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Ethan A Winkler, John K Yue, Adam R Ferguson, Nancy R Temkin, Murray B Stein, Jason Barber, Esther L Yuh, Sourabh Sharma, Gabriela G Satris, Thomas W McAllister, Jonathan Rosand, Marco D Sorani, Hester F Lingsma, Phiroz E Tarapore, Esteban G Burchard, Donglei Hu, Celeste Eng, Kevin K W Wang, Pratik Mukherjee, David O Okonkwo, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Geoffrey T Manley
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) results in variable clinical trajectories and outcomes. The source of variability remains unclear, but may involve genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A SNP in catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) is suggested to influence development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but its role in TBI remains unclear. Here, we utilize the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot (TRACK-TBI Pilot) study to investigate whether the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism is associated with PTSD and global functional outcome as measured by the PTSD Checklist - Civilian Version and Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE), respectively...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Hiroaki Matsuno
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recently, the osteoporosis treatment has attracted attention, and several drugs have been developed. Among these, bisphosphonates (BPs), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and anti-receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) monoclonal (MAb) denosumab (DMAb) are the major osteoporosis agents. Several studies demonstrated that the effect of osteoporosis agents is evaluated by lumar or hip dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, private clinic commonly use the radial DXA...
October 20, 2016: Drugs in R&D
Cheol Keun Park, Ji Soo Park, Hyo Song Kim, Sun Young Rha, Woo Jin Hyung, Jae-Ho Cheong, Sung Hoon Noh, Sang Kil Lee, Yong Chan Lee, Yong-Min Huh, Hyunki Kim
Although targeted therapy for receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) of advanced gastric cancers (AGCs) has been in the spotlight, guidelines for the identification of RTK-amplified gastric cancers (RA-GCs) have not been established. In this study, we investigate clinicopathologic characteristics of RA-GCs and propose a screening algorithm for their identification. We performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) for MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, MSH6, key RTKs (EGFR, HER2, MET), and p53, in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus encoding RNA, and silver in situ hybridization (SISH) for EGFR, HER2, and MET using tissue microarrays of 993 AGCs...
September 27, 2016: Oncotarget
Réka Eördögh, Csaba Jakab, Renáta Papp, Alexander Tichy, Barbara Nell
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the density and distribution of goblet cells (GCs) in the feline conjunctiva and to investigate a potential effect of age and sex on GC density (GCD). METHODS: Thirty-nine eyes of 21 cats euthanased for reasons unrelated to this study were used. Fixed upper and lower eyelid and bulbar conjunctiva were divided into nasal and temporal regions. The third eyelid was excised and investigated separately. Samples were embedded in paraffin wax; sections were stained with periodic acid-Schiff reaction and analysed with light microscopy...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Olga Calcagnile, Anders Anell, Johan Undén
BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with substantial costs due to over-triage of patients to computed tomography (CT) scanning, despite validated decision rules. Serum biomarker S100B has shown promise for safely omitting CT scans but the economic impact from clinical use has never been reported. In 2007, S100B was adapted into the existing Scandinavian management guidelines in Halmstad, Sweden, in an attempt to reduce CT scans and save costs. METHODS: Consecutive adult patients with mild TBI (GCS 14-15, loss of consciousness and/or amnesia), managed with the aid of S100B, were prospectively included in this study...
October 20, 2016: BMC Neurology
Christine L Madliger, Oliver P Love
The application of physiological measures to conservation monitoring has been gaining momentum and, while a suite of physiological traits are available to ascertain disturbance and condition in wildlife populations, glucocorticoids (i.e., GCs; cortisol and corticosterone) are the most heavily employed. The interpretation of GC levels as sensitive indicators of population change necessitates that GCs and metrics of population persistence are linked. However, the relationship between GCs and fitness may be highly context-dependent, changing direction, or significance, depending on the GC measure, fitness metric, life history stage, or other intrinsic and extrinsic contexts considered...
