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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102970/microbiomes-in-respiratory-health-and-disease-an-asia-pacific-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Sanjay H Chotirmall, Shaan L Gellatly, Kurtis F Budden, Micheál Mac Aogain, Shakti D Shukla, David L A Wood, Philip Hugenholtz, Kevin Pethe, Philip M Hansbro
There is currently enormous interest in studying the role of the microbiome in health and disease. Microbiome's role is increasingly being applied to respiratory diseases, in particular COPD, asthma, cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis. The changes in respiratory microbiomes that occur in these diseases and how they are modified by environmental challenges such as cigarette smoke, air pollution and infection are being elucidated. There is also emerging evidence that gut microbiomes play a role in lung diseases through the modulation of systemic immune responses and can be modified by diet and antibiotic treatment...
February 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102836/preparation-characterization-and-in-vitro-dosimetry-of-dispersed-engineered-nanomaterials
#2
Glen M DeLoid, Joel M Cohen, Georgios Pyrgiotakis, Philip Demokritou
Evidence continues to grow of the importance of in vitro and in vivo dosimetry in the hazard assessment and ranking of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Accurate dose metrics are particularly important for in vitro cellular screening to assess the potential health risks or bioactivity of ENMs. To ensure meaningful and reproducible quantification of in vitro dose, with consistent measurement and reporting between laboratories, it is necessary to adopt standardized and integrated methodologies for (i) generation of stable ENM suspensions in cell culture media; (ii) colloidal characterization of suspended ENMs, particularly of properties that determine particle kinetics in an in vitro system (size distribution and formed agglomerate effective density); and (iii) robust numerical fate and transport modeling for accurate determination of the ENM dose delivered to cells over the course of the in vitro exposure...
February 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102396/zinc-sparks-induce-physiochemical-changes-in-the-egg-zona-pellucida-that-prevent-polyspermy
#3
Emily L Que, Francesca E Duncan, Amanda R Bayer, Steven J Philips, Eric W Roth, Reiner Bleher, Sophie C Gleber, Stefan Vogt, Teresa K Woodruff, Thomas V O'Halloran
During fertilization or chemically-induced egg activation, the mouse egg releases billions of zinc atoms in brief bursts known as 'zinc sparks.' The zona pellucida (ZP), a glycoprotein matrix surrounding the egg, is the first structure zinc ions encounter as they diffuse away from the plasma membrane. Following fertilization, the ZP undergoes changes described as 'hardening', which prevent multiple sperm from fertilizing the egg and thereby establish a block to polyspermy. A major event in zona hardening is cleavage of ZP2 proteins by ovastacin; however, the overall physiochemical changes contributing to zona hardening are not well understood...
January 19, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102151/pleiotropic-genetic-effects-influencing-sleep-and-neurological-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Olivia J Veatch, Brendan T Keenan, Philip R Gehrman, Beth A Malow, Allan I Pack
Research evidence increasingly points to the large impact of sleep disturbances on public health. Many aspects of sleep are heritable and genes influencing traits such as timing, EEG characteristics, sleep duration, and response to sleep loss have been identified. Notably, large-scale genome-wide analyses have implicated numerous genes with small effects on sleep timing. Additionally, there has been considerable progress in the identification of genes influencing risk for some neurological sleep disorders. For restless legs syndrome, implicated variants are typically in genes associated with neuronal development...
February 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102081/deep-coverage-of-global-protein-expression-and-phosphorylation-in-breast-tumor-cell-lines-using-tmt-10-plex-isobaric-labeling
#5
Fang-Ke Huang, Guoan Zhang, Kevin Lawlor, Arpi Nazarian, John Philip, Paul Tempst, Noah Dephoure, Thomas A Neubert
Labeling peptides with isobaric tags is a popular strategy in quantitative bottom-up proteomics. In this study, we labeled six breast tumor cell lysates (1.34 mg proteins per channel) using 10-plex tandem mass tag reagents and analyzed the samples on a Q Exactive HF Quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. We identified a total of 8706 proteins and 28186 phosphopeptides, including 7394 proteins and 23739 phosphosites common to all channels. The majority of technical replicates correlated with a R2 ≥ 0.98, indicating minimum variability was introduced after labeling...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101959/comprehensive-analysis-of-transcript-changes-associated-with-allograft-rejection-combining-universal-and-selective-features
#6
Philip F Halloran, Jeffery M Venner, Konrad S Famulski
We annotated the top transcripts associated with kidney transplant rejection by p-value, either universal for all rejection or selective for T cell-mediated (TCMR) or antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). We used eight class comparison algorithms to interrogate microarray results from 703 biopsies, 205 with rejection. The positive comparators were all rejection, TCMR, or ABMR; the negative comparators varied from normal biopsies to all non-rejecting biopsies, including other diseases. The universal algorithm, rejection vs...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100819/vertically-transmitted-rhabdoviruses-are-found-across-three-insect-families-and-have-dynamic-interactions-with-their-hosts
#7
Ben Longdon, Jonathan P Day, Nora Schulz, Philip T Leftwich, Maaike A de Jong, Casper J Breuker, Melanie Gibbs, Darren J Obbard, Lena Wilfert, Sophia C L Smith, John E McGonigle, Thomas M Houslay, Lucy I Wright, Luca Livraghi, Luke C Evans, Lucy A Friend, Tracey Chapman, John Vontas, Natasa Kambouraki, Francis M Jiggins
