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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088643/molecular-mechanisms-of-bio-catalysis-of-heme-extraction-from-hemoglobin
#1
Serzhan Sakipov, Olga Rafikova, Maria G Kurnikova, Ruslan Rafikov
Red blood cell hemolysis in sickle cell disease (SCD) releases free hemoglobin. Extracellular hemoglobin and its degradation products, free heme and iron, are highly toxic due to oxidative stress induction and decrease in nitric oxide availability. We propose an approach that helps to eliminate extracellular hemoglobin toxicity in SCD by employing a bacterial protein system that evolved to extract heme from extracellular hemoglobin. NEAr heme Transporter (NEAT) domains from iron-regulated surface determinant proteins from Staphylococcus aureus specifically bind free heme as well as facilitate its extraction from hemoglobin...
January 7, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088239/towards-interruption-of-schistosomiasis-transmission-in-sub-saharan-africa-developing-an-appropriate-environmental-surveillance-framework-to-guide-and-to-support-end-game-interventions
#2
REVIEW
J Russell Stothard, Suzy J Campbell, Mike Y Osei-Atweneboana, Timothy Durant, Michelle C Stanton, Nana-Kwadwo Biritwum, David Rollinson, Dieudonné R Eloundou Ombede, Louis-Albert Tchuem-Tchuenté
Schistosomiasis is a waterborne parasitic disease in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly common in rural populations living in impoverished conditions. With the scale-up of preventive chemotherapy, national campaigns will transition from morbidity- to transmission-focused interventions thus formal investigation of actual or expected declines in environmental transmission is needed as 'end game' scenarios arise. Surprisingly, there are no international or national guidelines to do so in sub-Saharan Africa. Our article therefore provides an introduction to key practicalities and pitfalls in the development of an appropriate environmental surveillance framework...
January 14, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081056/guidance-for-assessment-of-poliovirus-vaccination-status-and-vaccination-of-children-who-have-received-poliovirus-vaccine-outside-the-united-states
#3
Mona Marin, Manisha Patel, Steve Oberste, Mark A Pallansch
In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis (polio). Since then, wild poliovirus (WPV) cases have declined by >99.9%, from an estimated 350,000 cases of polio each year to 74 cases in two countries in 2015 (1). This decrease was achieved primarily through the use of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV), which contains types 1, 2, and 3 live, attenuated polioviruses. Since 2000, the United States has exclusively used inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), which contains all three poliovirus types (2,3)...
January 13, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079758/concussion-in-ice-hockey-current-gaps-and-future-directions-in-an-objective-diagnosis
#4
Aynsley M Smith, Michael J Stuart, William O Roberts, David W Dodick, Jonathan T Finnoff, Janelle K Jorgensen, David A Krause
OBJECTIVE: This review provides an update on sport-related concussion (SRC) in ice hockey and makes a case for changes in clinical concussion evaluation. Standard practice should require that concussions be objectively diagnosed and provide quantitative measures of the concussion injury that will serve as a platform for future evidence-based treatment. METHODS: The literature was surveyed to address several concussion-related topics: research in ice hockey-related head trauma, current subjective diagnosis, promising components of an objective diagnosis, and current and potential treatments...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079584/the-development-and-implementation-of-cognitive-aids-for-critical-events-in-pediatric-anesthesia-the-society-for-pediatric-anesthesia-critical-events-checklists
#5
Anna Clebone, Barbara K Burian, Scott C Watkins, Jorge A Gálvez, Justin L Lockman, Eugenie S Heitmiller
Cognitive aids such as checklists are commonly used in modern operating rooms for routine processes, and the use of such aids may be even more important during critical events. The Quality and Safety Committee of the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia (SPA) has developed a set of critical-event checklists and cognitive aids designed for 3 purposes: (1) as a repository of the latest evidence-based and expert opinion-based information to guide response and management of critical events, (2) as a source of just-in-time information during critical events, and (3) as a method to facilitate a shared understanding of required actions among team members during a critical event...