July 27, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Nicola Benedetto, Carlo Gambacciani, Nicola Montemurro, Riccardo Morganti, Paolo Perrini
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical outcome of patients over 70 years old who have received surgical treatment for traumatic acute subdural haematoma (aSDH) in our Neurosurgical Department. We also disclose related surgical and medical costs. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed by analyzing the medical records of patients older than 70 who had undergone surgery for evacuation of traumatic aSDH between June 2011 and December 2014. Through univariate and multivariate analyses, we correlated clinical and radiological pre-operatory features with outcome at one and six months after surgery...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Thomas Beez, Jennifer Brown
BACKGROUND: Atlanto-occipital dislocation (AOD) is a rare but severe sequela of high energy trauma. Children are at increased risk, due to their immature spine and biomechanical characteristics. LITERATURE REVIEW: The prevailing mechanism of injury is motor vehicle collision as passenger. AOD commonly presents with cardiorespiratory arrest, spinal cord injury or cranial nerve deficits. Concomitant injuries, such as traumatic brain injury, are frequently encountered...
October 18, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Christine L Madliger, Oliver P Love
Labile physiological variables, such as stress hormones [i.e. glucocorticoids (GCs)], allow individuals to react to perturbations in their environment and may therefore reflect the effect of disturbances or positive conservation initiatives in advance of population-level demographic measures. Although the application of GCs as conservation biomarkers has been of extensive interest, few studies have explicitly investigated whether baseline GC concentrations respond to disturbances consistently across individuals...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Boyang Li, Yifan Jiang, Jingxuan Sun, Lingfeng Cai, Chih-Yung Wen
In the development of beyond-line-of-sight (BLOS) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems, communication between the UAVs and the ground control station (GCS) is of critical importance. The commonly used economical wireless modules are restricted by the short communication range and are easily blocked by obstacles. The use of a communication relay system provides a practical way to solve these problems, improving the performance of UAV communication in BLOS and cross-obstacle operations. In this study, a communication relay system, in which a quadrotor was used to relay radio communication for another quadrotor was developed and tested...
October 13, 2016: Sensors
Darae Kim, Chi Young Shim, Geu-Ru Hong, In Jeong Cho, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Jong-Won Ha, Namsik Chung
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to comprehensively assess mechanical adaptation of LV in subclinical patients with hypertension(HTN) using a layer specific speckle-tracking echocardiography. DESIGN AND METHOD: Conventional transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) with 2D-layer specific speckle-tracking echocardiography was performed on 218 HTN patients with preserved LV ejection fraction (EF > 50%). Endocardial, epicardial, and transmural global longitudinal strain (GLS), global circumferential strains (GCS), and peak LV torsion were measured...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Vigneswaran Veeramuthu, Vairavan Narayanan, Norlisah Ramli, Aditya Hernowo, Vicknes Waran, Mark W Bondi, Lisa Delano-Wood, Dharmendra Ganesan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the extent of persistent neuropsychological impairment in patients with complicated versus uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). METHODS: 61 patients with mTBI (GCS 13 to 15) were prospectively recruited, categorized according to baseline CT findings, and underwent neuropsychological assessment at initial admission (n=61) as well as at 6 month follow-up (n=30). A paired t-test, Cohen's d effect size calculation, and repeated measure ANOVA were used to establish the differences between the groups in terms of their neuropsychological performance...
October 14, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Marco D'Aurora, Samantha Sperduti, Giovanna Di Emidio, Liborio Stuppia, Paolo Giovanni Artini, Valentina Gatta
The somatic component of follicular structure is a mixture of different cell types, represented by Granulosa cells (GCs) that are the paracrine regulators of the oocyte growth. GCs finely support this process by a continuous bidirectional talk with oocyte, which ensure oocyte quality and competence. Specific pathways are involved in the cross-talk and in both GCs and oocyte development. This review summarizes data from GCs gene expression analysis concerning both their physiological role and their interaction with oocyte...
