutsakos, Matthew W Johnson, Roland R Griffiths
Acute adverse psychological reactions to classic hallucinogens ("bad trips" or "challenging experiences"), while usually benign with proper screening, preparation, and support in controlled settings, remain a safety concern in uncontrolled settings (such as illicit use contexts). Anecdotal and case reports suggest potential adverse acute symptoms including affective (panic, depressed mood), cognitive (confusion, feelings of losing sanity), and somatic (nausea, heart palpitation) symptoms. Responses to items from several hallucinogen-sensitive questionnaires (Hallucinogen Rating Scale, the States of Consciousness Questionnaire, and the Five-Dimensional Altered States of Consciousness questionnaire) in an Internet survey of challenging experiences with the classic hallucinogen psilocybin were used to construct and validate a Challenging Experience Questionnaire...
December 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848998/fatal-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children-caused-by-re-emergent-human-adenovirus-7d-associated-with-higher-severity-of-illness-and-fatality-rate
#5
Zhiwu Yu, Zhiwei Zeng, Jing Zhang, Yuxian Pan, Manjun Chen, Yonghui Guo, Nan Yu, James Chodosh, Ning Fu, Xiaoyan Che, Qiwei Zhang
Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are highly contagious pathogens causing acute respiratory disease (ARD), such as community-acquired pneumonia. HAdV-7d, a re-emergent genomic variant, has been recently reported in Asia and the United States after a several-decade absence. However, whether HAdV-7d is associated with higher severity than other types is currently unclear. In this study, the clinical and epidemiological investigation showed that fever, cough, and sore throat were the three most common respiratory symptoms of HAdV infections...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829654/minimally-conscious-state-evolution-of-concept-diagnosis-and-treatment
#6
Ricardo Hodelín-Tablada
The study of consciousness disorders is a scientific challenge, and clinical differentiation among the various sorts of alterations in consciousness is difficult. Persistent vegetative state was defined in 1972, but years later cases appeared in which diagnosed patients showed signs of cognitive activity, and therefore could not be considered vegetative. Minimally conscious state was defined in 2002. This article discusses minimally conscious state based on a literature review and the author's clinical experience...
October 2016: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818235/high-sucrose-intake-during-gestation-increases-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-mediated-vascular-contractility-associated-with-epigenetic-alterations-in-aged-offspring-rats
#7
Lei Wu, Aiping Shi, Di Zhu, Le Bo, Yuan Zhong, Juan Wang, Zhice Xu, Caiping Mao
Accruing evidence have confirmed that the fetal programming in response to adverse environmental in utero factors plays essential roles in the pathogenesis of hypertension in later life. High sugar intake has been accepted worldwide in everyday life diet and becomes the critical public health issue. Our previous studies indicated that intake of high sucrose (HS) during pregnancy could change the vascular reactivity and dipsogenic behavior closely associated with abnormal renin-angiotensin system (RAS), to increase the risk of hypertension in adult offspring...
December 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814759/maternal-near-miss-and-predictive-ability-of-potentially-life-threatening-conditions-at-selected-maternity-hospitals-in-latin-america
#8
Bremen De Mucio, Edgardo Abalos, Cristina Cuesta, Guillermo Carroli, Suzanne Serruya, Daniel Giordano, Gerardo Martinez, Claudio G Sosa, João Paulo Souza
BACKGROUND: Every year millions of women around the world suffer from pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum complications. Women who survive the most serious clinical conditions are regarded as to have experienced a severe acute maternal complication called maternal near miss (MNM). Information about MNM cases may complement the data collected through the analysis of maternal death, and was proposed as a helpful tool to identify strengths and weaknesses of health systems in relation to maternal health care...