January 10, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079304/localized-measurements-of-physical-parameters-within-human-sperm-cells-obtained-with-wide-field-interferometry
#6
Michal Balberg, Mattan Levi, Ksawery Kalinowski, Itay Barnea, Simcha K Mirsky, Natan T Shaked
We developed a new method to identify the separate cellular compartments in the optical path delay (OPD) maps of un-labeled spermatozoa. This was conducted by comparing OPD maps of fixed, un-labeled spermatozoa to bright field images of the same cells following labeling. The labeling enabled us to identify the acrosomal and nuclear compartments in the corresponding OPD maps of the cells. We then extracted the refractive index maps of fixed cells by dividing the OPD maps of spermatozoa by the corresponding thickness maps of the same cells, obtained with AFM...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078805/three-dimensional-mos2-cnt-rgo-network-composites-for-high-performance-flexible-supercapacitors
#7
Shouzhi Wang, Jiayan Zhu, Yongliang Shao, Weiran Li, Yongzhong Wu, Xiaopeng Hao
Two-dimensional atomically thick materials, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and layered molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) have been potentially investigated as novel energy storage materials because of their distinct physicochemical properties. However, these materials suffer from rapid capacity decay and low rate capability. This study describes a facile binder-free approach to fabricate large-scale 3D network structure MoS2@carbon nanotube (CNT)/RGO composites for application in flexible supercapacitor devices. The as-obtained composites possess a hierarchical porosity and an interconnected framework...
January 11, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078669/maintenance-phase-in-puva-phototherapy-of-early-stage-mycosis-fungoides-a-critically-appraised-topic
#8
REVIEW
V Grandi, C Delfino, A Pileri, N Pimpinelli
A 65-years-old patient affected by mycosis fungoides stage IB achieved complete remission after a cycle of PUVA phototherapy. As suggested by USCLC guidelines(1) , the patient should be kept in maintenance phase, defined as "period of gradual decrease of frequency of UVL while in clinical remission before discontinuation of phototherapy" by slowly tapering the number of PUVA applications over time up to clinical relapse. USCLC also suggest a standardized schedule for maintenance phase (table 1). Alternatively, the patient could end PUVA therapy and go straight to follow up...
January 12, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078566/an-eye-tracking-controlled-neuropsychological-battery-for-cognitive-assessment-in-neurological-diseases
#9
Barbara Poletti, Laura Carelli, Federica Solca, Annalisa Lafronza, Elisa Pedroli, Andrea Faini, Stefano Zago, Nicola Ticozzi, Andrea Ciammola, Claudia Morelli, Paolo Meriggi, Pietro Cipresso, Dorothée Lulé, Albert C Ludolph, Giuseppe Riva, Vincenzo Silani
Traditional cognitive assessment in neurological conditions involving physical disability is often prevented by the presence of verbal-motor impairment; to date, an extensive motor-verbal-free neuropsychological battery is not available for such purposes. We adapted a set of neuropsychological tests, assessing language, attentional abilities, executive functions and social cognition, for eye-tracking (ET) control, and explored its feasibility in a sample of healthy participants. Thirty healthy subjects performed a neuropsychological assessment, using an ET-based neuropsychological battery, together with standard "paper and pencil" cognitive measures for frontal (Frontal Assessment Battery-FAB) and working memory abilities (Digit Sequencing Task) and for global cognitive efficiency (Montreal Cognitive Assessment-MoCA)...
January 11, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078381/celiac-disease-a-clinical-review
#10
Badr Al-Bawardy, D Chamil Codipilly, Alberto Rubio-Tapia, David H Bruining, Stephanie L Hansel, Joseph A Murray
Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated inflammatory enteropathy triggered by gluten exposure in genetically susceptible individuals. It has a high prevalence approaching 1% of the US population. A high index of suspicion is warranted to diagnose CD as frequently patients present with extraintestinal or atypical manifestations. CD is diagnosed by a combination of serum serologies and duodenal biopsies. The majority of patients will respond to a lifelong gluten-free diet which is the cornerstone of therapy...