A small number of free-living viruses have been found to be obligately vertically transmitted, but it remains uncertain how widespread vertically transmitted viruses are and how quickly they can spread through host populations. Recent metagenomic studies have found several insects to be infected with sigma viruses (Rhabdoviridae). Here, we report that sigma viruses that infect Mediterranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata), Drosophila immigrans, and speckled wood butterflies (Pararge aegeria) are all vertically transmitted...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100817/mechanical-sensitivity-and-the-dynamics-of-evolutionary-rate-shifts-in-biomechanical-systems
#8
Martha M Muñoz, Philip S L Anderson, S N Patek
The influence of biophysical relationships on rates of morphological evolution is a cornerstone of evolutionary theory. Mechanical sensitivity-the correlation strength between mechanical output and the system's underlying morphological components-is thought to impact the evolutionary dynamics of form-function relationships, yet has rarely been examined. Here, we compare the evolutionary rates of the mechanical components of the four-bar linkage system in the raptorial appendage of mantis shrimp (Order Stomatopoda)...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100779/intramembrane-proteolysis-of-astrotactins
#9
Hao Chang, Philip M Smallwood, John Williams, Jeremy Nathans
Astrotactins are vertebrate-specific membrane proteins implicated in neuron-glia interactions during central nervous system development and in hair follicle polarity during skin development. By studying epitope-tagged derivatives of mouse Astrotactin2 (Astn2) produced in transfected cells, we determined that the amino- and carboxy-termini reside in the extracellular space and are initially linked by two transmembrane segments and a single cytoplasmic domain. We further show that Astn2 undergoes proteolytic cleavage in the second transmembrane domain (TM2) and that a disulfide bond holds the resulting two fragments together...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100708/the-origin-of-floral-organ-identity-quartets
#10
Philip Ruelens, Zhicheng Zhang, Hilda van Mourik, Steven Maere, Kerstin Kaufmann, Koen Geuten
The origin of flowers has puzzled plant biologists ever since Darwin referred to their sudden appearance in the fossil record as an abominable mystery. Flowers are considered to be an assembly of protective, attractive and reproductive male and female leaf-like organs. Their origin cannot be understood by a morphological comparison to gymnosperms, their closest relatives, which develop separate male or female cones. Despite these morphological differences, gymnosperms and angiosperms possess a similar genetic toolbox consisting of phylogenetically related MADS-domain proteins...
January 18, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100591/dynamics-and-fate-of-beneficial-mutations-under-lineage-contamination-by-linked-deleterious-mutations
#11
Sophie Pénisson, Tanya Singh, Paul Sniegowski, Philip Gerrish
Beneficial mutations drive adaptive evolution, yet their selective advantage does not ensure their fixation. Haldane's application of single-type branching process theory showed that genetic drift alone could cause the extinction of newly-arising beneficial mutations with high probability. With linkage, deleterious mutations will affect the dynamics of beneficial mutations and might further increase their extinction probability. Here, we model the lineage dynamics of a newly-arising beneficial mutation as a multitype branching process...
January 18, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100402/the-randomized-controlled-trial-of-late-surfactant-effects-on-respiratory-outcomes-at-1-year-corrected-age
#12
Roberta L Keller, Eric C Eichenwald, Anna Maria Hibbs, Elizabeth E Rogers, Katherine C Wai, Dennis M Black, Philip L Ballard, Jeanette M Asselin, William E Truog, Jeffrey D Merrill, Mark C Mammel, Robin H Steinhorn, Rita M Ryan, David J Durand, Catherine M Bendel, Ellen M Bendel-Stenzel, Sherry E Courtney, Ramasubbareddy Dhanireddy, Mark L Hudak, Frances R Koch, Dennis E Mayock, Victor J McKay, Jennifer Helderman, Nicolas F Porta, Rajan Wadhawan, Lisa Palermo, Roberta A Ballard
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of late surfactant on respiratory outcomes determined at 1-year corrected age in the Trial of Late Surfactant (TOLSURF), which randomized newborns of extremely low gestational age (≤28 weeks' gestational age) ventilated at 7-14 days to late surfactant and inhaled nitric oxide vs inhaled nitric oxide-alone (control). STUDY DESIGN: Caregivers were surveyed in a double-blinded manner at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months' corrected age to collect information on respiratory resource use (infant medication use, home support, and hospitalization)...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100238/chronic-physical-conditions-multimorbidity-and-physical-activity-across-46-low-and-middle-income-countries
#13
Davy Vancampfort, Ai Koyanagi, Philip B Ward, Simon Rosenbaum, Felipe B Schuch, James Mugisha, Justin Richards, Joseph Firth, Brendon Stubbs
BACKGROUND: There are no nationally representative population-based studies investigating the relationship between physical activity, chronic conditions and multimorbidity (i.e., two or more chronic conditions) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and studies on a multi-national level are lacking. This is an important research gap, given the rapid increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases associated with lifestyle changes in these countries. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the association between chronic conditions, multimorbidity and low physical activity (PA) among community-dwelling adults in 46 LMICs, and explore the mediators of these relationships...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100160/determining-the-potential-benefits-of-yoga-in-chronic-stroke-care-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Tharshanah Thayabaranathan, Nadine E Andrew, Maarten A Immink, Susan Hillier, Philip Stevens, Rene Stolwyk, Monique Kilkenny, Dominique A Cadilhac
BACKGROUND: Survivors of stroke have long-term physical and psychological consequences that impact their quality of life. Few interventions are available in the community to address these problems. Yoga, a type of mindfulness-based intervention, is shown to be effective in people with other chronic illnesses and may have the potential to address many of the problems reported by survivors of stroke. OBJECTIVES: To date only narrative reviews have been published. We sought to perform, the first systematic review with meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated yoga for its potential benefit for chronic survivors of stroke...
