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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435494/the-efficacy-of-lucas-in-prehospital-cardiac-arrest-scenarios-a-crossover-mannequin-study
#1
Robert A Gyory, Scott E Buchle, David Rodgers, Jeffrey S Lubin
INTRODUCTION: High-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is critical for successful cardiac arrest outcomes. Mechanical devices may improve CPR quality. We simulated a prehospital cardiac arrest, including patient transport, and compared the performance of the LUCAS™ device, a mechanical chest compression-decompression system, to manual CPR. We hypothesized that because of the movement involved in transporting the patient, LUCAS would provide chest compressions more consistent with high-quality CPR guidelines...
April 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427424/microglial-depletion-alters-the-brain-neuroimmune-response-to-acute-binge-ethanol-withdrawal
#2
T Jordan Walter, Fulton T Crews
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have implicated microglia-the resident immune cells of the brain-in the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Indeed, post-mortem alcoholic brains show increased microglial markers and increased immune gene expression; however, the effects of ethanol on microglial functioning and how this impacts the brain remain unclear. In this present study, we investigate the effects of acute binge ethanol on microglia and how microglial depletion changes the brain neuroimmune response to acute binge ethanol withdrawal...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426257/facial-eschar-following-a-single-application-of-black-salve
#3
Dayne Laskey, Midori Tran
A previously healthy 86-year-old male was transported by ambulance to the trauma bay of the emergency department (ED) for profuse bleeding from the left temple. The ambulance crew raised concern that the volume and force of the bleed may suggest arterial involvement. The patient reported having applied a natural topical remedy to a mole two weeks prior at the recommendation of a naturopath. The patient described progressive blackening and swelling of the area in the days following the single application of the product...
April 20, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420688/can-a-partnership-between-general-practitioners-and-ambulance-services-reduce-conveyance-to-emergency-care
#4
Manuel Villarreal, Jonathan Leach, Kandala Ngianga-Bakwin, Jeremy Dale
BACKGROUND: Emergency services are facing increasing workload pressures, and new models of care are needed. We evaluate the impact of a service development involving a partnership between emergency ambulance crews and general practitioners (GPs) on reducing conveyance rates to the Hospital Emergency Department (ED). METHODS: The service model was implemented in the West Midlands of England. Call handlers identified patients with needs that could be addressed by a GP using locally agreed criteria...
April 18, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417888/general-concepts-of-patient-safety-for-the-oral-and-maxillofacial-surgeon
#5
REVIEW
David W Todd
Whether managing patients in private offices or as part of a care team at hospitals, oral and maxillofacial surgeons owe it to patients to understand medical error and take action to reduce its frequency and adverse effects. This article reviews general concepts of patient safety, including high-reliability organization, crew resource management, simulation training, root cause analysis, and just culture.
May 2017: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417838/transferring-aviation-practices-into-clinical-medicine-for-the-promotion-of-high-reliability
#6
Nicole Powell-Dunford, Mark K McPherson, Joseph S Pina, Steven J Gaydos
BACKGROUND: Aviation is a classic example of a high reliability organization (HRO)-an organization in which catastrophic events are expected to occur without control measures. As health care systems transition toward high reliability, aviation practices are increasingly transferred for clinical implementation. METHODS: A PubMed search using the terms aviation, crew resource management, and patient safety was undertaken. Manuscripts authored by physician pilots and accident investigation regulations were analyzed...
May 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417837/flight-crew-workload-evaluation-based-on-the-workload-function-distribution-method
#7
Yiyuan Zheng, Yanyu Lu, Yuwen Jie, Shan Fu
BACKGROUND: The minimum flight crew on the flight deck should be established according to the workload for individual crewmembers. Typical workload measures consist of three types: subjective rating scale, task performance, and psychophysiological measures. However, all these measures have their own limitations. To reflect flight crew workload more specifically and comprehensively within the flight environment, and more directly comply with airworthiness regulations, the Workload Function Distribution Method, which combined the basic six workload functions, was proposed...
May 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417252/effects-of-parental-monitoring-and-knowledge-on-substance-use-and-hiv-risk-behaviors-among-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men-results-from-three-studies
#8
Brian Mustanski, Gregory Swann, Michael E Newcomb, Nikhil Prachand
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS and have elevated rates of substance use. Parenting practices, such as knowledge of child whereabouts and monitoring of behavioral rules, protect against these outcomes among heterosexual youth. This article examined the relationship between these parenting practices and substance use and HIV risk behaviors among YMSM. Data are reported from three similar studies of YMSM: ChiGuys (ages 14-18), Crew 450 (ages 16-22), and RADAR (ages 16-29)...
