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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792391/role-of-neutrophils-in-equine-asthma
#1
Benjamin Uberti, Gabriel Morán
Neutrophilic bronchiolitis is the primary lesion in asthma-affected horses. Neutrophils are key actors in host defense, migrating toward sites of inflammation and infection, where they act as early responder cells toward external insults. However, neutrophils can also mediate tissue damage in various non-infectious inflammatory processes. Within the airways, these cells likely contribute to bronchoconstriction, mucus hypersecretion, and pulmonary remodeling by releasing pro-inflammatory mediators, including the cytokines interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-17, neutrophil elastase, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)...
May 24, 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791710/postoperative-pain-and-analgesia-is-there-a-genetic-basis-to-the-opioid-crisis
#2
Randa K Elmallah, Prem N Ramkumar, Anton Khlopas, Rathika R Ramkumar, Morad Chughtai, Nipun Sodhi, Assem A Sultan, Michael A Mont
BACKGROUND: Multiple factors have been implicated in determining why certain patients have increased postoperative pain, with the potential to develop chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to: 1) identify and describe genes that affect postoperative pain perception and control; 2) address modifiable risk factors that result in epigenetic altered responses to pain; and 3) characterize differences in pain sensitivity and thresholds between opioid-naïve and opioid-dependent patients...
June 1, 2018: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790727/pathophysiology-of-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-overview
#3
Ruth A O'leary, Alistair D Nichol
Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, particularly among young people, with significant social and economic effects. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that more than five million people die each year from traumatic injuries worldwide. While public health initiative such as seatbelts and airbags have had a major impact, it will be impossible to prevent traumatic brain injury, it is therefore that we understand the pathophysiology of secondary brain injury to be able to effectively treat our patient but aloes to develop novel targets of future interventions...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789397/the-wnt-antagonist-and-secreted-frizzled-related-protein-5-implications-on-lipid-metabolism-inflammation-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#4
Ling-Bin Liu, Xiao-Dong Chen, Xiang-Yu Zhou, Qing Zhu
Various reports have suggested that secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5) plays a regulatory role in the processes of cellular proliferation and differentiation, by means of inactivating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Recently, SFRP5 has been identified as an anti-inflammatory adipokine, which may be induced during preadipocyte proliferation, differentiation, and maturation. This review aims to identify the recent progress in the research and development of SFRP5 that can play a role in influencing lipid metabolism, inflammation and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
May 22, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789206/environmental-signals-influencing-myeloid-cell-metabolism-and-function-in-diabetes
#5
REVIEW
Jacqueline M Ratter, Cees J Tack, Mihai G Netea, Rinke Stienstra
The environment induces metabolic reprogramming of immune cells via specific signaling pathways. Recent studies have revealed that changes in cell metabolism affect key immune cell functions including cytokine production and migration. In diabetes, these functions are either insufficiently or excessively activated, translating into diabetes-associated complications, including increased susceptibility to infection and accelerated cardiovascular disease. Diabetes alters the abundance of environmental signals, including glucose, insulin, and lipids...
May 19, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787833/dehydroepiandrosterone-molecular-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-implications-in-osteoarthritis
#6
REVIEW
Kai Huang, Li-Dong Wu
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a 19-carbon steroid hormone primarily synthesized in the adrenal gland, exerts a chondroprotective effect against osteoarthritis (OA) and has been considered an effective candidate of disease-modifying OA drugs (DMOADs) that slow disease progression. We and others previously demonstrated that DHEA exerted a beneficial effect on osteoarthritic cartilage by positively modulating the balance between anabolic and catabolic factors (e.g., MMPs/TIMP-1, ADAMTS/TIMP-3 and cysteine proteinases/cystatin C), inhibiting catabolic signaling pathways (e...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786112/ctla%C3%A2-4-interferes-with-the-hbv%C3%A2-specific-t-cell-immune-response-review
#7
Hui Cao, Ruiwen Zhang, Wei Zhang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of hepatic inflammation. Successful HBV clearance in patients is associated with sustained viral control by effector T cells. Compared with acute hepatitis B, chronic HBV infection is associated with the depletion of T cells, resulting in weak or absent virus‑specific T cells reactivity, which is described as 'exhaustion'. This exhaustion is characterized by impaired cytokine production and sustained expression of multiple coinhibitory molecules. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte‑associated antigen‑4 (CTLA‑4) is one of many coinhibitory molecules that can attenuate T cell activation by inhibiting costimulation and transmitting inhibitory signals to T cells...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785841/effects-of-antipsychotic-drugs-on-neurites-relevant-to-schizophrenia-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Xu-Feng Huang, Xueqin Song
Although antipsychotic drugs are mainly used for treating schizophrenia, they are widely used for treating various psychiatric diseases in adults, the elderly, adolescents and even children. Today, about 1.2% of the worldwide population suffers from psychosis and related disorders, which translates to about 7.5 million subjects potentially targeted by antipsychotic drugs. Neurites project from the cell body of neurons and connect neurons to each other to form neural networks. Deficits in neurite outgrowth and integrity are implicated in psychiatric diseases including schizophrenia...