November 4, 2016: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806810/childhood-acute-bacterial-meningitis-clinical-spectrum-bacteriological-profile-and-outcome
#9
Attia Bari, Fatima Zeeshan, Aiza Zafar, Hassan Ejaz, Aisha Iftikhar, Ahsan Waheed Rathore
OBJECTIVE: To determine the disease pattern, etiological agents and outcome of childhood acute bacterial meningitis. STUDY DESIGN: Adescriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Paediatric Medicine, The Children's Hospital, Lahore, from January to December 2012. METHODOLOGY: Atotal of 199 children between the ages of 1 month and 5 years, admitted with the diagnosis of meningitis on the basis of clinical findings and positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), were included...
October 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775423/lack-of-reactive-oxygen-species-deteriorates-blood-pressure-regulation-in-acute-stress
#10
I Bernátová, P Bališ, R Goga, M Behuliak, J Zicha, I Sekaj
This study investigated the contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to blood pressure regulation in conscious adult male Wistar rats exposed to acute stress. Role of ROS was investigated in rats with temporally impaired principal blood pressure regulation systems using ganglionic blocker pentolinium (P, 5 mg/kg), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (C, 10 mg/kg), nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME (L, 30 mg/kg) and superoxide dismutase mimeticum tempol (T, 25 mg/kg). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured by the carotid artery catheter and inhibitors were administered intravenously...
October 24, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766370/measurement-of-psychological-state-changes-at-low-dopamine-transporter-occupancy-following-a-clinical-dose-of-mazindol
#11
Y Kimura, J Maeda, M Yamada, K Takahata, K Yokokawa, Y Ikoma, C Seki, H Ito, M Higuchi, T Suhara
RATIONALE: The beneficial effects of psychostimulant drugs in the treatment of psychiatric disorders occur because they increase the extracellular dopamine concentration by inhibiting re-uptake of extracellular dopamine at dopamine transporters. However, the psychological effects at low dopamine transporter occupancy have not been well demonstrated. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the psychological effects, dopamine transporter occupancy, and dopamine release induced by a single oral administration of a clinical dose of mazindol...
October 20, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751957/repertoire-of-mesoscopic-cortical-activity-is-not-reduced-during-anesthesia
#12
Anthony G Hudetz, Jeannette A Vizuete, Siveshigan Pillay, George A Mashour
Consciousness has been linked to the repertoire of brain states at various spatiotemporal scales. Anesthesia is thought to modify consciousness by altering information integration in cortical and thalamocortical circuits. At a mesoscopic scale, neuronal populations in the cortex form synchronized ensembles whose characteristics are presumably state-dependent but this has not been rigorously tested. In this study, spontaneous neuronal activity was recorded with 64-contact microelectrode arrays in primary visual cortex of chronically instrumented, unrestrained rats under stepwise decreasing levels of desflurane anesthesia (8%, 6%, 4%, and 2% inhaled concentrations) and wakefulness (0% concentration)...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737624/extreme-rituals-in-a-bdsm-context-the-physiological-and-psychological-effects-of-the-dance-of-souls
#13
Kathryn R Klement, Ellen M Lee, James K Ambler, Sarah A Hanson, Evelyn Comber, David Wietting, Michael F Wagner, Valerie R Burns, Bert Cutler, Nadine Cutler, Elwood Reid, Brad J Sagarin
Participation in extreme rituals (e.g., fire-walking, body-piercing) has been documented throughout history. Motivations for such physically intense activities include religious devotion, sensation-seeking and social bonding. The present study aims to explore an extreme ritual within the context of bondage/discipline, dominance/submission and sadism/masochism (BDSM): the 'Dance of Souls', a 160-person ritual involving temporary piercings with weights or hooks attached and dancing to music provided by drummers...
