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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239210/serum-neuron-specific-enolase-levels-at-presentation-and-long-term-neurological-sequelae-after-acute-charcoal-burning-induced-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#1
J M Moon, B J Chun, S D Lee, E J Jung
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether clinical parameters and serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) levels measured at emergency department (ED) presentation help stratify the risk of acute or delayed persistent severe neurological sequelae after acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning induced by charcoal burning. METHODS: This retrospective study included 236 patients who suffered from CO poisoning. Demographic information, serum NSE levels measured in the ED, treatment, clinical course, and long-term neurological outcomes were recorded...
December 14, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238428/does-red-cell-distribution-width-predict-outcome-in-traumatic-brain-injury-comparison-to-corticosteroid-randomization-after-significant-head-injury
#2
Farid Sadaka, Nicholas Doctors, Tallia Pearson, Brian Snyders, Jacklyn O'Brien
Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability. The role of red cell distribution width (RDW) as a prognostic biomarker for outcome in TBI patients is unknown. Based on the corticosteroid randomization after significant head injury (CRASH) trial database, a prognosis calculator (CRASH) has been developed for outcome prediction in TBI. The objectives of this study are to investigate the association between RDW on day 1 of TBI and outcome, and to compare outcome prediction from RDW to that from CRASH...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236994/group-g-streptococcus-induces-an-autoimmune-il-17a-ifn-%C3%AE-mediated-carditis-in-the-lewis-rat-model-of-rheumatic-heart-disease
#3
Suchandan Sikder, Natasha L Williams, Alanna E Sorenson, Md A Alim, Miranda E Vidgen, Nicole J Moreland, Catherine M Rush, Robert S Simpson, Brenda L Govan, Robert E Norton, Madeleine W Cunningham, David J McMillan, Kadaba S Sriprakash, Natkunam Ketheesan
Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease (ARF/RHD) have long been described as autoimmune sequelae of Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococcal (GAS) infection. Both antibody and T-cell responses against immunodominant GAS virulence factors including M-protein, cross-react with host tissue proteins triggering an inflammatory response leading to permanent heart damage. However, in some ARF/RHD endemic regions, throat carriage of GAS is low. As Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE), also known as β-hemolytic groups C and G streptococci (GCS/GGS) also express M-protein, we postulated that streptococci other than GAS may have the potential to initiate or exacerbate ARF/RHD...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232372/attenuated-expression-of-mtr-in-both-prenatally-androgenized-mice-and-women-with-the-hyperandrogenic-phenotype-of-pcos
#4
Lei Lei, Lijun Ding, Jing Su, Mengyuan Liu, Qingqing Shi, Jianjun Zhou, Haixiang Sun, Guijun Yan
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine, metabolic and heterogeneous disorder in women of reproductive age, the exact etiology of which remains unknown. To unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the hyperandrogenic phenotype of PCOS, prenatally androgenized (PNA) mice were used to mimic this phenotype in women with PCOS. Using microarray analysis, 1188 differentially expressed genes, including 671 upregulated and 517 downregulated genes, were identified in ovaries from PNA mice. Five differentially expressed genes (Aldh1a7, Bhmt, Mtr, Nrcam, Ptprg) were validated, and decreased MTR expression was shown in ovaries of PNA mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232014/mutations-of-the-glycine-cleavage-system-genes-possibly-affect-the-negative-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-through-metabolomic-profile-changes
#5
Akane Yoshikawa, Fumichika Nishimura, Aya Inai, Yosuke Eriguchi, Masaki Nishioka, Atsuhiko Takaya, Mamoru Tochigi, Yoshiya Kawamura, Tadashi Umekage, Kayoko Kato, Tsukasa Sasaki, Yoshiaki Ohashi, Kazuya Iwamoto, Kiyoto Kasai, Chihiro Kakiuchi
AIM: Hypofunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ). Recently, the glycine cleavage system (GCS) was shown to affect NMDAR function in the brain. GCS functional defects cause nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH), the atypical phenotype of which presents psychiatric symptoms similar to SCZ. Here, we examined the involvement of GCS in SCZ. METHODS: First, to identify the rare variants and the exonic deletions, we re-sequenced all the coding exons and the splice sites of four GCS genes (GLDC, AMT, GCSH, DLD) in 474 patients with SCZ and 475 controls and performed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis in SCZ...