January 12, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077905/biomedical-scientific-and-professional-social-networks-in-the-service-of-the-development-of-modern-scientific-publishing
#11
Izet Masic, Edin Begic
Information technologies have found their application in virtually every branch of health care. In recent years they have demonstrated their potential in the development of online library, where scientists and researchers can share their latest findings. Academia.edu, ResearchGate, Mendeley, Kudos, with the support of platform GoogleScholar, have indeed increased the visibility of scientific work of one author, and enable a much greater availability of the scientific work to the broader audience. Online libraries have allowed free access to the scientific content to the countries that could not follow the economic costs of getting access to certain scientific bases...
December 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077565/mahmi-database-a-comprehensive-metahit-based-resource-for-the-study-of-the-mechanism-of-action-of-the-human-microbiota
#12
Aitor Blanco-Míguez, Alberto Gutiérrez-Jácome, Florentino Fdez-Riverola, Anália Lourenço, Borja Sánchez
The Mechanism of Action of the Human Microbiome (MAHMI) database is a unique resource that provides comprehensive information about the sequence of potential immunomodulatory and antiproliferative peptides encrypted in the proteins produced by the human gut microbiota. Currently, MAHMI database contains over 300 hundred million peptide entries, with detailed information about peptide sequence, sources and potential bioactivity. The reference peptide data section is curated manually by domain experts. The in silico peptide data section is populated automatically through the systematic processing of publicly available exoproteomes of the human microbiome...
2017: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077404/high-throughput-sequencing-of-the-t-cell-receptor-repertoire-pitfalls-and-opportunities
#13
James M Heather, Mazlina Ismail, Theres Oakes, Benny Chain
T-cell specificity is determined by the T-cell receptor, a heterodimeric protein coded for by an extremely diverse set of genes produced by imprecise somatic gene recombination. Massively parallel high-throughput sequencing allows millions of different T-cell receptor genes to be characterized from a single sample of blood or tissue. However, the extraordinary heterogeneity of the immune repertoire poses significant challenges for subsequent analysis of the data. We outline the major steps in processing of repertoire data, considering low-level processing of raw sequence files and high-level algorithms, which seek to extract biological or pathological information...
January 10, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077324/grk2-as-negative-modulator-of-no-bioavailability-implications-for-cardiovascular-disease
#14
REVIEW
Alessandro Cannavo, Walter J Koch
Nitric oxide (NO), initially identified as endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), is a gaso-transmitter with important regulatory roles in the cardiovascular, nervous and immune systems. In the former, this diatomic molecule and free radical gas controls vascular tone and cardiac mechanics, among others. In the cardiovascular system, it is now understood that β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) activation is a key modulator of NO generation. Therefore, it is not surprising that the up-regulation of G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), in particular GRK2, that restrains βAR activity contributes to impaired cardiovascular functions via alteration of NO bioavailability...
January 7, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077195/evidence-based-medicine-in-the-era-of-social-media-scholarly-engagement-through-participation-and-online-interaction
#15
Teresa Chan, N Seth Trueger, Damian Roland, Brent Thoma
The integration of new knowledge into clinical practice continues to lag behind discovery. The use of Free Open Access Medical education (FOAM) has disrupted communication between emergency physicians, making it easy for practicing clinicians to interact with colleagues from around the world to discuss the latest and highest impact research. FOAM has the potential to decrease the knowledge translation gap, but the concerns raised about its growing influence are 1) research that is translated too quickly may cause harm if its findings are incorrect; 2) there is little editorial oversight of online material; and 3) eminent online individuals may develop an outsized influence on clinical practice...
