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Micro_computed tomography

Shengye Liu, Long Zhou, Liyu Yang, Shuai Mu, Tao Fang, Qin Fu
Background: Prolonged and over-dosed administration of glucocorticoids results in more bone remodeling, leading to glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, which is primarily due to dysfunction and apoptosis of osteoblasts. The present study investigated the therapeutic effect and molecular mechanism of gastrodin, a natural bioactive compound isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal agent Gastrodia elata, on osteoblastic cells in vivo and in vitro . Materials and Methods: The anti-dexamethasone (DEX) effects of gastrodin on primary osteoblasts were measured by cell viability, flow cytometry, and western blot analysis in vitro , and also extensively examined in a rat model in vivo ...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Sheng Zhou, Guanghu Wang, Liang Qiao, Qiting Ge, Dongyang Chen, Zhihong Xu, Dongquan Shi, Jin Dai, Jinzhong Qin, Huajian Teng, Qing Jiang
The ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model has been widely accepted to be suitable for the study of postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, whether C57BL/6J mice, a commonly used genetic background mouse strain, is an appropriate model for postmenopausal osteoporosis remains controversial. The present study investigated the effect of the OVX model on alterations in bone density and microarchitecture in C57BL/6J female mice of different ages. C57BL/6J mice were divided into 8-, 12- and 16-week-old groups (OVX8 , OVX12 and OVX16 ) from the beginning of OVX...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Li-Hua Ni, Ri-Ning Tang, Lin-Li Lv, Min Wu, Bin Wang, Feng Mei Wang, Hai-Feng Ni, Kai-Yun Song, Li-Ting Wang, Meng-Zuo, Qiang Chen, Bi-Cheng Liu
The study of parathyroid hyperplasia with bone disease as a critical manifestation of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders (CKD-MBDs) is challenging due to the lack of a suitable research model. Here, we established a rat model with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) and bone disease induced by adenine and a high phosphorous diet and analyzed the skeletal characteristics. We performed blood analysis, emission computed tomography (ECT), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), bone histomorphometry, and bone mechanical tests...
March 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yutaka Tanaka, Shigeru Saito, Saeko Sasuga, Azuma Takahashi, Yusuke Aoyama, Kazuto Obama, Mitsuo Umezu, Kiyotaka Iwasaki
BACKGROUND: Quantitative assessment of post-transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) aortic regurgitation (AR) remains challenging. We developed patient-specific anatomical models with pulsatile flow circuit and investigated factors associated with AR after TAVR. METHODS: Based on pre-procedural computed tomography (CT) data of the six patients who underwent transfemoral TAVR using a 23-mm SAPIEN XT, anatomically and mechanically equivalent aortic valve models were developed...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Elizabeth F Redente, Martin A Aguilar, Bart P Black, Benjamin Edelman, Ali Bahadur, Stephen M Humphries, David A Lynch, Lutz Wollin, David W H Riches
Rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) develops in approximately 20% of patients with RA. SKG mice, which are genetically prone to developing autoimmune arthritis, develop a pulmonary interstitial pneumonia that resembles human cellular and fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia. Nintedanib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, has been shown to reduce lung function decline. Therefore, we investigated the effect of nintedanib on the development of pulmonary fibrosis and joint disease in female SKG mice with arthritis induced by intraperitoneal injection of zymosan (5 mg)...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Ricardo Araújo, Vincent Fernandez, Richard D Rabbitt, Eric G Ekdale, Miguel T Antunes, Rui Castanhinha, Jörg Fröbisch, Rui M S Martins
The semicircular canal (SC) system of the inner ear detects head angular accelerations and is essential for navigation and spatial awareness in vertebrates. Because the bony labyrinth encloses the membranous labyrinth SCs, it can be used as a proxy for animal behavior. The bony labyrinth of dicynodonts, a clade of herbivorous non-mammalian synapsids, has only been described in a handful of individuals and remains particularly obscure. Here we describe the bony labyrinth anatomy of three Endothiodon cf. bathystoma specimens from Mozambique based on digital reconstructions from propagation phase-contrast synchrotron micro-computed tomography...