December 12, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230401/shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-shedding-dynamics-in-an-australian-beef-herd
#6
Christina Ahlstrom, Petra Muellner, Geraldine Lammers, Meghan Jones, Sophie Octavia, Ruiting Lan, Jane Heller
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 is an important foodborne pathogen that can be transmitted to humans both directly and indirectly from the feces of beef cattle, its primary reservoir. Numerous studies have investigated the shedding dynamics of E. coli O157 by beef cattle; however, the spatiotemporal trends of shedding are still not well understood. Molecular tools can increase the resolution through the use of strain typing to explore transmission dynamics within and between herds and identify strain-specific characteristics that may influence pathogenicity and spread...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229446/clinical-utility-of-decorin-in-follicular-fluid-as-a-biomarker-of-oocyte-potential
#7
Yuki Sawada, Takeshi Sato, Chieko Saito, Fumiko Ozawa, Yasuhiko Ozaki, Mayumi Sugiura-Ogasawara
This study investigated the concentration of decorin (DCN) in mature follicular fluid and the existence in the granulosa cells. It also investigated whether DCN is useful as a biomarker for outcomes of assisted reproductive technology (ART). A retrospective cohort study was performed involving 130 oocytes of 88 patients treated with ART because of unexplained infertility. The concentration of DCN in the follicular fluid (F-DCN) was 39.26ng/ml (median value); it was higher than that in serum. F-DCN of the oocytes fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was significantly lower than that of oocytes that were not fertilized (33...
December 8, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229352/the-outcome-of-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-in-latin-america
#8
Robert H Bonow, Jason Barber, Nancy R Temkin, Walter Videtta, Carlos Rondina, Gustavo Petroni, Silvia Lujan, Victor Alanis, Gustavo La Fuente, Arturo Lavadenz, Roberto Merida, Manuel Jibaja, Luis Gonzáles, Antonio Falcao, Ricardo Romero, Sureyya Dikmen, James Pridgeon, Randall M Chesnut
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) disproportionately affects lower and middle income countries (LMIC). The factors influencing outcomes in LMIC have not been examined as rigorously as in higher-income countries (HIC). This study was conducted to examine clinical and demographic factors influencing TBI outcomes in Latin American LMIC. Data were prospectively collected during a randomized trial of intracranial pressure monitoring in severe TBI and a companion observational study. Participants were aged ≥ 13 years and admitted to study hospitals with GCS ≤ 8...
December 8, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227053/quantifying-the-funding-gap-for-management-of-traumatic-brain-injury-at-a-major-trauma-centre-in-south-africa
#9
V Y Kong, J J Odendaal, J L Bruce, G L Laing, E Jerome, B Sartorius, P Brysiewicz, D L Clarke
BACKGROUND: Trauma is an eminently preventable disease. However, prevention programs divert resources away from other priorities. Costing trauma related diseases helps policy makers to make decisions on re-source allocation. We used data from a prospective digital trauma registry to cost Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) at our institution over a two-year period and to estimate the funding gap that exists in the care of TBI. METHOD: All patients who were admitted to the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service (PMTS) with TBI were identified from the Hybrid Electronic Medical Registry (HMER)...
