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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775671/variable-ventilation-decreases-airway-responsiveness-and-improves-ventilation-efficiency-in-a-rat-model-of-asthma
#1
Fatemeh Ilka, Mohammad Javan, Mohammad Reza Raoufy
The optimal ventilation strategy in patients receiving mechanical ventilation for severe asthma remains unclear. The effect of conventional ventilation (with constant tidal volume and respiratory rate) and variable ventilation (with the same average but variable tidal volume and respiratory rate) on peak airway pressure and airway exacerbation induced by increasing doses of methacholine was compared in a rat model of asthma. The respiratory rate and tidal volume data were obtained from a spontaneously breathing intact rat during immobility using a whole-body plethysmograph...
May 15, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775117/intravenous-low-dose-ketamine-provides-greater-pain-control-compared-to-fentanyl-in-a-civilian-prehospital-trauma-system-a-propensity-matched-analysis
#2
E Stein Bronsky, Catherine Koola, Alessandro Orlando, Diane Redmond, Cecile D'Huyvetter, Heather Sieracki, Allen Tanner, Ray Fowler, Charles Mains, David Bar-Or
OBJECTIVE: A few studies report comparable analgesic efficacy between low-dose ketamine and opioids such as morphine or fentanyl; however, limited research has explored the safety and effectiveness of intravenous low-dose ketamine as a primary analgesic in a civilian prehospital setting. The objective of this study is to compare pain control between low-dose ketamine and fentanyl when administered intravenously (IV) for the indication of severe pain. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational review of prehospital adult patients (≥18 years) who presented with severe pain (numeric rating scale, 7-10) and were treated solely with either low-dose ketamine IV or fentanyl IV between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2016...
May 18, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774933/-clinicopathological-characteristics-and-prognostic-factor-analysis-of-carcinoma-in-remnant-stomach-cancer-at-peking-university-cancer-hospital
#3
Yinkui Wang, Ziyu Li, Chenggen Jin, Xiangji Ying, Chao Gao, Yuchen Wang, Qiyan Xiao, Yan Zhang, Yufan Chen, Lianhai Zhang, Jiafu Ji
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the interval time to canceration, clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic factors of carcinoma in remnant stomach (CRS) in patients with primary benign diseases or primary malignant tumors. METHODS: Based on the criteria of the definition of CRS proposed by Japanese Gastric Cancer Association in 2017, a retrospective analysis was conducted on clinicopathological characteristics of patients diagnosed with CRS at Peking University Cancer Hospital from March 1992 to March 2017...
May 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774650/outcomes-of-hyperglycemia-in-patients-with-and-without-diabetes-mellitus-hospitalized-for-infectious-diseases
#4
Amit Akirov, Talia Diker-Cohen, Hiba Masri-Iraqi, Hadar Duskin-Bitan, Ilan Shimon, Alexander Gorshtein
OBJECTIVE: Examine the prognostic implications of diabetes mellitus (DM) and the importance of glycemic control during hospitalization for infectious diseases. METHODS: Historical prospectively collected data of patients hospitalized between 2011-2013.Infection-related hospitalizations were classified according to site of infection. Median follow-up was 4.5 years. Outcome measures included in-hospital and end-of-follow-up mortality. RESULTS: The cohort included 8,051 patients (50% female, mean age ± SD, 68±20 years) with a primary diagnosis of an infectious disease...
