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Micro_computed tomography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926512/orthosiphon-stamineus-misai-kucing-ameliorated-postmenopausal-osteoporosis-in-rat-model
#1
Rubiatul Adawiyah Bokhari, Seng Fong Lau, Suhaila Mohamed
OBJECTIVE: Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) or Misai Kucing (Java tea) is a popular herbal supplement from Southeast Asia for various metabolic, age-related diseases. This study investigated the potential use of OS leaf extracts to ameliorate osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. METHODS: Fifty-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into eight groups (n = 7): SHAM (healthy sham control); OVX (ovarietomized) nontreated rats (negative control); OVX + Remifemin (100 mg/kg body weight), and 2% green tea extract (positive controls); OVX + OS 50% ethanolic and aqueous extracts, both at either 150 or 300 mg/kg...
September 18, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925991/a-multiscale-imaging-and-modelling-dataset-of-the-human-inner-ear
#2
Nicolas Gerber, Mauricio Reyes, Livia Barazzetti, Hans Martin Kjer, Sergio Vera, Martin Stauber, Pavel Mistrik, Mario Ceresa, Nerea Mangado, Wilhelm Wimmer, Thomas Stark, Rasmus R Paulsen, Stefan Weber, Marco Caversaccio, Miguel A González Ballester
Understanding the human inner ear anatomy and its internal structures is paramount to advance hearing implant technology. While the emergence of imaging devices allowed researchers to improve understanding of intracochlear structures, the difficulties to collect appropriate data has resulted in studies conducted with few samples. To assist the cochlear research community, a large collection of human temporal bone images is being made available. This data descriptor, therefore, describes a rich set of image volumes acquired using cone beam computed tomography and micro-CT modalities, accompanied by manual delineations of the cochlea and sub-compartments, a statistical shape model encoding its anatomical variability, and data for electrode insertion and electrical simulations...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922543/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-degradation-of-microfiber-bioresorbable-coronary-scaffold
#3
Chi-Hung Huang, Sheng-Yang Lee, Sonida Horng, Louis-Georges Guy, Ting-Bin Yu
The degradation of Mirage Bioresorbable Microfiber Scaffold was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The degradation in polymer molecular weight (MW), strut morphology, and integrity was accessed using gel permeation chromatography (GPC), X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) evaluation. To simulate the physiological degradation in vitro, scaffolds were deployed in silicone mock vessels connected to a peristaltic pumping system, which pumps 37°C phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) at a constant rate. At various time points (30D, 60D, 90D, 180D, 270D, and 360D), the MW of microfibers decreased to 57...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921912/fate-of-worn-out-functional-teeth-in-the-upper-jaw-dentition-of-sicyopterus-japonicus-gobioidei-sicydiinae-during-tooth-replacement
#4
Noriyuki Sahara, Keita Moriyama, Midori Iida, Shun Watanabe
Mochizuki and Fukui (1983) studied the development and replacement of the upper jaw teeth in a Japanese fish species, Sicyopterus japonicus (Gobioidei: Sicydiinae), and they reported that worn-out functional teeth in the upper jaw were not shed outside the skin but were taken into the soft tissue of the upper jaw and completely resorbed there. To date, however, this phenomenon appears poorly documented. Furthermore, the mechanism for the resorption of these teeth remains to be determined. In the present study, we examined this phenomenon by using 3D micro-computed tomography (m-CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and various techniques of light (LM) and electron (EM) microcopy...
September 16, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918101/silver-diamine-fluoride-remineralized-artificial-incipient-caries-in-permanent-teeth-after-bacterial-ph-cycling-in-vitro
#5
Kulnipa Punyanirun, Thanida Yospiboonwong, Thansinee Kunapinun, Panida Thanyasrisung, Chutima Trairatvorakul
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the remineralizing effect of 38% silver diamine fluoride (SDF) application on enamel artificial caries in adjunct to 1000ppm fluoride toothpaste compared with fluoride toothpaste alone by analyzing the mineral density, depth of remineralization, and remineralization percentage of the lesions. METHODS: Eighteen artificial caries slabs were created from the proximal surfaces of nine chemically demineralized premolars. The slabs were scanned by Micro-Computed Tomography (Micro-CT) to determine the baseline mineral density of the initial lesions and randomly allocated into 2 groups...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911512/cardioprotective-effects-of-hsp72%C3%A2-administration-on-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#6
Takashi Tanimoto, Missag H Parseghian, Takehiro Nakahara, Hideki Kawai, Navneet Narula, Dongbin Kim, Robert Nishimura, Richard H Weisbart, Grace Chan, Richard A Richieri, Nezam Haider, Farhan Chaudhry, Glenn T Reynolds, John Billimek, Francis G Blankenberg, Partho P Sengupta, Artiom D Petrov, Takashi Akasaka, H William Strauss, Jagat Narula
BACKGROUND: Although early reperfusion is the most desirable intervention after ischemic myocardial insult, it may add to damage through oxidative stress. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the cardioprotective effects of a single intravenous dose of heat shock protein-72 (HSP72) coupled to a single-chain variable fragment (Fv) of monoclonal antibody 3E10 (3E10Fv) in a rabbit ischemia-reperfusion model. The Fv facilitates rapid transport of HSP72 into cells, even with intact membranes...