November 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226114/comparison-the-effects-of-intraoperative-labetalol-and-lidocaine-on-postoperative-blood-pressure-and-heart-rate-in-brain-surgeries
#10
Mohammadali Attari, Behrooz Ziai, Ahmad Raeisi
Background: Long-term anesthesia applied in some operations, especially in neurosurgical operations leads to unwanted complications. This study aimed to compare the effect of intraoperative labetalol and lidocaine injection on the rate of changes in postoperative blood pressure and heart beat in patients undergoing brain operation. Materials and Methods: This is a simple double-blind randomized clinical trial study conducted in Al-Zahra and Kashani Hospitals on 90 patients' candidate for craniotomy operation with the age range of 18-65 years, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≥13 before anesthesia, physical class of American Society of Anesthesiologists I, II, insensitivity to labetalol who were divided into two groups of 45 individuals in the random allocation method...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225323/mancozeb-impairs-the-ultrastructure-of-mouse-granulosa-cells-in-a-dose-dependent-manner
#11
Maria Grazia Palmerini, Manuel Belli, Stefania Annarita Nottola, Selenia Miglietta, Serena Bianchi, Sara Bernardi, Sevastiani Antonouli, Sandra Cecconi, Giuseppe Familiari, Guido Macchiarelli
Mancozeb, an ethylene bis-dithiocarbamate, is widely used as a fungicide and exerts reproductive toxicity in vivo and in vitro in mouse oocytes by altering spindle morphology and impairing the ability to fertilize. Mancozeb also induces a premalignant status in mouse granulosa cells (GCs) cultured in vitro, as indicated by decreased p53 expression and tenuous oxidative stress. However, the presence and extent of ultrastructural alterations induced by mancozeb on GCs in vitro have not yet been reported. Using an in vitro model of reproductive toxicity, comprising parietal GCs from mouse antral follicles cultured with increasing concentrations of mancozeb (0...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224257/models-of-care-for-non-invasive-ventilation-in-the-acute-copd-comparison-of-three-tertiary-hospitals-act3-study
#12
Kerry Parker, Vara Perikala, Ali Aminazad, Zheng Deng, Brigitte Borg, Catherine Buchan, Jo Toghill, Louis B Irving, Jeremy Goldin, David Charlesworth, Ajay Mahal, Suhith Illesinghe, Matthew T Naughton, Alan Young
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) improves clinical outcomes in hypercapnic acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD), but the optimal model of care remains unknown. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational non-inferiority study comparing three models of NIV care: general ward (Ward) (1:4 nurse to patient ratio, thrice weekly consultant ward round), a high dependency unit (HDU) (1:2 ratio, twice daily ward round) and an intensive care unit (ICU) (1:1 ratio, twice daily ward round) model in three similar teaching tertiary hospitals...
December 10, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223294/glucocorticoid-hormone-treatment-enhances-the-cytokine-production-of-regulatory-t-cells-by-upregulation-of-foxp3-expression
#13
Emese Ugor, Lilla Prenek, Ramóna Pap, Gergely Berta, Dávid Ernszt, József Najbauer, Péter Németh, Ferenc Boldizsár, Tímea Berki
OBJECTIVE: Despite the fact that glucocorticoids (GC) are important therapeutic tools, their effects on regulatory T cells (Treg) are not well defined. The aim of our work was to investigate how GCs influence in vivo the thymic (tTreg) and peripheral Treg (pTreg) differentiation, survival and cytokine production. METHODS: Tregs were detected with flow cytometry in lymphatic organs of 4-6 weeks old BALB/c mice after repeated (2-4days), high-dose in vivo GC treatment using CD4/CD25 cell surface and Foxp3/IL-10/TGFβ/glucocorticoid receptor (GR) intracellular staining...
October 6, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222817/diverse-inhibitory-and-excitatory-mechanisms-shape-temporal-tuning-in-transient-off-alpha-ganglion-cells-in-the-rabbit-retina
#14
Benjamin L Murphy-Baum, W Rowland Taylor
The twenty to thirty types of ganglion cell in the mammalian retina represent parallel signalling pathways that convey different information to the brain. Alpha ganglion cells are selective for high temporal frequencies in visual inputs, which makes them particularly sensitive to rapid motion. Although alpha ganglion cells have been studied in several species, the synaptic basis for their selective temporal tuning remains unclear. Here, we analyse excitatory synaptic inputs to transient OFF alpha ganglion cells (t-OFF α GCs) in the rabbit retina...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222692/advances-in-understanding-hilar-mossy-cells-of-the-dentate-gyrus
#15
REVIEW
Helen E Scharfman
Hilar mossy cells (MCs) of the dentate gyrus (DG) distinguish the DG from other hippocampal subfields (CA1-3) because there are two glutamatergic cell types in the DG rather than one. Thus, in the DG, the main cell types include glutamatergic granule cells (GCs) and MCs, whereas in CA1-3, the only glutamatergic cell type is the pyramidal cell. In contrast to GCs, MCs are different in morphology, intrinsic electrophysiological properties, afferent input and axonal projections, so their function is likely to be very different from GCs...
