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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053578/treatment-with-synthetic-glucocorticoids-and-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#1
REVIEW
Rosa Maria Paragliola, Giampaolo Papi, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Salvatore Maria Corsello
Chronic glucocorticoid (GC) treatment represents a widely-prescribed therapy for several diseases in consideration of both anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity but, if used at high doses for prolonged periods, it can determine the systemic effects characteristic of Cushing's syndrome. In addition to signs and symptoms of hypercortisolism, patients on chronic GC therapy are at risk to develop tertiary adrenal insufficiency after the reduction or the withdrawal of corticosteroids or during acute stress...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051745/traumatic-brain-injury-severity-neuropathophysiology-and-clinical-outcome-insights-from-multimodal-neuroimaging
#2
Andrei Irimia, Sheng-Yang Matthew Goh, Adam C Wade, Kavi Patel, Paul M Vespa, John D Van Horn
BACKGROUND: The relationship between the acute clinical presentation of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), long-term changes in brain structure prompted by injury and chronic functional outcome is insufficiently understood. In this preliminary study, we investigate how acute Glasgow coma score (GCS) and epileptic seizure occurrence after TBIs are statistically related to functional outcome (as quantified using the Glasgow Outcome Score) and to the extent of cortical thinning observed 6 months after the traumatic event...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051225/strong-association-between-corticosterone-and-temperature-dependent-metabolic-rate-in-individual-zebra-finches
#3
Blanca Jimeno, Michaela Hau, Simon Verhulst
Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) are often assumed to be indicators of stress. At the same time, one of their fundamental roles is to facilitate metabolic processes to accommodate changes in energetic demands. While the metabolic function of GCs is thought to be ubiquitous across vertebrates, we are not aware of experiments which tested this directly, i.e., in which metabolic rate was manipulated and measured together with GCs. We therefore tested for a relationship between plasma corticosterone (CORT, ln transformed) and metabolic rate (MR, measured using indirect calorimetry) in a between- and within-individual design in captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) of both sexes...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051192/animal-models-to-explore-the-effects-of-glucocorticoids-on-skeletal-growth-and-structure
#4
Claire L Wood, Ondrej Soucek, Jarod Wong, Farasat Zaman, Colin Farquharson, Lars Savendahl, S Faisal Ahmed
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are effective for the treatment of many chronic conditions but their use is associated with frequent and wide-ranging adverse effects including osteoporosis and growth retardation. The mechanisms that underlie the undesirable effects of GCs on skeletal development are unclear and there is no proven effective treatment to combat them. An in-vivo model that investigates the development and progression of GC-induced changes in bone is, therefore, important and a well characterized pre-clinical model is vital for the evaluation of new interventions...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050963/long-chain-glucosylceramides-crosstalk-with-lyn-mediates-endometrial-cell-migration
#5
Dulani Wimalachandra, Joan Yang Xiaohui, Lina Zhu, Evan Tan, Harry Asada, Jerry Y K Chan, Yie Hou Lee
Endometriosis is a disease characterized by regurgitated lesions which are invasive and migratory, embedding at ectopic, extra-uterine locations. Extracellular glucosylceramides (GlcCers), bioactive sphingolipids potentiating signals for cell migration, are found in elevated levels in endometriosis; however underlying mechanisms that result in cellular migration are poorly defined. Here, we demonstrated that internalized GlcCer induced migratory activity in immortalized human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs), with highest potency observed in long-chain GlcCer...
October 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050167/-serum-procalcitonin-in-patients-with-pulmonary-infection-and-central-nervous-system-injury
#6
J C Li, L Y Wang, Y F Wang, M H Mei, L Shi, M L Yao, X D Guan, B Ouyang
Objective: To evaluate the influence of serum procalcitonin in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary infection in patients with central nervous system injury. Methods: From October 2014 to February 2017, a retrospective study was performed. A total of 1 852 patients were screened in Department of Intensive Care Unite, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.Among them, 173 patients were identified with different kinds of infection. Finally, a total of 42 patients with pulmonary infection were enrolled...
October 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048815/-simultaneous-rapid-determination-of-81-glucocorticoids-in-cosmetics-by-dispersive-solid-phase-extraction-and-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#7
Huitai Luo, Xiaolan Huang, Huiqin Wu, Qiuyan Zhang, Zhixin Zhu, Fang Huang, Xiaoshan Lin, Yefen Ma, Xin Deng
A novel method was developed for the simultaneous rapid determination of 81 illegally added glucocorticoids (GCs) in cosmetics using dispersive-solid phase extraction (d-SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The analytes were extracted by acetonitrile after dispersing with water, and then purified using the C18 and primary secondary amine (PSA). The chromatographic separations were performed on a Poroshell 120 PFP column (100 mm×2.1 mm, 2.7 μ m) under multiple chromatographic retention modes...
