Read by QxMD icon Read

cytokine review

Sophie Outh-Gauer, Marie Alt, Christophe Le Tourneau, Jérémy Augustin, Chloé Broudin, Cassandre Gasne, Thomas Denize, Haitham Mirghani, Elizabeth Fabre, Madeleine Ménard, Florian Scotte, Eric Tartour, Cécile Badoual
Cancer occurrence can be understood as the result of dysfunctions in immune tumoral microenvironment. Here we review the recent understandings of those microenvironment changes, regarding their causes and prognostic significance in head and neck (HN) carcinoma. We will focus on HN squamous cell cancer (SCC) and nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC). Their overall poor prognosis may be improved with immunotherapy in a subset of patients, as supported by current clinical trials. However, finding reliable markers of therapeutic response is crucial for patient selection, due to potential severe adverse reactions and high costs...
March 1, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Balal Brazvan, Abbas Ebrahimi-Kalan, Kobra Velaei, Ahmad Mehdipour, Zeynab Aliyari Serej, Ayyub Ebrahimi, Mohammad Ghorbani, Omid Cheraghi, Hojjatollah Nozad Charoudeh
The end of linear chromosomes is formed of a special nucleoprotein heterochromatin structure with repetitive TTAGGG sequences called telomere. Telomere length is regulated by a special enzyme called telomerase, a specific DNA polymerase that adds new telomeric sequences to the chromosome ends. Telomerase consists of two parts; the central protein part and the accessory part which is a RNA component transported by the central part. Regulation of telomere length by this enzyme is a multi-stage process. Telomere length elongation is strongly influenced by the level of telomerase and has a strong correlation with the activity of telomerase enzyme...
March 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Hui Fang, Yang Zhang, Ning Li, Gang Wang, Zhi Liu
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune and inflammatory skin disease associated with subepidermal blistering and autoantibodies directed against the hemidesmosomal components BP180 and BP230. Animal models of BP were developed by passively transferring anti-BP180 IgG into mice, which recapitulates the key features of human BP. By using these in vivo model systems, key cellular and molecular events leading to the BP disease phenotype are identified, including binding of pathogenic IgG to its target, complement activation of the classical pathway, mast cell degranulation, and infiltration and activation of neutrophils...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Manuel Fresno, Núria Gironès
Chagas disease is a multisystemic disorder caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi , which affects ~8 million people in Latin America, killing 7,000 people annually. Chagas disease is one of the main causes of death in the endemic area and the leading cause of infectious myocarditis in the world. T. cruzi infection induces two phases, acute and chronic, where the infection is initially asymptomatic and the majority of patients will remain clinically indeterminate for life. However, over a period of 10-30 years, ~30% of infected individuals will develop irreversible, potentially fatal cardiac syndromes (chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy [CCC]), and/or dilatation of the gastro-intestinal tract (megacolon or megaesophagus)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mark N Belkin, Nir Uriel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advancements in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has led to increased survival, approaching that of the general population. These patients are at an increased risk for heart disease, specifically HIV-associated cardiomyopathy. RECENT FINDINGS: Initially, HIV-associated cardiomyopathy was predominantly noted as systolic dysfunction, but diastolic dysfunction has become more common with increased use of HAART...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Paola Cipriani, Vasiliky Liakouli, Francesco Carubbi, Onorina Berardicurti, Paola Di Benedetto, Francesco Ciccia, Giuliana Guggino, Saverio Alvaro, Giovanni Triolo, Roberto Giacomellia, Piero Ruscitti
BACKGROUND: Although in the past, prevention of the joint destruction and disability were strongly emphasised in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), at present, a growing body of evidence is focused at identifying the best management of associated comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recently, the hypothesis that blocking pro-inflammatory activity may be helpful in the treatment of some comorbidities has been proposed in RA patients. OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the role of IL-1β during RA and T2D, the efficacy of IL-1 blocking agents in controlling both diseases and, possible, decreasing the concomitant enhanced atherosclerotic process...