September 19, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910363/impaired-bone-formation-in-ovariectomized-mice-reduces-implant-integration-as-indicated-by-longitudinal-in-vivo-micro-computed-tomography
#7
Zihui Li, Gisela Kuhn, Michael Schirmer, Ralph Müller, Davide Ruffoni
Although osteoporotic bone, with low bone mass and deteriorated bone architecture, provides a less favorable mechanical environment than healthy bone for implant fixation, there is no general agreement on the impact of osteoporosis on peri-implant bone (re)modeling, which is ultimately responsible for the long term stability of the bone-implant system. Here, we inserted an implant in a mouse model mimicking estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss and we monitored with longitudinal in vivo micro-computed tomography the spatio-temporal changes in bone (re)modeling and architecture, considering the separate contributions of trabecular, endocortical and periosteal surfaces...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902864/comparative-skull-anatomy-of-terrestrial-and-crevice-dwelling-trachylepis-skinks-squamata-scincidae-with-a-survey-of-resources-in-scincid-cranial-osteology
#8
Daniel J Paluh, Aaron M Bauer
Skinks account for more than 25% of all lizard species; however, representatives of fewer than a quarter of all species have been characterized osteologically. All but a few of the available cranial descriptions concentrate solely on characters that can be seen externally on the intact skull. Mabuyid skinks of the genus Trachylepis are the dominant, fully limbed skinks in Sub-Saharan Africa, and nearly all species have the same generalized body plan. Although a few rock crevice-dwelling species possess slight body depression, extreme dorsoventral depression is observed only in Trachylepis laevis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902435/longitudinal-effects-of-single-hindlimb-radiation-therapy-on-bone-strength-and-morphology-at-local-and-contralateral-sites
#9
Megan E Oest, Connor G Policastro, Kenneth A Mann, Nicholas D Zimmerman, Timothy A Damron
Radiation therapy (RTx) is associated with increased risk for late-onset fragility fractures in bone tissue underlying the radiation field. Bone tissue outside the RTx field is often selected as a "normal" comparator tissue in clinical assessment of fragility fracture risk, but the robustness of this comparison is limited by an incomplete understanding of the systemic effects of local radiotherapy. In this study, a mouse model of limited field irradiation was used to quantify longitudinal changes in local (irradiated) and systemic (non-irradiated) femurs with respect to bone density, morphology, and strength...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900122/projection-stereolithographic-fabrication-of-bmp-2-gene-activated-matrix-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#10
Hang Lin, Ying Tang, Thomas P Lozito, Nicholas Oyster, Robert B Kang, Madalyn R Fritch, Bing Wang, Rocky S Tuan
Currently, sustained in vivo delivery of active bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) protein to responsive target cells, such as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), remains challenging. Ex vivo gene transfer method, while efficient, requires additional operation for cell culture and therefore, is not compatible with point-of-care treatment. In this study, two lentiviral gene constructs - (1) Lv-BMP/GFP, containing human BMP-2 and green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene (BMP group); or (2) Lv-GFP, containing GFP gene (GFP group) - were incorporated with human BMSCs into a solution of photocrosslinkable gelatin, which was then subjected to visible light-based projection stereolithographic printing to form a scaffold with desired architectures...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899509/a-standardized-humulus-lupulus-l-ethanol-extract-partially-prevents-ovariectomy-induced-bone-loss-in-the-rat-without-induction-of-adverse-effects-in-the-uterus
#11
Annekathrin M Keiler, Janina Helle, Manuela I Bader, Tino Ehrhardt, Kristin Nestler, Georg Kretzschmar, Ricardo Bernhardt, Günter Vollmer, Dejan Nikolić, Judy L Bolton, Guido F Pauli, Shao-Nong Chen, Birgit M Dietz, Richard B van Breemen, Oliver Zierau
BACKGROUND: Hops (Humulus lupulus (L.)) dietary supplements are of interest as herbal remedies to alleviate menopausal symptoms, such as hot flushes, depression and anxiety. So far, the evidence regarding estrogenic and related properties of hops preparations has been considered insufficient for a market authorization for menopausal indications. PURPOSE: The study aims to investigate a chemically standardized hops extract regarding its safety in the uterus, as wells as its efficacy to prevent bone loss in the ovariectomized rat model...