August 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046682/cyclic-nucleotide-monophosphates-and-their-cyclases-in-plant-signaling
#8
REVIEW
Chris Gehring, Ilona S Turek
The cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs), and notably 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are now accepted as key signaling molecules in many processes in plants including growth and differentiation, photosynthesis, and biotic and abiotic defense. At the single molecule level, we are now beginning to understand how cNMPs modify specific target molecules such as cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, while at the systems level, a recent study of the Arabidopsis cNMP interactome has identified novel target molecules with specific cNMP-binding domains...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046370/excessive-glucocorticoids-induced-muscle-murf1-overexpression-is-independent-of-akt-foxo1-pathway
#9
Xiao Juan Wang, Jing Jing Xiao, Lei Liu, Hong Chao Jiao, Hai Lin
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)-dependent proteolysis plays a major role in the muscle catabolic action of glucocorticoids (GCs). Atrogin-1 and muscle-specific RING finger protein 1 (MuRF1), two E3 ubiquitin ligases, are uniquely expressed in muscle. It has been previously demonstrated GCs treatment induced MuRF1 and atrogin-1 over expression. However, it is yet unclear whether the higher pharmacological dose of GCs induced muscle protein catabolism through MuRF1 and atrogin-1. In the present study, the role of atrogin-1 and MuRF1 in C2C12 cells protein metabolism during excessive dexamethasone (DEX) was studied...
October 18, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045738/the-proposed-role-of-ultrasound-in-the-management-of-giant-cell-arteritis-in-routine-clinical-practice
#10
Sara Monti, Alberto Floris, Cristina B Ponte, Wolfgang A Schmidt, Andreas P Diamantopoulos, Claudio Pereira, Sophie Vaggers, Raashid A Luqmani
Objective: To develop and explore a protocol for using colour duplex sonography (CDS) in the routine care of GCA. Methods: We tested CDS of temporal arteries and axillary arteries (AXs) on consecutive patients with suspected or established GCA, between July 2014 and September 2016. Results: We assessed 293 patients [age 72 (10), female/male 196/97], of whom 118 had clinically confirmed GCA. Seventy-three percent of patients had already received high-dose glucocorticoids (GCs) for 17 (33) days...
October 16, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041985/simplified-prognostic-model-for-critically-ill-patients-in-resource-limited-settings-in-south-asia
#11
Rashan Haniffa, Mavuto Mukaka, Sithum Bandara Munasinghe, Ambepitiyawaduge Pubudu De Silva, Kosala Saroj Amarasiri Jayasinghe, Abi Beane, Nicolette de Keizer, Arjen M Dondorp
BACKGROUND: Current critical care prognostic models are predominantly developed in high-income countries (HICs) and may not be feasible in intensive care units (ICUs) in lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Existing prognostic models cannot be applied without validation in LMICs as the different disease profiles, resource availability, and heterogeneity of the population may limit the transferability of such scores. A major shortcoming in using such models in LMICs is the unavailability of required measurements...
October 17, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040944/inhaled-glucocorticoid-treatment-prevents-the-response-of-cd8-t-cells-in-a-mouse-model-of-allergic-asthma-and-causes-their-depletion-outside-the-respiratory-system
#12
Monika Zuśka-Prot, Tomasz Maślanka
The principal objective of this research has been to determine the safety of inhaled glucocorticoids (GCs) in respect of their effect on CD8(+) T cells within respiratory and extra-respiratory tissues, and to compare it with systemic GC treatment. Another purpose has been to identify whether inhaled and systemic GCs affect the CD8(+) T cell response in the mediastinal lymph nodes (MLNs) and lungs in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma. Ciclesonide and methylprednisolone were used as a model for inhaled and systemic GCs, respectively...
October 14, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040235/acetabular-fractures-in-children-and-adolescents-comparison-of-isolated-acetabular-fractures-and-acetabular-fractures-associated-with-pelvic-ring-injuries
#13
Christiane G Kruppa, Debra L Sietsema, Justin D Khoriaty, Marcel Dudda, Thomas A Schildhauer, Clifford B Jones
OBJECTIVES: To compare mechanism of injury, fracture pattern, displacement, clinical and radiographic outcome of isolated acetabular fractures (Group 1) versus acetabular fractures associated with a pelvic ring injury (Group 2). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort comparative analysis. SETTING: Private orthopaedic practice associated with a level one teaching trauma center. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Mechanism of injury, fracture pattern, displacement and treatment, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), leg length discrepancy (LLD) and hip dysplasia...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039547/frequency-and-distribution-of-cd4-cxcr5-follicular-b-helper-t%C3%A2-cells-within-involved-tissues-in-igg4%C3%A2-related-ophthalmic-disease
#14
Huimin Yang, Ruili Wei, Qiang Liu, Yongheng Shi, Jin Li
Immonoglobulin G4‑related ophthalmic disease (IgG4‑ROD) is a IgG4‑RD and exhibits two main characteristics: Fibrosis that is not necessarily marked histopathologically; and frequent formation of germinal centers (GCs). Follicular B helper T (Tfh) cells are now recognized as the true helper cells for B cells in antibody responses. In the present study, the profile and distribution of Tfh cells in involved tissues from patients with IgG4‑ROD was compared to those of type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and patients with IgG4‑related lymphadenopathy (IgG4‑RL)...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036586/epigenetic-mechanisms-underlie-the-crosstalk-between-growth-factors-and-a-steroid-hormone
#15
Yehoshua Enuka, Morris E Feldman, Animesh Chowdhury, Swati Srivastava, Moshit Lindzen, Aldema Sas-Chen, Renaud Massart, David Cheishvili, Matthew J Suderman, Yoav Zaltsman, Chiara A Mazza, Kirti Shukla, Cindy Körner, Noa Furth, Mattia Lauriola, Moshe Oren, Stefan Wiemann, Moshe Szyf, Yosef Yarden
Crosstalk between growth factors (GFs) and steroid hormones recurs in embryogenesis and is co-opted in pathology, but underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Our data from mammary cells imply that the crosstalk between the epidermal GF and glucocorticoids (GCs) involves transcription factors like p53 and NF-κB, along with reduced pausing and traveling of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) at both promoters and bodies of GF-inducible genes. Essentially, GCs inhibit positive feedback loops activated by GFs and stimulate the reciprocal inhibitory loops...