May 17, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774601/the-impact-of-mitral-stenosis-on-outcomes-of-aortic-valve-stenosis-patient-undergoing-surgical-aortic-valve-replacement-or-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement
#5
Yasser Al-Khadra, Fahed Darmoch, Motaz Baibars, Amir Kaki, Zaher Fanari, M Chadi Alraies
BACKGROUND: The concomitant presence of mitral stenosis (MS) in the setting of symptomatic aortic stenosis represent a clinical challenge. Little is known regarding the outcome of mitral stenosis (MS) patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Therefore, we sought to study the outcome of MS patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR). METHOD: Using weighted data from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database between 2011 and 2014, we identified patients who were diagnosed with MS...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773969/cost-effectiveness-of-umeclidinium-compared-with-tiotropium-and-glycopyrronium-as-monotherapy-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-uk-perspective
#6
Dhvani Shah, Maurice Driessen, Nancy Risebrough, Timothy Baker, Ian Naya, Andrew Briggs, Afisi S Ismaila
Background: Cost-effectiveness of once-daily umeclidinium bromide (UMEC) was compared with once-daily tiotropium (TIO) and once-daily glycopyrronium (GLY) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) from a UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Methods: A linked-equation model was implemented to estimate COPD progression, associated healthcare costs, exacerbations rates, life years (LY) and quality-adjusted LY (QALYs). Statistical risk equations for endpoints and resource use were derived from the ECLIPSE and TORCH studies, respectively...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773577/determinants-and-outcomes-of-vasoplegia-following-left-ventricular-assist-device-implantation
#7
Kristen M Tecson, Brian Lima, Andy Y Lee, Fayez S Raza, Grace Ching, Cheng-Han Lee, Joost Felius, Ronald D Baxter, Sasha Still, Justin D G Collier, Shelley A Hall, Susan M Joseph
BACKGROUND: Vasoplegia is associated with adverse outcomes following cardiac surgery; however, its impact following left ventricular assist device implantation is largely unexplored. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 252 consecutive patients receiving a left ventricular assist device, vasoplegia was defined as the occurrence of normal cardiac function and index but with the need for intravenous vasopressors within 48 hours following surgery for >24 hours to maintain a mean arterial pressure >70 mm Hg...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773479/emergency-department-diagnosis-of-septic-pulmonary-embolism-due-to-infectious-endocarditis-using-bedside-ultrasound
#8
Jason Arthur, Juvenal Havyarimana, Ashley Booth Norse
BACKGROUND: Septic pulmonary embolism (SPE) is a rare disorder caused by metastasis of infectious thrombi to the lungs. Most commonly, this occurs as a result of infectious endocarditis. This clinical entity may easily be confused for more common and less mortal diagnoses such as pneumonia, bronchitis, or pulmonary embolism. CASE REPORT: A 47-year-old woman presented in respiratory distress with a complaint of cough productive of rusty sputum, shortness of breath, and pleuritic chest pain...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773297/the-clinical-practice-of-high-flow-nasal-cannula-oxygen-therapy-in-adults-a-japanese-cross-sectional-multicenter-survey
#9
Jiro Ito, Kazuma Nagata, Susumu Sato, Akira Shiraki, Naoki Nishimura, Shinyu Izumi, Ryo Tachikawa, Takeshi Morimoto, Keisuke Tomii
BACKGROUND: High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) is widely used mainly in the acute care setting, but limited data are available on real-world practice in adults. The objective of this study was to describe HFNC practices in Japanese adults. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional multicenter survey of adult patients receiving HFNC from January through March 2015 was conducted in 33 participating hospitals in Japan. RESULTS: We obtained information on 321 patients (median age, 76; 218 men, 103 women; median estimated PaO2 /FI O2, 178 mm Hg) from 22 hospitals...
May 2018: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773204/intracerebral-hemorrhage-and-sleep-disordered-breathing
#10
Lynda D Lisabeth, Richard V Scheer, Chengwei Li, Erin Case, Ronald D Chervin, Darin B Zahuranec, Lewis B Morgenstern, Nelda M Garcia, Susan Tower, Devin L Brown
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Our aim was to characterize the objective measures of post-ICH SDB and questionnaire-reported pre-ICH sleep characteristics, overall and by ethnicity. PATIENTS/METHODS: Participants with ICH who were enrolled in the population-based Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi project (2010-2016) reported their pre-ICH sleep duration and completed the Berlin Questionnaire to characterize pre-ICH risk of SDB...
June 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772418/differences-between-manual-and-automatic-analysis-in-determining-the-severity-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-using-home-sleep-apnea-testing
#11
Gonzalo Labarca, Jorge Dreyse, Constanza Salas, Andrea Contreras, Gonzalo Nazar, Maria I Gaete, Jorge Jorquera
INTRODUCTION: Home sleep apnea testing (HSAT) is a diagnostic measure for obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) in moderate/high risk patients. Some HSAT companies contain automatic analysis (AA). However, guidelines recommend manual analysis (MA) despite the weak evidence for this recommendation. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the concordance between AA and MA of HSAT to make either a diagnosis and severity classification. METHODS: We evaluated AA and MA of HSAT between 2015 and 2016...
