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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103121/comparison-of-helicopter-emergency-medical-services-transport-types-and-delays-on-patient-outcomes-at-two-level-i-trauma-centers
#1
Brodie Nolan, Homer Tien, Bruce Sawadsky, Sandro Rizoli, Amanda McFarlan, Andrea Phillips, Alun Ackery
BACKGROUND: Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) have become an engrained component of trauma systems. In Ontario, transportation for trauma patients is through one of three ways: scene call, modified scene call, or interfacility transfer. We hypothesize that differences exist between these types of transports in both patient demographics and patient outcomes. This study compares the characteristics of patients transported by each of these methods to two level 1 trauma centers and assesses for any impact on morbidity or mortality...
January 19, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095957/point-of-care-ultrasound-utility-and-potential-for-high-altitude-crew-recovery-missions
#2
Laura A Galdamez, Jonathan B Clark, Erik L Antonsen
INTRODUCTION: Flights to high altitude can lead to exposure and unique pathology not seen in normal commercial aviation. METHODS: This paper assesses the potential for point-of-care ultrasound to aid in management and disposition of injured crewmembers from a high altitude incident. This was accomplished through a systematic literature review regarding current diagnostic and therapeutic uses of ultrasound for injuries expected in high altitude free fall and parachuting...
February 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095954/predicting-air-quality-at-first-ingress-into-vehicles-visiting-the-international-space-station
#3
Amelia A Romoser, Robert R Scully, Thomas F Limero, Vanessa De Vera, Patti F Cheng, Jennifer J Hand, John T James, Valerie E Ryder
INTRODUCTION: NASA regularly performs ground-based offgas tests (OGTs), which allow prediction of accumulated volatile pollutant concentrations at first entry on orbit, on whole modules and vehicles scheduled to connect to the International Space Station (ISS). These data guide crew safety operations and allow for estimation of ISS air revitalization systems impact from additional pollutant load. Since volatiles released from vehicle, module, and payload materials can affect crew health and performance, prediction of first ingress air quality is important...
February 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077767/what-north-america-s-skeleton-crew-of-megafauna-tells-us-about-community-disassembly
#4
Matt Davis
Functional trait diversity is increasingly used to model future changes in community structure despite a poor understanding of community disassembly's effects on functional diversity. By tracking the functional diversity of the North American large mammal fauna through the End-Pleistocene megafaunal extinction and up to the present, I show that contrary to expectations, functionally unique species are no more likely to go extinct than functionally redundant species. This makes total functional richness loss no worse than expected given similar taxonomic richness declines...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077609/travellers-and-influenza-risks-and-prevention
#5
REVIEW
M Goeijenbier, P van Genderen, B J Ward, A Wilder-Smith, R Steffen, A D M E Osterhaus
BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses are among the major causes of serious human respiratory tract infection worldwide. In line with the high disease burden attributable to influenza, these viruses play an important, but often neglected, role in travel medicine. Guidelines and recommendations regarding prevention and management of influenza in travellers are scarce. Of special interest for travel medicine are risk populations and also circumstances that facilitate influenza virus transmission and spread, like travel by airplane or cruise ship and mass gatherings...
January 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077280/engineering-out-the-noise
#6
Kurt Yankaskas, Raymond Fischer, Jesse Spence, Jeff Komrower
The US Navy, through an Office of Naval Research (ONR) lead effort on Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL), is investigating methods and techniques to mitigate hearing loss for the crews and warfighters. Hearing protection is a viable and increasingly popular method of reducing hearing exposure for many ship crewmembers; however, it has limitations on comfort and low frequency effectiveness. Furthermore, Personal Hearing Protection (PHP) is often used improperly. Proper vessel planning, programmatic changes and advances in noise control engineering can also have significant impacts by inherently reducing noise exposure through ship design and use of noise control treatments...
January 7, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067826/secondary-metabolites-from-the-marine-sponge-genus-phyllospongia
#7
REVIEW
Huawei Zhang, Menglian Dong, Hong Wang, Phillip Crews
Phyllospongia, one of the most common marine sponges in tropical and subtropical oceans, has been shown to be a prolific producer of natural products with a broad spectrum of biological activities. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of secondary metabolites produced by Phyllospongia spp. over the 37 years from 1980 to 2016.