January 19, 2017: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100064/a-risk-stratifying-tool-to-facilitate-safe-late-stage-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-in-als
#15
Alexander G Thompson, Victoria Blackwell, Rachael Marsden, Emma Millard, Clare Lawson, Annabel H Nickol, James E East, Kevin Talbot, Philip J Allan, Martin R Turner
BACKGROUND: The safety of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) insertion in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with significant respiratory compromise has been questioned. OBJECTIVES: To review the characteristics of an ALS clinic patient cohort undergoing PEG, and the introduction of a risk stratification tool with procedural adaptations for higher-risk individuals. METHODS: Patients undergoing PEG insertion were analysed (n = 107)...
January 19, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099540/using-the-blanch-sign-to-differentiate-weathering-nodules-from-auricular-tophaceous-gout
#16
Jeremy Udkoff, Philip R Cohen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099422/relationship-between-perfusion-index-and-patent-ductus-arteriosus-in-preterm-infants
#17
Enrique Gomez-Pomar, Majd Makhoul, Philip M Westgate, Katrina T Ibonia, Abhijit Patwardhan, Peter J Giannone, Henrietta Bada, Elie G Abu Jawdeh
BACKGROUND: Perfusion index (PI) is a noninvasive measure of perfusion. ΔPI (difference between pre and post-ductal PI) may identify hemodynamically significant PDA. However, studies are limited to brief and intermittent ΔPI sampling. Our objective is to assess the value of continuous high resolution ΔPI monitoring in the diagnosis of PDA. METHODS: Continuous ΔPI monitoring in preterm infants was prospectively performed using two high resolution pulse oximeters...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099381/daily-propranolol-administration-reduces-persistent-injury-associated-anemia-following-severe-trauma-and-chronic-stress
#18
Ines G Alamo, Kolenkode B Kannan, Letitia E Bible, Tyler J Loftus, Harry Ramos, Philip A Efron, Alicia M Mohr
BACKGROUND: Following severe trauma, patients develop a norepinephrine-mediated persistent, injury-associated anemia. This anemia is associated with suppression of bone marrow erythroid colony growth, along with decreased iron levels, and elevated erythropoietin (EPO) levels, which are insufficient to promote effective erythropoiesis. The impact of norepinephrine on iron regulators such as ferroportin, transferrin and transferrin receptor-1 (TFR-1) are unknown. Using a clinically relevant rodent model of lung contusion (LC), hemorrhagic shock (HS), and chronic stress (CS), we hypothesize that daily propranolol (BB), a non-selective beta-blocker, restores bone marrow function and improves iron homeostasis...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099380/predicting-appendiceal-tumors-among-patients-with-appendicitis
#19
Tyler J Loftus, Steven L Raymond, George A Sarosi, Chasen A Croft, R Stephen Smith, Philip A Efron, Frederick A Moore, Scott C Brakenridge, Alicia M Mohr, Janeen R Jordan
BACKGROUND: As non-operative management of appendicitis gains popularity, vigilance for appendiceal tumors becomes increasingly important. We hypothesized that among patients presenting with acute appendicitis, those with advanced age, multiple comorbidities, atypical presentation, and complicated appendicitis would be more likely to have underlying appendiceal tumors. METHODS: We performed a 4-year retrospective cohort analysis of 677 consecutive adult patients who underwent appendectomy for appendicitis at our tertiary care center...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099354/apparent-diffusion-coefficient-normalization-of-normal-liver-will-it-improve-the-reproducibility-of-diffusion-weighted-imaging-at-different-mr-scanners-as-a-new-biomarker
#20
Jie Zhu, Jie Zhang, Jia-Yin Gao, Jin-Ning Li, Da-Wei Yang, Min Chen, Cheng Zhou, Zheng-Han Yang
Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been reported to be a helpful biomarker for detection and characterization of lesion. In view of the importance of ADC measurement reproducibility, the aim of this study was to probe the variability of the healthy hepatic ADC values measured at 3 MR scanners from different vendors and with different field strengths, and to investigate the reproducibility of normalized ADC (nADC) value with the spleen as the reference organ...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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