2018: PloS One
Cordula Netzer, Pascal Distel, Uwe Wolfram, Hans Deyhle, Gregory F Jost, Stefan Schären, Jeroen Geurts
Facet joint osteoarthritis is a prominent feature of degenerative spine disorders, highly prevalent in ageing populations, and considered a major cause for chronic lower back pain. Since there is no targeted pharmacological therapy, clinical management of disease includes analgesic or surgical treatment. The specific cellular, molecular, and structural changes underpinning facet joint osteoarthritis remain largely elusive. The aim of this study was to determine osteoarthritis-related structural alterations in cortical and trabecular subchondral bone compartments...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Dylan K Wainwright, Sam Ingersoll, George V Lauder
Tunas of the genus Thunnus possess many morphological and physiological adaptations for their high-performance epipelagic ecology. Although Thunnus anatomy has been studied, there are no quantitative studies on the structure of their scales. We investigated the scales of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) from ten regions of the body using micro computed tomography (µCT)-scanning and histology to quantitatively and qualitatively compare regional scale morphology. We found a diversity of scale sizes and shapes across the body of bigeye tuna and discriminant function analysis on variables derived from µCT-data showed that scales across the body differ quantitatively in shape and size...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Morphology
C H R Goatley, S Wroe, S B Tebbett, D R Bellwood
X-ray micro-computed tomography scans were used to examine the caudal-fin structure of an unusual double-tailed deformity in an adult brown surgeonfish Acanthurus nigrofuscus from the Great Barrier Reef. In both this case and in a similar double-tailed deformity in a juvenile Tomini surgeonfish Ctenochaetus tominiensis from the Philippines, the caudal fin was duplicated along the dorsoventral axis. Detailed examination of the A. nigrofuscus specimen revealed that the deformity was associated with duplication and reflection of the hypural plates and the posterior vertebrae, yet the fish survived to adulthood, indicating that the effects of duplication on survival may be limited...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Chih-Chien Wang, Chih-Hsin Wang, Hsiang-Cheng Chen, Juin-Hong Cherng, Shu-Jen Chang, Yi-Wen Wang, Adrienne Chang, Jue-Zong Yeh, Yi-Huei Huang, Cheng-Che Liu
Repair and regeneration of craniofacial tissues is particularly challenging because they comprise a complex structure of hard and soft tissues involved in intricate functions. This study combined collagen scaffolds and human adipose stem cells (hASCs) for oral mucosal and calvarial bone regeneration by using resveratrol (RSV), which affects the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. We have evaluated the effect of collagen scaffold-containing RSV (collagen/RSV) scaffolds both in vitro and in vivo for their wound healing and bone regeneration potential...
March 13, 2018: International Wound Journal
Perrine Chaurand, Wei Liu, Daniel Borschneck, Clément Levard, Mélanie Auffan, Emmanuel Paul, Blanche Collin, Isabelle Kieffer, Sophie Lanone, Jérôme Rose, Jeanne Perrin
In this methodological study, we demonstrated the relevance of 3D imaging performed at various scales for the ex vivo detection and location of cerium oxide nanomaterials (CeO2 -NMs) in mouse lung. X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) with a voxel size from 14 µm to 1 µm (micro-CT) was combined with X-ray nano-computed tomography with a voxel size of 63 nm (nano-CT). An optimized protocol was proposed to facilitate the sample preparation, to minimize the experimental artifacts and to optimize the contrast of soft tissues exposed to metal-based nanomaterials (NMs)...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
M Wolf, M Ao, M B Chavez, T N Kolli, V Thumbigere-Math, K Becker, E Y Chu, A Jäger, M J Somerman, B L Foster
Previous studies revealed that cementum formation is tightly regulated by inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi ), a mineralization inhibitor. Local PPi concentrations are determined by regulators, including ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1), which increases PPi concentrations by adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis. Orthodontic forces stimulate alveolar bone remodelling, leading to orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). To better understand how disturbed mineral metabolism and the resulting altered periodontal structures affect OTM, we employed Enpp1 mutant mice that feature reduced PPi and increased cervical cementum in a model of OTM induced by a stretched closed-coil spring ligated between the maxillary left first molar and maxillary incisors...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Youngil Kwon, Hyunjung Ko, Soojung Kim, Miri Kim
BACKGROUND/AIM: Continuous research efforts have been focusing on promoting healing of delayed replantation of avulsed teeth. The aim of this in vivo study was to assess the effect of cathepsin K inhibitor surface treatment on delayed tooth replantation.Materials and Methods Thirty-four premolar roots of four beagle dogs were extracted and conventional root canal treatment was performed. The canals were filled with gutta-percha and cement. All extracted teeth were air-dried for 1 h. Teeth were divided into two groups according to the root surface treatment prior to replantation: control (n = 13) and cathepsin K inhibitor (n = 21)...