December 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218468/prediction-of-unfavorable-outcomes-in-cryptococcal-meningitis-results-of-the-multicenter-infectious-diseases-international-research-initiative-id-iri-cryptococcal-meningitis-study
#16
I N Hakyemez, H Erdem, G Beraud, M Lurdes, A Silva-Pinto, C Alexandru, B Bishop, F Mangani, X Argemi, M Poinot, R Hasbun, M Akcaer, S Alp, T Demirdal, K Angamuthu, F Amer, E Ragab, G A Shehata, D Ozturk-Engin, N Ozgunes, L Larsen, S Zimmerli, O R Sipahi, E Tukenmez Tigen, G Celebi, N Oztoprak, A C Yardimci, Y Cag
Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is mostly seen in immunocompromised patients, particularly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients, but CM may also occur in apparently immunocompetent individuals. Outcome analyses have been performed in such patients but, due to the high prevalence of HIV infection worldwide, CM patients today may be admitted to hospitals with unknown HIV status, particularly in underdeveloped countries. The objective of this multicenter study was to analyze all types of CM cases in an aggregate cohort to disclose unfavorable outcomes...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218052/spoiling-for-a-fight-b-lymphocytes-as-initiator-and-effector-populations-within-tertiary-lymphoid-organs-in-autoimmunity-and-transplantation
#17
REVIEW
Jawaher Alsughayyir, Gavin J Pettigrew, Reza Motallebzadeh
Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) develop at ectopic sites within chronically inflamed tissues, such as in autoimmunity and rejecting organ allografts. TLOs differ structurally from canonical secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs), in that they lack a mantle zone and are not encapsulated, suggesting that they may provide unique immune function. A notable feature of TLOs is the frequent presence of structures typical of germinal centers (GCs). However, little is known about the role of such GCs, and in particular, it is not clear if the B cell response within is autonomous, or whether it synergizes with concurrent responses in SLOs...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217668/induced-global-deletion-of-glucocorticoid-receptor-impairs-fracture-healing
#18
Anna E Rapp, Yasmine Hachemi, Julia Kemmler, Mascha Koenen, Jan Tuckermann, Anita Ignatius
Although endogenous glucocorticoids (GCs) are important regulators of bone integrity and the immune system, their role in bone repair after fracture-a process highly dependent on inflammation and bone formation-is unclear. Because most effects of GCs are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), we used an inducible global GR knockout (GRgtROSACreERT2) mouse model to eliminate endogenous GC action in all cells contributing to bone repair. The healing process was analyzed by cytokine/chemokine multiplex analysis, flow cytometry, histology, gene-expression analysis, microcomputed tomography, and biomechanical analysis...
December 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214784/contrast-induced-acute-kidney-injury-after-coil-embolization-for-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#19
Hyun Goo Lee, Won Ki Kim, Je Young Yeon, Jong Soo Kim, Keon Ha Kim, Pyoung Jeon, Seung Chyul Hong
PURPOSE: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is associated with poor outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention. However, CI-AKI has rarely been evaluated within the neurovascular field. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and clinical implication of CI-AKI after coil embolization in patients with an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2005 and March 2016, 192 patients who underwent coil embolization were enrolled in this study...
January 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214386/improvement-rate-of-patients-with-severe-brain-injury-during-post-acute-intensive-rehabilitation
#20
Rita Formisano, Marianna Contrada, Marta Aloisi, Maria Gabriella Buzzi, Paola Cicinelli, Cecilia Della Vedova, Letizia Laurenza, Maria Matteis, Francesca Spanedda, Vincenzo Vinicola, Marco Iosa
Patients with severe acquired brain injury (SABI) may evolve towards different outcomes. The primary aim was to evaluate the clinical evolution of a large population of patients with SABI admitted to post-acute rehabilitation from 2001 to 2016, diagnosed with severe brain injury (GCS ≤ 8) in the acute phase and a coma duration of at least 24 h. The possible changes between the admission time to a post-acute rehabilitation hospital and the discharge time were measured by means of Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), Level of Cognitive Functioning (LCF), and Disability Rating Scale (DRS)...
December 6, 2017: Neurological Sciences
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