May 22, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783736/revisiting-cd28-superagonist-tgn1412-as-potential-therapeutic-for-pediatric-b-cell-leukemia-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Katelyn E Brown
Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) represents the most common pediatric cancer diagnosis, with numbers rising gradually every year. This paper proposes a novel therapeutic agent for pediatric ALL on the basis of a failed clinical drug trial in 2006. TGN1412 was a promising therapeutic agent that yielded outstanding results in both in vitro studies and animal trials. It is a CD28 superagonist monoclonal antibody that activates T regulatory (TReg ) cells in the absence of costimulation of the T cell receptor (TCR) by an antigen-presenting cell...
May 19, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783069/association-between-the-rs1143634-polymorphism-in-interleukin-1b-and-chronic-periodontitis-results-from-a-meta-analysis-composed-by-54-case-control-studies
#10
REVIEW
Felipe Rodolfo Pereira da Silva, Any Carolina Cardoso Guimarães Vasconcelos, Luiz Felipe de Carvalho França, David Di Lenardo, Hélio Mateus Silva Nascimento, Daniel Fernando Pereira Vasconcelos
Several factors are involved in the periodontitis with host response through cytokines and as well as with influence of polymorphisms in cytokine genes, however the results remained contradictory. This study aimed at evaluating the rs1143634 polymorphism in interleukin-1B gene, a cytokine gene, and the risk of chronic periodontitis with conducting a meta-analysis focusing in ethnicity. A review in literature was performed in several databases to studies published before June 2017. Data extraction was performed by two calibrated investigators and the calculations of the meta-analysis were obtained through Review Manager version 5...
May 18, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782191/lipid-protein-and-microrna-composition-within-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-exosomes
#11
Hao Deng, Chun Sun, Yingxin Sun, Huhu Li, Lin Yang, Danbin Wu, Qing Gao, Xijuan Jiang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were regarded as one of the most promising type of seed cells in tissue engineering due to its easy accessibility and multipotent feature of being able to differentiate into adipocyte, osteoblast, cardiomyocytes, and neurons. For years, MSCs have been applied in treating cardiovascular disease, reconstructing kidney injury, and remodeling immune system with remarkable achievements. Basic researches revealed that its clinic effects are not only due to their pluripotent ability but also through their paracrine function that they synthesize and secrete a broad spectrum of growth factors and cytokines...
May 21, 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780381/interferon-gamma-at-the-crossroads-of-tumor-immune-surveillance-or-evasion
#12
REVIEW
Flávia Castro, Ana Patrícia Cardoso, Raquel Madeira Gonçalves, Karine Serre, Maria José Oliveira
Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a pleiotropic molecule with associated antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic and antitumor mechanisms. This effector cytokine, often considered as a major effector of immunity, has been used in the treatment of several diseases, despite its adverse effects. Although broad evidence implicating IFN-γ in tumor immune surveillance, IFN-γ-based therapies undergoing clinical trials have been of limited success. In fact, recent reports suggested that it may also play a protumorigenic role, namely, through IFN-γ signaling insensitivity, downregulation of major histocompatibility complexes, and upregulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and of checkpoint inhibitors, as programmed cell-death ligand 1...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779928/the-diagnosis-and-clinical-management-of-the-catastrophic-antiphospholipid-syndrome-a-comprehensive-review
#13
REVIEW
Ricard Cervera, Ignasi Rodríguez-Pintó, Gerard Espinosa
The catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) is a life-threating variant of the antiphospholipid syndrome characterized by the development of multiple thrombosis in a short period of time, usually ending up in the failure of function of several vital organs. Most CAPS episodes are related to a prothrombotic situation or precipitating factor such as infections, surgical procedures or malignant diseases. In patients with CAPS, the development of multiple thrombosis leads to an important cytokine release that worsens the already critical patient's situation...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777833/endocrine-disrupting-activities-and-immunomodulatory-effects-in-lymphoblastoid-cell-lines-of-diclofenac-4-hydroxydiclofenac-and-paracetamol
#14
Ivana Klopčič, Tijana Markovič, Irena Mlinarič-Raščan, Marija Sollner Dolenc
A critical literature review reveals that knowledge of side effects of pharmaceuticals diclofenac and paracetamol is extremely important because of their widespread use and occurrence in the environment. In order to delineate whether these compounds have endocrine activity and influence on the immune system, we assessed the potential endocrine disrupting and immunomodulatory activities of: diclofenac (DIC), its metabolite 4-hydroxydiclofenac (4-HD) and paracetamol (PAR). Herein, we report on their impact on estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and thyroid hormone receptor (TR)...