March 13, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Amanda Przespolewski, Andras Szeles, Eunice S Wang
Evasion of the host immune system is a key mechanism to promote malignant progression. Therapeutically targeting immune pathways has radically changed the treatment paradigm for solid and lymphoid tumors but has yet to be approved for myeloid malignancies. Here, we summarize the most recent advances in immunotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Topics reviewed here include adoptive cellular approaches (chimeric antigen receptor-T cells, natural killer and other immune cells), checkpoint inhibitors (anti-PD-1/PD-L1, anti-CTLA-4 and TIM-3) and vaccines (WT-1, HLA-A2 and hTERT)...
March 15, 2018: Future Oncology
Marion Griton, Jan Pieter Konsman
Although the immune and nervous systems have long been considered independent biological systems, they turn out to mingle and interact extensively. The present review summarizes recent insights into the neural pathways activated by and involved in infection-induced inflammation and discusses potential clinical applications. The simplest activation concerns a reflex action within C-fibers leading to neurogenic inflammation. Low concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines or bacterial fragments may also act on these afferent nerve fibers to signal the central nervous system and bring about early fever, hyperalgesia and sickness behavior...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
Augusta Pisanu, Laura Boi, Giovanna Mulas, Saturnino Spiga, Sandro Fenu, Anna R Carta
Neuroinflammation is a main component of Parkinson's disease (PD) neuropathology, where unremitting reactive microglia and microglia-secreted soluble molecules such as cytokines, contribute to the neurodegenerative process as part of an aberrant immune reaction. Besides, pro-inflammatory cytokines, predominantly TNF-α, play an important neuromodulatory role in the healthy and diseased brain, being involved in neurotransmitter metabolism, synaptic scaling and brain plasticity. Recent preclinical studies have evidenced an exacerbated neuroinflammatory reaction in the striatum of parkinsonian rats that developed dyskinetic responses following L-DOPA administration...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Win Min Oo, Vasikaran Naganathan, Myat Thae Bo, David J Hunter
Secondary osteoporosis is an important co-morbidity related to inflammatory rheumatic diseases that is attributed to several factors including inflammatory cytokines, inactivity and glucocorticoid treatment. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) has been utilized in osteoporosis research due to its detectability of bone density as well as bone quality. The current narrative review is to address the potential utilities of QUS in secondary osteoporosis of inflammatory rheumatic diseases, focusing on the clinical aspects of QUS in these diseases, based on the conformity of QUS with dual emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the relationship with disease characteristics, and its capability of fracture prediction...
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Daniel Pedziwiatr, Monika Cymer, Magda Kucia, Jolanta Kucharska-Mazur, Jerzy Samochowiec
Evidence has accumulated that the occurrence of psychiatric disorders is related to chronic inflammation. In support of this linkage, changes in the levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the peripheral blood (PB) of psychiatric patients as well as correlations between chronic inflammatory processes and psychiatric disorders have been described. Furthermore, an inflammatory process known as "sterile inflammation" when initiated directly in brain tissue may trigger the onset of psychoses...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Steffi De Pelsmaeker, Nicolas Romero, Massimo Vitale, Herman W Favoreel
Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the host response against viral infections and cancer development. They are able to kill virus-infected and tumor cells, and produce different important cytokines that stimulate the antiviral and antitumor adaptive immune response, particularly interferon gamma. NK cells are of particular importance in herpesvirus infections, which is illustrated by systemic and life-threatening herpesvirus disease symptoms in patients with deficiencies in NK cell activity, and by the myriad of reports describing herpesvirus NK cell evasion strategies...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Thenappan Thenappan, Mark L Ormiston, John J Ryan, Stephen L Archer
Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25 mm Hg or above. This review deals with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a type of pulmonary hypertension that primarily affects the pulmonary vasculature. In PAH, the pulmonary vasculature is dynamically obstructed by vasoconstriction, structurally obstructed by adverse vascular remodeling, and pathologically non-compliant as a result of vascular fibrosis and stiffening. Many cell types are abnormal in PAH, including vascular cells (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts) and inflammatory cells...