April 17, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416802/rna-editing-dependent-epitranscriptome-diversity-in-cancer-stem-cells
#9
REVIEW
Qingfei Jiang, Leslie A Crews, Frida Holm, Catriona H M Jamieson
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) can regenerate all facets of a tumour as a result of their stem cell-like capacity to self-renew, survive and become dormant in protective microenvironments. CSCs evolve during tumour progression in a manner that conforms to Charles Darwin's principle of natural selection. Although somatic DNA mutations and epigenetic alterations promote evolution, post-transcriptional RNA modifications together with RNA binding protein activity (the 'epitranscriptome') might also contribute to clonal evolution through dynamic determination of RNA function and gene expression diversity in response to environmental stimuli...
April 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415855/predicting-jet-lag-in-long-haul-cabin-crew-the-role-of-illness-cognitions-and-behaviour
#10
Cristina Ruscitto, Jane Ogden
OBJECTIVE: Established risk factors for jet lag are mostly physiological including circadian preference, age, gender, the number of flight zones crossed and to some extent direction of travel. Some research has also highlighted a role for psychosocial factors including sleep, diet and 'circadian' health behaviours and illness cognitions although this remains relatively untested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of sleep, diet and illness cognitions in predicting perceived jet lag amongst long-haul crew...
April 18, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400716/evaluation-of-the-display-of-cognitive-state-feedback-to-drive-adaptive-task-sharing
#11
Michael C Dorneich, Břetislav Passinger, Christopher Hamblin, Claudia Keinrath, Jiři Vašek, Stephen D Whitlow, Martijn Beekhuyzen
This paper presents an adaptive system intended to address workload imbalances between pilots in future flight decks. Team performance can be maximized when task demands are balanced within crew capabilities and resources. Good communication skills enable teams to adapt to changes in workload, and include the balancing of workload between team members This work addresses human factors priorities in the aviation domain with the goal to develop concepts that balance operator workload, support future operator roles and responsibilities, and support new task requirements, while allowing operators to focus on the most safety critical tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397649/support-and-assessment-for-fall-emergency-referrals-safer-2-a-cluster-randomised-trial-and-systematic-review-of-clinical-effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-new-protocols-for-emergency-ambulance-paramedics-to-assess-older-people-following-a-fall-with-referral
#12
Helen A Snooks, Rebecca Anthony, Robin Chatters, Jeremy Dale, Rachael Fothergill, Sarah Gaze, Mary Halter, Ioan Humphreys, Marina Koniotou, Phillipa Logan, Ronan Lyons, Suzanne Mason, Jon Nicholl, Julie Peconi, Ceri Phillips, Judith Phillips, Alison Porter, A Niroshan Siriwardena, Graham Smith, Alun Toghill, Mushtaq Wani, Alan Watkins, Richard Whitfield, Lynsey Wilson, Ian T Russell
BACKGROUND: Emergency calls are frequently made to ambulance services for older people who have fallen, but ambulance crews often leave patients at the scene without any ongoing care. We evaluated a new clinical protocol which allowed paramedics to assess older people who had fallen and, if appropriate, refer them to community-based falls services. OBJECTIVES: To compare outcomes, processes and costs of care between intervention and control groups; and to understand factors which facilitate or hinder use...
March 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395095/comparison-of-inflight-first-aid-performed-by-cabin-crew-members-and-medical-volunteers
#13
Jung Ha Kim, Smi Choi-Kwon, Young Hwan Park
Background: Since the number of air travellers, including the elderly and passengers with an underlying disease, is increasing every year, the number of inflight emergency patients is expected to increase as well. We attempted to identify the incidence and types of reported inflight medical incidents and analyse the first aid performed by cabin crew members or medical volunteers in flights by an Asian airline. We also investigated the cases of inflight deaths and aircraft diversions. Methods: We reviewed the cabin reports and medical records submitted by cabin crew members and inflight medical volunteers from 2009 to 2013...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391127/the-role-of-spatially-derived-access-to-care-characteristics-in-melanoma-prevention-and-control-in-los-angeles-county
#14
Loraine A Escobedo, Ashley Crew, Ariana Eginli, David Peng, Michael R Cousineau, Myles Cockburn
Among 10,068 incident cases of invasive melanoma, we examined the effects of patient characteristics and access-to-care on the risk of advanced melanoma. Access-to-care was defined in terms of census tract-level sociodemographics, health insurance, cost of dermatological services and appointment wait-times, clinic density and travel distance. Public health insurance and education level were the strongest predictors of advanced melanomas but were modified by race/ethnicity and poverty: Hispanic whites and high-poverty neighborhoods were worse off than non-Hispanic whites and low-poverty neighborhoods...
April 5, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388892/self-administered-physical-exercise-training-as-treatment-of-neck-and-shoulder-pain-among-military-helicopter-pilots-and-crew-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Mike Murray, Britt Lange, Bo Riebeling Nørnberg, Karen Søgaard, Gisela Sjøgaard
BACKGROUND: Neck pain is frequent among military helicopter pilots and crew-members, and pain may influence individual health and work performance. The aim of this study was to examine if an exercise intervention could reduce neck pain among helicopter pilots and crew-members. METHODS: Thirty-one pilots and thirty-eight crew-members were randomized to either an exercise-training-group (n = 35) or a reference-group (n = 34). The exercise-training-group received 20-weeks of specific neck/shoulder training...