October 14, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719880/dissociation-and-functional-neurologic-disorders
#14
R J Brown
Dissociation has been cited as a possible psychologic mechanism underpinning functional neurologic disorders (FND) since the 19th century. Since that time, changes in psychiatric classification have created confusion about what the term dissociation actually means. The available evidence suggests that it now refers to at least two qualitatively distinct types of phenomena: detachment (an altered state of consciousness characterized by a sense of separation from the self or world) and compartmentalization (a reversible loss of voluntary control over apparently intact processes and functions), as well as their underlying mechanisms...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714529/interhemispheric-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-claustrum-in-the-awake-and-anesthetized-states
#15
Jared B Smith, Zhifeng Liang, Glenn D R Watson, Kevin D Alloway, Nanyin Zhang
The claustrum is a brain region whose function remains unknown, though many investigators suggest it plays a role in conscious attention. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has revealed how anesthesia alters many functional connections in the brain, but the functional role of the claustrum with respect to the awake versus anesthetized states remains unknown. Therefore, we employed a combination of seed-based RS-fMRI and neuroanatomical tracing to reveal how the anatomical connections of the claustrum are related to its functional connectivity during quiet wakefulness and the isoflurane-induced anesthetic state...
October 6, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714429/alterations-of-consciousness-and-mystical-type-experiences-after-acute-lsd-in-humans
#16
Matthias E Liechti, Patrick C Dolder, Yasmin Schmid
RATIONALE: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is used recreationally and in clinical research. Acute mystical-type experiences that are acutely induced by hallucinogens are thought to contribute to their potential therapeutic effects. However, no data have been reported on LSD-induced mystical experiences and their relationship to alterations of consciousness. Additionally, LSD dose- and concentration-response functions with regard to alterations of consciousness are lacking. METHODS: We conducted two placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over studies using oral administration of 100 and 200 μg LSD in 24 and 16 subjects, respectively...
October 7, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708253/unusual-complication-of-pituitary-macroadenoma-a-case-report-and-review
#17
Mohamed Said Abbas, Mohammad Najm AlBerawi, Issam Al Bozom, Nissar F Shaikh, Khalid Yacout Salem
BACKGROUND Pituitary macroadenoma is a common benign tumor that usually presents with visual field defects or hormonal abnormalities. Cerebral infarction can be a complication of a large pituitary adenoma. We report a rare case of bilateral anterior cerebral arteries infarcts by a large pituitary macroadenoma with apoplexy. CASE REPORT A 48-year-old male patient presented with altered conscious level and sudden loss of vision for one-day duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a large seller and suprasellar hemorrhagic mass of pituitary origin, with associated bilateral areas of diffusion restriction in the frontal parasagittal regions, consistent with infarctions...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704405/the-influence-of-interoceptive-awareness-on-functional-connectivity-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#18
Mariachiara Longarzo, M Quarantelli, M Aiello, M Romano, A Del Prete, C Cimminiello, S Cocozza, G Olivo, C Loguercio, L Trojano, D Grossi
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by visceral hypersensitivity likely related to altered processing of sensory stimuli along the brain-gut axis. Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated structural and functional alteration of several brain areas involved in bodily representation, e.g. the insula, in patients with IBS. By means of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) we searched for alteration of functional connectivity within the network involved in self-bodily consciousness...
October 4, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686877/-many-die-in-the-hurricane-an-interpretative-phenomenological-analysis-of-adults-with-psychosis-and-a-history-of-childhood-physical-abuse
#19
J E Rhodes, L J Healey
The study aimed to investigate the experience of adults with a diagnosis of psychosis and who have survived childhood physical abuse. We interviewed eight participants and used interpretative phenomenological analysis to generate themes. The main themes were of perceiving an everyday world of aggression and contempt by others, pervasive mistrust, feeling isolated and for some, attacking oneself with hate. Most participants were also able to reflect on what they saw as 'paranoia' or 'voices'. Paranoia was described as a fluctuating compulsive 'thread' of meaning, feeling and sometimes a transformation of the self...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677049/traumatic-stress-neural-self-and-the-spiritual-mind
#20
Petr Bob, Matthew Laker
According to recent findings stressful experiences may influence various physiological disturbances and also neuroanatomical changes and some studies also show that psychotherapy and meditation may influence brain functions. Traumatic stress is frequently related to a dissociative response that disintegrates conscious experience. In this context, self-reflection is an essential principle in the process of posttraumatic growth related to spiritual experiences and meditation states that enable mental integration and create the novel integrated self...
September 24, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
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