April 7, 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772398/molecular-epidemiology-and-characterization-of-picobirnaviruses-in-small-ruminant-populations-in-india
#12
Yashpal Singh Malik, Shubhankar Sircar, Kuldeep Dhama, Rashmi Singh, Souvik Ghosh, Krisztián Bányai, Anastasia N Vlasova, Touil Nadia, Raj Kumar Singh
Picobirnavirus (PBV) is recognized as a putative cause of diarrhea and respiratory illnesses. Although PBV has been reported in several mammalian (including humans) and avian host species, data pertaining to its presence in small ruminants are limited. We report, here, PBV infection in small ruminants (ovine and caprine), in India. From January 2015 to December 2017, 400 samples were tested for the presence of PBV, using an RT-PCR assay specific for the genome segment-2. The overall rate of PBV infection was 35...
May 14, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772269/a-new-method-for-determining-levels-of-sedation-in-dogs-a-pilot-study-with-propofol-and-a-novel-neuroactive-steroid-anesthetic
#13
B L Youngblood, Y Ueyama, W W Muir, G M Belfort, R H Hammond, J Dai, F G Salituro, A J Robichaud, J J Doherty
BACKGROUND: Different levels of consciousness are required in order to perform different medical procedures. Sedation scales established to objectively define various levels of sedation in humans have not been thoroughly characterized in non-human species. Postural changes in rats or dogs are useful as gross measures of sedation but are inadequate for quantitative assessment since graded levels of sedation are difficult to delineate and obscured by movement abnormalities. NEW METHOD: A new canine sedation scoring (CSS) method was developed based on the modified observer's assessment of alertness and sedation score (MOAA/S) used in humans...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772254/effect-of-interferon-alpha-and-cyclosporine-treatment-separately-and-in-combination-on-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-replication-in-a-human-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-culture-model
#14
H S Li, Denise I T Kuok, M C Cheung, Mandy M T Ng, K C Ng, Kenrie P Y Hui, J S Malik Peiris, Michael C W Chan, John M Nicholls
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has emerged as a coronavirus infection of humans in the past 5 years. Though confined to certain geographical regions of the world, infection has been associated with a case fatality rate of 35%, and this mortality may be higher in ventilated patients. As there are few readily available animal models that accurately mimic human disease, it has been a challenge to ethically determine what optimum treatment strategies can be used for this disease. We used in-vitro and human ex-vivo explant cultures to investigate the effect of two immunomodulatory agents, interferon alpha and cyclosporine, singly and in combination, on MERS-CoV replication...
May 14, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771945/comparison-of-incidence-and-cost-of-influenza-between-healthy-and-high-risk-children-60-months-old-in-thailand-2011-2015
#15
Wanitchaya Kittikraisak, Piyarat Suntarattiwong, Wiboon Kanjanapattanakul, Darunee Ditsungnoen, Chonticha Klungthong, Kim A Lindblade, Stefan Fernandez, Fatimah S Dawood, Tawee Chotpitayasunondh, Sonja J Olsen
INTRODUCTION: Thailand recommends influenza vaccination for children aged 6 months to <36 months, but investment in vaccine purchase is limited. To inform policy decision with respect to influenza disease burden and associated cost in young children and to support the continued inclusion of children as the recommended group for influenza vaccination, we conducted a prospective cohort study of children in Bangkok hospital to estimate and compare influenza incidence and cost between healthy and high-risk children...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771730/vagal-mediation-of-low-frequency-heart-rate-variability-during-slow-yogic-breathing
#16
Bryan W Kromenacker, Anna A Sanova, Frank I Marcus, John J B Allen, Richard D Lane
OBJECTIVE: Changes in heart rate variability (HRV) associated with breathing (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) are known to be parasympathetically (vagally) mediated when the breathing rate is within the typical frequency range (9-24 breaths/min; high frequency HRV). Slow yogic breathing occurs at rates below this range and increases low frequency HRV power, which may additionally reflect a significant sympathetic component. Yogic breathing techniques are hypothesized to confer health benefits by increasing cardiac vagal control, but increases in low frequency HRV power cannot unambiguously distinguish sympathetic from parasympathetic contributions...