March 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Hannah L Mayr, Audrey C Tierney, Colleen J Thomas, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Jessica Radcliffe, Catherine Itsiopoulos
The health benefits of a Mediterranean diet are thought to be mediated via its anti-inflammatory effects; however, the anti-inflammatory effect of this diet is unclear in patients who have already developed coronary heart disease (CHD). This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effect of Mediterranean-type diets on cytokines and adipokines in patients with CHD. An electronic search of the literature was conducted up to October 2016 using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library. Eleven of the 435 articles identified met eligibility criteria...
February 2018: Nutrition Research
Aleksandra Klimczak, Urszula Kozlowska, Maciej Kurpisz
Muscular dystrophies represent a group of diseases which may develop in several forms, and severity of the disease is usually associated with gene mutations. In skeletal muscle regeneration and in muscular dystrophies, both innate and adaptive immune responses are involved. The regenerative potential of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) of bone marrow origin was confirmed by the ability to differentiate into diverse tissues and by their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties by secretion of a variety of growth factors and anti-inflammatory cytokines...
March 13, 2018: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
Caroline Sut, Sofiane Tariket, Cécile Aubron, Chaker Aloui, Hind Hamzeh-Cognasse, Philippe Berthelot, Sandrine Laradi, Andreas Greinacher, Olivier Garraud, Fabrice Cognasse
Platelets transfusion is a safe process, but during or after the process, the recipient may experience an adverse reaction and occasionally a serious adverse reaction (SAR). In this review, we focus on the inflammatory potential of platelet components (PCs) and their involvement in SARs. Recent evidence has highlighted a central role for platelets in the host inflammatory and immune responses. Blood platelets are involved in inflammation and various other aspects of innate immunity through the release of a plethora of immunomodulatory cytokines, chemokines, and associated molecules, collectively termed biological response modifiers that behave like ligands for endothelial and leukocyte receptors and for platelets themselves...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Daniëlle Krijgsman, Marianne Hokland, Peter J K Kuppen
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of CD1d-restricted T cells at the interface between the innate and adaptive immune system. NKT cells can be subdivided into functional subsets that respond rapidly to a wide variety of glycolipids and stress-related proteins using T- or natural killer (NK) cell-like effector mechanisms. Because of their major modulating effects on immune responses via secretion of cytokines, NKT cells are also considered important players in tumor immunosurveillance. During early tumor development, T helper (TH )1-like NKT cell subsets have the potential to rapidly stimulate tumor-specific T cells and effector NK cells that can eliminate tumor cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Lois Salter, Amaka C Offiah, Nicholas Bishop
BACKGROUND: Elevated platelet counts are observed in cancer, autoimmunity and inflammation with concurrent illness. Proinflammatory cytokines are elevated in murine osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) models. We hypothesised that platelet counts might be elevated in children with moderate-severe OI. METHODS: We reviewed the hospital records of 71 children with moderate-severe OI, treated in the Sheffield Children's Hospital's Severe, Complex and Atypical Osteogenesis Imperfecta Highly Specialised Service...
March 13, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Franklin R Toapanta, Paula J Bernal, Karen L Kotloff, Myron M Levine, Marcelo B Sztein
BACKGROUND: Shigellosis persists as a public health problem worldwide causing ~ 165,000 deaths every year, of which ~ 55,000 are in children less than 5 years of age. No vaccine against shigellosis is currently licensed. The live-attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine candidate CVD 1208S (S. flexneri 2a; ΔguaBA, Δset, Δsen) demonstrated to be safe and immunogenic in phase 1 and 2 clinical trials. Earlier reports focused on humoral immunity. However, Shigella is an intracellular pathogen and therefore, T cell mediated immunity (T-CMI) is also expected to play an important role...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
M R Khaitov, A R Gaisina, I P Shilovskiy, V V Smirnov, G V Ramenskaia, A A Nikonova, R M Khaitov
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) belongs to the IL-1 cytokine family and plays an important role in modulating immune system by inducing Th2 immune response via the ST2 membrane receptor. Epithelial cells are the major producers of IL-33. However, IL-33 is also secreted by other cells, e.g., bone marrow cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, and mast cells. IL-33 targets a broad range of cell types bearing the ST2 surface receptor. Many ST2-positive cells, such as Th2 cells, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils, are involved in the development of allergic bronchial asthma (BA)...
January 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"