January 6, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065200/testing-the-start-triage-protocol-can-it-improve-the-ability-of-nonmedical-personnel-to-better-triage-patients-during-disasters-and-mass-casualties-incidents
#8
Stefano Badiali, Aimone Giugni, Lucia Marcis
OBJECTIVE: START (Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment) triage is a tool that is available even to nonmedical rescue personnel in case of a disaster or mass casualty incident (MCI). In Italy, no data are available on whether application of the START protocol could improve patient outcomes during a disaster or MCI. We aimed to address whether "last-minute" START training of nonmedical personnel during a disaster or MCI would result in more effective triage of patients. METHODS: In this case-control study, 400 nonmedical ambulance crew members were randomly assigned to a non-START or a START group (200 per group)...
January 9, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056873/chronic-kidney-disease-and-risk-factor-prevalence-in-saint-kitts-and-nevis-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Deidra C Crews, Kirk N Campbell, Yang Liu, Odell Bussue, Ingrid Dawkins, Bessie A Young
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in St. Kitts and Nevis, islands of the West Indies, is unknown. We sought to determine estimates of CKD and its risk factors (e.g. diabetes, hypertension and obesity) in St. Kitts and Nevis. METHODS: This was a chronic disease screening program. Three community-based locations in St. Kitts and Nevis were included in the program. Participants were adult community residents aged ≥18 years. The main outcome measures were estimated CKD prevalence (by serum creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and dipstick urine albumin); and estimated prevalence of CKD risk factors (diabetes, hypertension and obesity)...
January 5, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055220/incident-diagnoses-of-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-active-component-u-s-armed-forces-2005-2014
#10
Terrence Lee, Stephen B Taubman, Valerie F Williams
From 1 January 2005 through 31 December 2014, a total of 8,819 incident diagnoses of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (incidence rate 64.6 cases per 100,000 person-years [p-yrs]) were documented in the health records of 6,670 active component service members. During the surveillance period, there was a very slight decrease in the annual crude incidence rates of NMSC; rates of NMSC peaked in 2007 (68.3 cases per 100,000 p-yrs) and were at their lowest in 2013 (60.4 cases per 100,000 p-yrs). Increasing age was associated with increased risk of NMSC...
December 2016: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045400/the-ominous-triad-of-adipose-tissue-dysfunction-inflammation-fibrosis-and-impaired-angiogenesis
#11
Clair Crewe, Yu Aaron An, Philipp E Scherer
There are three dominant contributors to the pathogenesis of dysfunctional adipose tissue (AT) in obesity: unresolved inflammation, inappropriate extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and insufficient angiogenic potential. The interactions of these processes during AT expansion reflect both a linear progression as well as feed-forward mechanisms. For example, both inflammation and inadequate angiogenic remodeling can drive fibrosis, which can in turn promote migration of immune cells into adipose depots and impede further angiogenesis...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042144/novel-bet-protein-proteolysis-targeting-chimera-bet-protac-exerts-superior-lethal-activity-than-bromodomain-inhibitor-beti-against-post-myeloproliferative-neoplasm-mpn-secondary-s-aml-cells
#12
D T Saenz, W Fiskus, Y Qian, T Manshouri, K Rajapakshe, K Raina, K G Coleman, A P Crew, A Shen, C P Mill, B Sun, P Qiu, T M Kadia, N Pemmaraju, C DiNardo, M-S Kim, A J Nowak, C Coarfa, C M Crews, S Verstovsek, K N Bhalla
The PROTAC (proteolysis-targeting chimera) ARV-825 recruits bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins to the E3 ubiquitin ligase cereblon, leading to degradation of BET proteins, including BRD4. Whereas the BET-protein inhibitor (BETi) OTX015 caused accumulation of BRD4, treatment with equimolar concentrations of ARV-825 caused sustained and profound depletion (>90%) of BRD4 and induced significantly more apoptosis in cultured and patient-derived (PD) CD34+ post-MPN sAML cells, while relatively sparing the CD34+ normal hematopoietic progenitor cells...
January 2, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034852/screening-women-with-ckd-for-the-emperor-of-all-maladies
#13
EDITORIAL
Deidra C Crews, Waseem Khaliq
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027558/cognitive-evoked-potentials-p300-after-radiation-exposure
#14
K M Loganovsky, K V Kuts
OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed at evaluating features of brain information processes and cognitive functioning in the remote period after irradiation due to the Chornobyl accident by using cognitive evoked potentials P300. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 128 people, 112 male Chornobyl clean up workers in 1986-1987 with the records of radiation doses available in Clinical and Epidemiological Registry (CER) of State Institution «National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine» (NRCRM) (study group) and 16 unexposed persons due to the Chornobyl disaster (control group)...