May 16, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771574/is-adding-maternal-vaccination-to-prevent-whooping-cough-cost-effective-in-australia
#17
Laure-Anne Van Bellinghen, Alex Dimitroff, Michael Haberl, Xiao Li, Andrew Manton, Karen Moeremans, Nadia Demarteau
Pertussis or whooping cough, a highly infectious respiratory infection, causes significant morbidity and mortality in infants. In adolescents and adults, pertussis presents with atypical symptoms often resulting in under-diagnosis and under-reporting, increasing the risk of transmission to more vulnerable groups. Maternal vaccination against pertussis protects mothers and newborns. This evaluation assessed the cost-effectiveness of adding maternal dTpa (reduced antigen diphtheria, Tetanus, acellular pertussis) vaccination to the 2016 nationally-funded pertussis program (DTPa [Diphtheria, Tetanus, acellular Pertussis] at 2, 4, 6, 18 months, 4 years and dTpa at 12-13 years) in Australia...
May 17, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770120/multiparametric-analysis-of-sniff-nasal-inspiratory-pressure-test-in-middle-stage-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#18
Antonio Sarmento, Andrea Aliverti, Layana Marques, Francesca Pennati, Mario Emílio Dourado-Júnior, Guilherme Fregonezi, Vanessa Resqueti
The relaxation rates and contractile properties of inspiratory muscles are altered with inspiratory muscle weakness and fatigue. This fact plays an important role in neuromuscular disorders patients and had never been extensively studied in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this cross-sectional study, these parameters were investigated non-invasively through nasal inspiratory sniff pressure test (SNIP) in 39 middle stage spinal onset ALS subjects and compared with 39 healthy controls. ALS patients were also divided into three subgroups according to a decline in their percentage of predicted forced vital capacity (FVC%pred ) as well as a decline in the ALS functional rating scale score and its respiratory subscore (R-subscore) in order to determine the best parameter linked to early respiratory muscle weakness...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769828/the-effect-of-half-time-re-warm-up-duration-on-intermittent-sprint-performance
#19
Takuma Yanaoka, Kyoko Kashiwabara, Yuta Masuda, Jumpei Yamagami, Kuran Kurata, Shun Takagi, Masashi Miyashita, Norikazu Hirose
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of different durations of half-time re-warm up (RW) on intermittent sprint performance. Using a randomized crossover design, 13 healthy men performed three trials, which consisted of two, 40-min intermittent exercises separated by a 15-min half-time. Half-time interventions were 15 min of seated rest (Control), 7 min of cycling at 70% of maximal heart rate (HRmax ) (7 min RW), and 3 min of cycling at 70% of HRmax (3 min RW). The second 40-min intermittent exercise as an exercise performance test was the Cycling Intermittent-Sprint Protocol (CISP), which consisted of 10 s of rest, 5 s of maximal sprint, and 105 s of low-intensity exercise at 50% of VO2max , with the cycles repeated over the 40-min duration...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769827/effects-of-a-4-week-very-low-carbohydrate-diet-on-high-intensity-interval-training-responses
#20
Lukas Cipryan, Daniel J Plews, Alessandro Ferretti, Phil B Maffetone, Paul B Laursen
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of altering from habitual mixed Western-based (HD) to a very low-carbohydrate high-fat (VLCHF) diet over a 4-week timecourse on performance and physiological responses during high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Eighteen moderately trained males (age 23.8 ± 2.1 years) consuming their HD (48 ± 13% carbohydrate, 17 ± 3% protein, 35 ± 9% fat) were assigned to 2 groups. One group was asked to remain on their HD, while the other was asked to switch to a non-standardized VLCHF diet (8 ± 3% carbohydrate, 29 ± 15% protein, 63 ± 13% fat) for 4 weeks...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
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