January 12, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077155/modem-a-comprehensive-approach-to-modelling-outcome-and-costs-impacts-of-interventions-for-dementia-protocol-paper
#16
Adelina Comas-Herrera, Martin Knapp, Raphael Wittenberg, Sube Banerjee, Ann Bowling, Emily Grundy, Carol Jagger, Nicolas Farina, Daniel Lombard, Klara Lorenz, David McDaid
BACKGROUND: The MODEM project (A comprehensive approach to MODelling outcome and costs impacts of interventions for DEMentia) explores how changes in arrangements for the future treatment and care of people living with dementia, and support for family and other unpaid carers, could result in better outcomes and more efficient use of resources. METHODS: MODEM starts with a systematic mapping of the literature on effective and (potentially) cost-effective interventions in dementia care...
January 11, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076709/phase-3-trial-of-177-lu-dotatate-for-midgut-neuroendocrine-tumors
#17
Jonathan Strosberg, Ghassan El-Haddad, Edward Wolin, Andrew Hendifar, James Yao, Beth Chasen, Erik Mittra, Pamela L Kunz, Matthew H Kulke, Heather Jacene, David Bushnell, Thomas M O'Dorisio, Richard P Baum, Harshad R Kulkarni, Martyn Caplin, Rachida Lebtahi, Timothy Hobday, Ebrahim Delpassand, Eric Van Cutsem, Al Benson, Rajaventhan Srirajaskanthan, Marianne Pavel, Jaime Mora, Jordan Berlin, Enrique Grande, Nicholas Reed, Ettore Seregni, Kjell Öberg, Maribel Lopera Sierra, Paola Santoro, Thomas Thevenet, Jack L Erion, Philippe Ruszniewski, Dik Kwekkeboom, Eric Krenning
Background Patients with advanced midgut neuroendocrine tumors who have had disease progression during first-line somatostatin analogue therapy have limited therapeutic options. This randomized, controlled trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of lutetium-177 ((177)Lu)-Dotatate in patients with advanced, progressive, somatostatin-receptor-positive midgut neuroendocrine tumors. Methods We randomly assigned 229 patients who had well-differentiated, metastatic midgut neuroendocrine tumors to receive either (177)Lu-Dotatate (116 patients) at a dose of 7...
12, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075355/the-csiro-healthy-diet-score-an-online-survey-to-estimate-compliance-with-the-australian-dietary-guidelines
#18
Gilly A Hendrie, Danielle Baird, Rebecca K Golley, Manny Noakes
There are few dietary assessment tools that are scientifically developed and freely available online. The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Healthy Diet Score survey asks questions about the quantity, quality, and variety of foods consumed. On completion, individuals receive a personalised Diet Score-reflecting their overall compliance with the Australian Dietary Guidelines. Over 145,000 Australians have completed the survey since it was launched in May 2015. The average Diet Score was 58...
January 9, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075072/use-of-erythrocyte-indicators-of-health-and-condition-in-vertebrate-ecophysiology-a-review-and-appraisal
#19
Christopher P Johnstone, Alan Lill, Richard D Reina
We review evidence for and against the use of erythrocyte indicators of health status and condition, parasite infection level and physiological stress in free-living vertebrates. The use of indicators that are measured directly from the blood, such as haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and parameters that are calculated from multiple measured metrics, such as mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin content or mean cell haemoglobin concentration is evaluated. The evidence for or against the use of any given metric is equivocal when the relevant research is considered in total, although there is sometimes strong support for using a particular metric in a particular taxon...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074925/atomization-of-high-viscosity-fluids-for-aromatherapy-using-micro-heaters-for-heterogeneous-bubble-nucleation
#20
Junhui Law, Ka Wai Kong, Ho-Yin Chan, Winston Sun, Wen Jung Li, Eric Boa Fung Chau, George Kak Man Chan
The development of a novel lead-free microelectromechanical-system (MEMS)-based atomizer using the principle of thermal bubble actuation is presented. It is a low-cost, lead-free design that is environmentally friendly and harmless to humans. It has been tested to be applicable over a wide range of fluid viscosities, ranging from 1 cP (e.g., water) to 200 cP (e.g., oil-like fluid) at room temperature, a range that is difficult to achieve using ordinary atomizers. The results demonstrate that the average power consumption of the atomizer is approximately 1 W with an atomization rate of 0...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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