May 16, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776830/pharmacological-modulation-of-radiation-induced-oral-mucosal-complications
#15
S Bockel, A Vallard, A Lévy, S François, M Bourdis, C Le Gallic, D Riccobono, P Annede, M Drouet, Y Tao, P Blanchard, É Deutsch, N Magné, C Chargari
Radiation-induced mucositis is a common toxicity, especially in patients with head and neck cancers. Despite recent technological advances in radiation therapy, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy, radiation-induced mucositis is still causing treatment disruptions, negatively affecting patients' long and short term quality of life, and impacting medical resources use with economic consequences. The objective of this article was to review the latest updates in the management of radiation-induced mucositis, with a focus on pharmaceutical strategies for the prevention or treatment of mucositis...
May 15, 2018: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776545/evolution-of-clinical-and-environmental-health-applications-of-exhaled-breath-research-review-of-methods-and-instrumentation-for-gas-phase-condensate-and-aerosols
#16
REVIEW
M Ariel Geer Wallace, Joachim D Pleil
Human breath, along with urine and blood, has long been one of the three major biological media for assessing human health and environmental exposure. In fact, the detection of odor on human breath, as described by Hippocrates in 400 BC, is considered the first analytical health assessment tool. Although less common in comparison to contemporary bio-fluids analyses, breath has become an attractive diagnostic medium as sampling is non-invasive, unlimited in timing and volume, and does not require clinical personnel...
September 18, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775752/the-genetics-and-molecular-pathogenesis-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-sle-in-populations-of-different-ancestry
#17
REVIEW
George N Goulielmos, Maria I Zervou, Vassilis M Vazgiourakis, Yogita Ghodke-Puranik, Alexandros Garyfallos, Timothy B Niewold
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; OMIM 152700) is a highly heterogeneous disorder, characterized by differences in autoantibody profile, serum cytokines, and a multi-system involvement commonly affecting the skin, renal, musculoskeletal, and hematopoetic systems clinical manifestations involving. Disease features range from mild manifestations, such as rash or arthritis, to life-threatening end-organ manifestations, such as glomerulonephritis or thrombosis, and it is difficult to predict which manifestations will affect a given patient...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775497/inflammatory-cytokines-and-peripheral-mediators-in-the-pathophysiology-of-pruritus-in-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphoma
#18
REVIEW
Daniel J Lewis, Simo Huang, Madeleine Duvic
Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) includes a diverse group of neoplasms, including mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome. One of the earliest and most common symptoms of CTCL is pruritus, which affects up to 88% of patients. The severity of pruritus can range from mild to very debilitating, producing tremendous discomfort and a significant decrease in quality of life. Patients with advanced disease, in particular, may experience a more chronic, intractable pruritus. However, the underlying mechanism of pruritus in CTCL remains unknown...
May 18, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775441/-the-biological-function-and-significance-of-il-35-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#19
EDITORIAL
Mateusz Staciwa, Marlena Broncel
The imbalance of anti-inflammatory /pro- inflammatory cytokines plays an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. Interleukin 35 (IL-35) is a novel member of the IL-12 family, consisting of an EBVinduced gene 3 (EBI3) subunit and a P35 subunit. IL-35 is an immunesuppressive cytokine mainly produced by regulatory T cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that IL-35 may represent a target for antiatherosclerotic therapy based on its several anti-inflammatory features. This review provide a brief overview of IL-35 biology and the role of IL-35 in the atherosclerosis, autoimmune disease and cancers...
April 23, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774640/regulatory-roles-of-flavonoids-on-inflammasome-activation-during-inflammatory-responses
#20
REVIEW
Young-Su Yi
Inflammation is an innate immune response to noxious stimuli to protect the body from pathogens and dangers. Inflammatory responses consist of two main steps: priming and triggering. In priming, inflammatory cells increase expressions of inflammatory molecules, while in triggering, inflammasomes are activated, resulting in cell death and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Inflammasomes are protein complexes comprising intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) (e.g. nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), and caspases-4/5/11) and pro-caspase-1 with or without a bipartite adaptor molecule ASC...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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