April 7, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374813/predictors-of-progression-in-barrett-s-esophagus-with-low-grade-dysplasia-results-from-a-multicenter-prospective-be-registry
#16
Rajesh Krishnamoorthi, Jason T Lewis, Murli Krishna, Nicholas J Crews, Michele L Johnson, Ross A Dierkhising, Brenda F Ginos, Kenneth K Wang, Herbert C Wolfsen, David E Fleischer, Francisco C Ramirez, Navtej S Buttar, David A Katzka, Prasad G Iyer
OBJECTIVES: Low-grade dysplasia (LGD) is a risk factor for progression in Barrett's esophagus (BE). Progression estimates however vary and predictors of progression are not well established. We aimed to assess predictors of progression in a multicenter BE-LGD cohort. METHODS: All subjects with LGD (diagnosed by a GI pathologist) in a prospective BE registry were identified. Progression was defined development of HGD/EAC more than 12 months after index date of LGD diagnosis...
April 4, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367796/contact-investigation-after-a-fatal-case-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-xdr-tb-in-an-aircraft-germany-july-2013
#17
Maria An der Heiden, Barbara Hauer, Lena Fiebig, Gisela Glaser-Paschke, Markus Stemmler, Claudia Simon, Sabine Rüsch-Gerdes, Andreas Gilsdorf, Walter Haas
In July 2013, a passenger died of infectious extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) on board of an aircraft after a 3-hour flight from Turkey to Germany. Initial information indicated the patient had moved about the aircraft coughing blood. We thus aimed to contact and inform all persons exposed within the aircraft and to test them for newly acquired TB infection. Two-stage testing within 8 weeks from exposure and at least 8 weeks after exposure was suggested, using either interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) or tuberculin skin test (TST)...
March 23, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353633/another-look-at-pyrroloiminoquinone-alkaloids-perspectives-on-their-therapeutic-potential-from-known-structures-and-semisynthetic-analogues
#18
Sheng Lin, Erin P McCauley, Nicholas Lorig-Roach, Karen Tenney, Cassandra N Naphen, Ai-Mei Yang, Tyler A Johnson, Thalia Hernadez, Ramandeep Rattan, Frederick A Valeriote, Phillip Crews
This study began with the goal of identifying constituents from Zyzzya fuliginosa extracts that showed selectivity in our primary cytotoxicity screen against the PANC-1 tumor cell line. During the course of this project, which focused on six Z. fuliginosa samples collected from various regions of the Indo-Pacific, known compounds were obtained consisting of nine makaluvamine and three damirone analogues. Four new acetylated derivatives were also prepared. High-accuracy electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HAESI-MS) m/z ions produced through MS² runs were obtained and interpreted to provide a rapid way for dereplicating isomers containing a pyrrolo[4,3,2-de]quinoline core...
March 29, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340597/temporal-dynamics-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-people-sharing-a-confined-environment-a-520-day-ground-based-space-simulation-mars500
#19
Silvia Turroni, Simone Rampelli, Elena Biagi, Clarissa Consolandi, Marco Severgnini, Clelia Peano, Sara Quercia, Matteo Soverini, Franck G Carbonero, Giovanna Bianconi, Petra Rettberg, Francesco Canganella, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela
BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbial communities and their temporal dynamics are gaining increasing interest due to the significant implications for human health. Recent studies have shown the dynamic behavior of the gut microbiota in free-living, healthy persons. To date, it is not known whether these dynamics are applicable during prolonged life sharing in a confined and controlled environment. RESULTS: The MARS500 project, the longest ground-based space simulation ever, provided us with a unique opportunity to trace the crew microbiota over 520 days of isolated confinement, such as that faced by astronauts in real long-term interplanetary space flights, and after returning to regular life, for a total of 2 years...
March 24, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339702/subclinical-chronic-left-ventricular-systolic-dysfunction-resulting-from-phosphine-poisoning
#20
E Szymczyk, M Wiszniewska, J Walusiak-Skorupa, J D Kasprzak, P Lipiec
We present a case of a 32-year-old male crew member of a cargo ship, accidentally exposed to phosphine, a fumigating substance. He and other crew members developed increasing fatigue and digestive disorders 24 h later; two died from acute pulmonary oedema. The patient was admitted to hospital, where bilateral pneumonia, acute nephritis, hepatopathy, electrolyte imbalance and leucopenia were diagnosed. He was discharged from hospital 3 weeks later. He was examined 4 months later for possible chronic consequences of acute phosphine poisoning, which included echocardiography showing normal heart size and cardiac function...
February 21, 2017: Occupational Medicine
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