March 13, 2018: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
N Chicherova, S E Hieber, A Khimchenko, C Bikis, B Müller, P Cattin
Localizing a histological section in the three-dimensional dataset of a different imaging modality is a challenging 2D-3D registration problem. In the literature, several approaches have been proposed to solve this problem; however, they cannot be considered as fully automatic. Recently, we developed an automatic algorithm that could successfully find the position of a histological section in a micro computed tomography (μCT) volume. For the majority of the datasets, the result of localization corresponded to the manual results...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
Chiaki Yoshihara-Hirata, Keisuke Yamashiro, Tadashi Yamamoto, Hiroaki Aoyagi, Hidetaka Ideguchi, Mari Kawamura, Risa Suzuki, Mitsuaki Ono, Hidenori Wake, Masahiro Nishibori, Shogo Takashiba
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a non-histone DNA-binding protein, secreted into the extracellular milieu in response to inflammatory stimuli. The secreted HMGB1 mediates various inflammatory diseases, including periodontitis; however, the underlying mechanisms of HMGB1-induced periodontal inflammation are not completely understood. Here, we examined whether anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody inhibits periodontal progression and investigated the molecular pathology of HMGB1 in vitro and in vivo In vitro analysis indicated that HMGB1, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were secreted in response to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) stimuli in human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) and human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1) treated with phorbol myristate acetate...
March 12, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Stefan Iglauer, Maxim Lebedev
Physical, chemical and mechanical pore-scale (i.e. micrometer-scale) mechanisms in rock are of key importance in many, if not all, subsurface processes. These processes are highly relevant in various applications, e.g. hydrocarbon recovery, CO2 geo-sequestration, geophysical exploration, water production, geothermal energy production, or the prediction of the location of valuable hydrothermal deposits. Typical examples are multi-phase flow (e.g. oil and water) displacements driven by buoyancy, viscous or capillary forces, mineral-fluid interactions (e...
December 28, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Shaohua Ma, Tiansheng Yan, Keyi Wang, Jingdi Wang, Jintao Song, Tong Wang, Wei He, Jie Bai, Liang Jin, Hailong Liang
BACKGROUND: Segmentectomy can retains more healthy lung tissue than lobectomy, but it remains controversial in oncology for early stage lung cancer. The aim of this study is to discuss the problems of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) segmentectomy in early stage lung cancer, by analyzing the clinical and pathological data of 35 cases and reviewing the literature. METHODS: There were 35 patients who received segmentectomy by complete video-assisted thoracic surgery, from May 2013 to July 2017, in single operation group in the Third Hospital of Peking University...
February 20, 2018: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
Camila Galletti Espir, Camila Almeida Nascimento-Mendes, Juliane Maria Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Bruno Cavalini Cavenago, Marco Antonio Hungaro Duarte, Mário Tanomaru-Filho
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the shaping ability and cleaning after oval root canal preparation using one or more instruments in reciprocating or rotary motion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Oval-shaped mandibular incisors were selected, based on the radiographic diameter (2 ≤ diameter ratio ≤ 4), and assigned according to root canal preparation (n = 18): single-file (Reciproc R40); two reciprocating files (Unicone size 20 and 40, .06 taper) or Mtwo rotary files until a size 40, ...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Sahar Ghanmi, Moez Trigui, Walid Baya, Zoubaier Ellouz, Abdelfatteh Elfeki, Slim Charfi, Jean Christophe Fricain, Hassib Keskes
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fresh human amniotic membrane (FHAM) as a substitute of periosteum to enhance bone regeneration in critical-sized defects. METHODS: Tibial diaphyseal bone defects were created in forty New Zealand white rabbits and treated with FHAM or left empty. Treatment groups consisted of: FHAM implanted in the place of removed periosteum (FHAMP group); FHFAM implanted to fill the entire defect (FHAMF group) compared to negative control group; empty defect with removing the periosteum (NC group) and positive control group; and empty defect without removing the periosteum (PC group)...
March 7, 2018: Bone
Liu Shi, Lu Feng, Yang Liu, Ji-Qiang Duan, Wei-Ping Lin, Jin-Fang Zhang, Gang Li
As a regulator of osteogenesis, microRNA-218 (miR-218) is reported to promote osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, the in vivo osteogenic effect of miR-218 remains elusive. In this study, miR-218 was confirmed to promote osteogenic differentiation of MSCs by stimulating the alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium nodule formation, and osteogenic marker gene expression. For in vivo study, the miR-218-overexpressing BMSCs were locally administrated into the fracture sites in a femur fracture mouse model...
March 9, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
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