December 2016: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025901/the-bottom-of-the-universe-flat-earth-science-in-the-age-of-encounter
#15
James J Allegro
This essay challenges the dominance of the spherical earth model in fifteenth- and early-sixteenth-century Western European thought. It examines parallel strains of Latin and vernacular writing that cast doubt on the existence of the southern hemisphere. Three factors shaped the alternate accounts of the earth as a plane and disk put forward by these sources: (1) the unsettling effects of maritime expansion on scientific thought; (2) the revival of interest in early Christian criticism of the spherical earth; and (3) a rigid empirical stance toward entities too large to observe in their entirety, including the earth...
December 1, 2016: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011758/ambulance-telephone-triage-using-nhs-pathways-to-identify-adult-cardiac-arrest
#16
Charles D Deakin, Simon England, Debbie Diffey
BACKGROUND: UK ambulance services are called to 30 000 cardiac arrests (CAs) annually where resuscitation is attempted. Correct identification by the ambulance service trebles survival by facilitating bystander-cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and immediate ambulance dispatch. Identification of CA by telephone is challenging and involves algorithms to identify key features. 'NHS Pathways' is now used for triage by six of 12 UK ambulance services, covering a population of 20 million...
December 23, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009388/acute-gastrointestinal-haemorrhage-on-board-a-cruise-ship-in-the-antarctic-peninsula
#17
Mathieu Carron, Peter Globokar, Bruno A Sicard
Antarctic tourism on board cruise ships has expanded since the 1990s, essentially in the Antarctic Peninsula. Due to remoteness, medical cases may evolve into life threatening conditions as emergency medical evacuations are challenging. We discuss the case of a young crew member who suddenly fainted with an epigastric pain and abundant rectal bleeding while on board a cruise ship heading to the Deception Island (62°57.6 South, 60°29.5 West), 44 h away from Ushuaia by sea. A medical evacuation was necessary to save the patient whose haemoglobin level rapidly decreased from 11 g/dL to 8...
2016: International Maritime Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004396/the-absorption-kinetics-of-ketoconazole-plays-a-major-role-in-explaining-the-reported-variability-in-the-level-of-interaction-with-midazolam-exploring-the-interplay-between-formulation-and-inhibition-of-gut-wall-and-liver-metabolism-by-using-different-doses
#18
Bo Liu, H Kim Crewe, Mahmut Ozdemir, Karen Rowland Yeo, Geoffrey Tucker, Amin Rostami-Hodjegan
The impact of different single oral doses of ketoconazole (KTZ) (100, 200 and 400 mg) and of staggering its dosage (400 mg at -12, -2, 0, 2 and 4 h), with respect to the administration of a single 5 mg oral dose of midazolam (MDZ) on the extent of inhibition of the metabolism of the latter, was evaluated in healthy subjects in two separate studies. Escalation of KTZ dosage resulted in 2.3- (1.9), 2.7- (1.7) and 4.2- (2.5) fold increases in the mean AUC(0,12 h) (and Cmax ) values of MDZ. Dose-staggering was associated with 3...
December 21, 2016: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998314/resilient-microorganisms-in-dust-samples-of-the-international-space-station-survival-of-the-adaptation-specialists
#19
Maximilian Mora, Alexandra Perras, Tatiana A Alekhova, Lisa Wink, Robert Krause, Alina Aleksandrova, Tatiana Novozhilova, Christine Moissl-Eichinger
BACKGROUND: The International Space Station (ISS) represents a unique biotope for the human crew but also for introduced microorganisms. Microbes experience selective pressures such as microgravity, desiccation, poor nutrient-availability due to cleaning, and an increased radiation level. We hypothesized that the microbial community inside the ISS is modified by adapting to these stresses. For this reason, we analyzed 8-12 years old dust samples from Russian ISS modules with major focus on the long-time surviving portion of the microbial community...
December 20, 2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997306/ergonomic-assessment-of-selected-workstations-on-a-merchant-ship
#20
Agata Krystosik-Gromadzińska
In this study, we describe some of the key ergonomic factors within the engine room, the navigation bridge, and other locations of a merchant ship. Ergonomic assessments were carried out on a crew of a merchant ship. This study examines the importance of factors such as noise, vibration, heat radiation (in machinery areas), psychological stress and the ergonomics of the physical arrangement of the navigation bridge. It also addresses the effect of working in confined areas for a long duration and the need to process large amounts of data, decision making, and the influence of specific operating conditions in different areas of a ship...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
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