September 28, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036310/baclofen-self-poisoning-in-the-era-of-changing-indication-multicentric-reports-to-a-french-poison-control-centre
#16
Maxime Léger, Marion Brunet, Gaël Le Roux, Nicolas Lerolle, David Boels
Aims: Baclofen has gained interest in treating alcohol use disorder patients. These patients are at risk of voluntary drug intoxications. Understanding the context of baclofen's widespread use for alcohol use disorder, a recent evaluation of the epidemiology, morbidity and mortality of baclofen self-poisoning episodes is necessary. Methods: All baclofen self-poisoning reported to the Western France Poison Control Centre between January 2008 and December 2015 were included for analysis in this retrospective study...
September 28, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035459/level-of-platelet-distribution-width-and-outcome-prediction-in-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Biao Zhang, Jianjun Gu, Yizhen Qiu, Jin Zhao, Yi Song, Huojun Jiang, Aliang Ding, Xiaoqi Chen, Rongming Yu, Guofang Liu, Aihao Hu
BACKGROUND: This study examines the clinical utility of the level of increased platelet distribution width (PDW) as a predictor of outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 120 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) were recruited. Age, gender, PDW, and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores were measured. These patients were divided into two groups based on their 30-day outcomes. Receiver operating curves (ROCs) were generated to identify predictors of 30-day mortality...
October 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034469/effect-of-mono-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-mehp-on-proliferation-of-and-steroid-hormone-synthesis-in-rat-ovarian-granulosa-cells-in-vitro
#18
Na Li, Te Liu, Kun Guo, Jian Zhu, Guangyan Yu, Shuyue Wang, Lin Ye
This study aimed to examine the proliferation of and secretion by rat ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) treated with mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). Ovarian GCs were incubated with MEHP at concentration of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200µM for 24 hours. Cell viability was determined using the MTT Cell Proliferation Assay. Progesterone and estradiol production was evaluated by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and the expression of FSHR, PR, and ER was measured by immunocytochemistry. StAR, P450scc, 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD, and P450 arom mRNA levels were determined by RT-PCR...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033931/plasmodium-berghei-nk65-in-combination-with-ifn-%C3%AE-induces-endothelial-glucocorticoid-resistance-via-sustained-activation-of-p38-and-jnk
#19
Karolina A Zielińska, Lode de Cauwer, Sofie Knoops, Kristof Van der Molen, Alexander Sneyers, Jonathan Thommis, J Brian De Souza, Ghislain Opdenakker, Karolien De Bosscher, Philippe E Van den Steen
Malaria-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (MA-ARDS) is an often lethal complication of malaria. Currently, no adequate therapy for this syndrome exists. Although glucocorticoids (GCs) have been used to improve clinical outcome of ARDS, their therapeutic benefits remain unclear. We previously developed a mouse model of MA-ARDS, in which dexamethasone treatment revealed GC resistance. In the present study, we investigated GC sensitivity of mouse microvascular lung endothelial cells stimulated with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and Plasmodium berghei NK65 (PbNK65)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033776/carbohydrate-antigen-19-9-positive-gastric-adenocarcinoma-autopsy-findings-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Tan Wang, Yoko Matsuda, Atsuko Seki, Keisuke Nonaka, Mototsune Kakizaki, Daita Kaneda, Junko Takahashi-Fujigasaki, Shigeo Murayama, Tomio Arai
Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) is a well-known tumor marker for pancreatobiliary cancer, and several studies have shown that an elevated serum CA19-9 level is associated with more aggressive biological behavior in gastric cancer (GC). However, the clinicopathological characteristics of CA19-9-positive GC remain unclear. We herein report an autopsy case of CA19-9-positive GC in an 84-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital because of paralysis and anemia. Autopsy revealed an ulcerative-invasive tumor measuring 72 × 60 mm in the anterior wall of the gastric body...
September 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
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