October 18, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Keren Turjeman, Yechezkel Barenholz
BACKGROUND: Steroids are the most efficacious anti-inflammatory agents. However, their toxicities and side-effects compromise their clinical application. Various strategies and major efforts were dedicated for formulating viable liposomal glucocorticosteroids (GCs), so far none of these were approved. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate these approaches for formulating GC-delivery systems, especially liposomes, and with focus on the Barenholz Lab experience. METHODS: We developed PEGylated nano-liposomes (NSSL) remotely loaded with water-soluble amphipathic weak acid GC-prodrugs...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Drug Targeting
Fereshteh Esfandiari, Mohammad Kazemi Ashtiani, Mehdi Sharifi-Tabar, Maryam Saber, Hamed Daemi, Mohammad Hossein Ghanian, Abdolhossein Shahverdi, Hossein Baharvand
Producing meiosis-competent germ cells (GCs) from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is essential for developing advanced therapies for infertility. Here, a novel approach is presented for generation of GCs from ESCs. In this regard, microparticles (MPs) have been developed from alginate sulfate loaded with bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4). The results here show that BMP4 release from alginate sulfate MPs is significantly retarded by the sulfated groups compared to neat alginate. Then, BMP4-laden MPs are incorporated within the aggregates during differentiation of GCs from ESCs...
October 17, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Nancy Roxana Machaca Quea, Fabian Emura, Fernando Barreda Bolaños, Yuliana Salvador Arias, Fernando Antonio Arévalo Suárez, Alejandro Piscoya Rivera
Background and study aims: In the Western world, gastric cancer (GC) usually presents at an advanced stage, carrying a high mortality rate. Studies have reported that 14 % to 26 % of GCs are missed at endoscopy up to 3 years before diagnosis. Systematic Alphanumeric Coded Endoscopy (SACE) has been proposed to improve quality of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) by facilitating a complete examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract. This prospective cross-sectional study was designed to determine the frequency of gastric intraepithelial neoplasia (GIN) by using the SACE approach in cohort of patients from low socioeconomic level...
October 2016: Endoscopy International Open
Mahua Chatterjee, Fernando Perez de Los Cobos Pallares, Alex Loebel, Michael Lukas, Veronica Egger
During odor sensing the activity of principal neurons of the mammalian olfactory bulb, the mitral and tufted cells (MTCs), occurs in repetitive bursts that are synchronized to respiration, reminiscent of hippocampal theta-gamma coupling. Axonless granule cells (GCs) mediate self- and lateral inhibitory interactions between the excitatory MTCs via reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses. We have explored long-term plasticity at this synapse by using a theta burst stimulation (TBS) protocol and variations thereof...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Zhaohui Jin, Harry H Yoon
Preliminary clinical studies of anti-programmed cell death-1 (anti-PD-1) therapy in gastro-esophageal cancers have suggested promising single-agent activity. In patients who received prior treatment for advanced disease, pembrolizumab has been associated with a response rate of 20% in programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive tumors, and nivolumab with a response rate of 12% in unselected tumors. Both agents yielded a median duration of response lasting ~6-7 months. PD-L1 expression and microsatellite instability (MSI) have emerged as potential predictive markers for PD-1/PD-L1 blockade...
October 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Joaquín Valle Alonso, Francisco Javier Fonseca Del Pozo, Manuel Vaquero Álvarez, Elisa Lopera Lopera, Marisol Garcia Segura, Ricardo García Arévalo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To compare two scales for assessment of patients with mild head injury. The Canadian CT Head Rule (CCHR) and New Orleans Criteria (NOC) according to their diagnostic accuracy in patients attending an emergency department, and to determine the most important predictive values. METHOD: Cross-sectional study in a first-level Hospital in the period of January 2011 to January 2013. Patients with mild head injury criteria were included. All the patients underwent a computed tomography (CT) of the head as part of internal protocol and the CCHR and NOC criteria were recorded for each patient...
October 10, 2016: Medicina Clínica
Joo Hwa Lee, Nam Jin Yoo, Min Sung Kim, Sug Hyung Lee
Alterations of genes involved in histone modification are common in cancers. A histone demethylase-encoding gene PHF2 is considered a putative tumor suppressor gene (TSG). PHF2 is essential for p53-mediated TSG functions such as chemotherapy-mediated cancer cell killing. However, inactivating mutations of PHF2 that could inactivate its functions are not reported in cancers. In a genome database, we observed that the PHF2 gene possessed mononucleotide repeats, which could be mutated in cancers with high microsatellite instability (MSI-H)...
October 15, 2016: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
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