October 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893545/neer-award-2017-wear-rates-of-32-mm-and-40-mm-glenospheres-in-a-reverse-total-shoulder-arthroplasty-wear-simulation-model
#12
John Haggart, Michael D Newton, Samantha Hartner, Anthony Ho, Kevin C Baker, Michael D Kurdziel, J Michael Wiater
BACKGROUND: Larger glenosphere diameters have been used recently to increase prosthesis stability and impingement-free range of motion in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. The goal of this study was to evaluate the rate of polyethylene wear for 32-mm and 40-mm glenospheres. METHODS: Glenospheres (32 mm and 40 mm, n = 6/group) and conventional polyethylene humeral liners underwent a 5-million cycle (MC) wear simulation protocol. Abduction-adduction and flexion-extension motion profiles were alternated every 250,000 cycles...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893543/effect-of-piezoelectric-sutural-ostectomies-on-accelerated-bone-borne-sutural-expansion
#13
Akram S Alyessary, Adrian U J Yap, Siti A Othman, Mohammad T Rahman, Zamri Radzi
PURPOSE: The present study investigated the effect of piezoelectric sutural ostectomies on accelerated bone-borne sutural expansion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen male New Zealand white rabbits (20 to 24 weeks old) were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups (n = 4): group 1, conventional rapid sutural expansion; group 2, accelerated sutural expansion; group 3, accelerated sutural expansion with continuous ostectomy; and group 4, accelerated sutural expansion with discontinuous ostectomy...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892261/fabrication-of-trabecular-bone-templated-tissue-engineered-constructs-by-3d-inkjet-printing
#14
Joseph P Vanderburgh, Shanik J Fernando, Alyssa R Merkel, Julie A Sterling, Scott A Guelcher
3D printing enables the creation of scaffolds with precisely controlled morphometric properties for multiple tissue types, including musculoskeletal tissues such as cartilage and bone. Computed tomography (CT) imaging has been combined with 3D printing to fabricate anatomically scaled patient-specific scaffolds for bone regeneration. However, anatomically scaled scaffolds typically lack sufficient resolution to recapitulate the <100 micrometer-scale trabecular architecture essential for investigating the cellular response to the morphometric properties of bone...
September 11, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892037/induction-and-micro-ct-imaging-of-cerebral-cavernous-malformations-in-mouse-model
#15
Jaesung P Choi, Xi Yang, Matthew Foley, Xian Wang, Xiangjian Zheng
Mutations in the CCM1 (aka KRIT1), CCM2, or CCM3 (aka PDCD10) gene cause cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) in humans. Mouse models of CCM disease have been established by tamoxifen induced deletion of Ccm genes in postnatal animals. These mouse models provide invaluable tools to investigate molecular mechanism and therapeutic approaches for CCM disease. An accurate and quantitative method to assess lesion burden and progression is essential to harness the full value of these animal models. Here, we demonstrate the induction of CCM disease in a mouse model and the use of the contrast enhanced X-ray micro computed tomography (micro-CT) method to measure CCM lesion burden in mouse brains...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891043/treamed-locked-intramedullary-nailing-for-studying-femur-fracture-and-its-complications
#16
O Yoshino, J Brady, K Young, B Hardy, R Matthys, T Buxton, R Appleyard, J Tomka, D Dabirrahmani, P Woodford, M Fadia, R Steck, A Quail, R G Richards, Z J Balogh
Morbidity associated with femur fractures in polytrauma patients is known to be high. The many unsolved clinical questions include the immunological effect of the fracture and its fixation, timing of fracture fixation, management of fracture non-union, effect of infection and critical size of bone defects. The aim of this study was to establish a clinically-relevant and reproducible animal model with regards to histological, biomechanical and radiological changes during bone healing. A custom-designed intramedullary nail with interlocking system (RabbitNail, RISystem AG, Davos Platz, Switzerland) was used for fixation, following femur fracture...
September 11, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890234/calibration-of-a-lactic-acid-model-for-simulating-biofilm-induced-degradation-of-the-dentin-composite-interface
#17
Laikuan Zhu, Yuping Li, Carola A Carrera, Yung-Chung Chen, Mingyu Li, Alex Fok
OBJECTIVE: To verify and calibrate a chemical model for simulating the degradation of the dentin-composite interface induced by multi-species oral biofilms in vitro. METHODS: Dentin-composite disks (5-mm dia.×2-mm thick) were made from bovine incisor roots and filled with either Z100™ (Z100) or Filtek™ LS (LS) composite. The disks, which were covered with nail varnish, but with one of the dentin-composite margins exposed, were immersed in lactic acid solution at pH 4...
September 7, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888067/injectable-thermosensitive-alginate-%C3%AE-tricalcium-phosphate-aspirin-hydrogels-for-bone-augmentation
#18
Xiaoqian Fang, Lei Lei, Ting Jiang, Ying Chen, Yunqing Kang
In this study, an injectable and thermo-sensitive alginate/β-tricalcium phosphate hydrogel (TSAH/β-TCP) was prepared for aspirin release to a bone defect. Aspirin was dissolved into a mixture of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), an aminated alginate-g-PNIPAAm co-polymer, and β-TCP powders. Scanning electron microscopy showed that TSAH/β-TCP had an interconnected porous microstructure with a porosity of 86.78%. The cross-linked hydrogel released approximately 40% of the aspirin in the first 3 days and then slowly released the remainder...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886025/robust-phase-retrieval-based-x-ray-tomography-for-morphological-assessment-of-early-hepatic-echinococcosis-infection-in-rats
#19
Huiqiang Liu, Chuanshan Zhang, Xiaoxi Fan, Yingni Duan, Tiqiao Xiao, Guohao Du, Yanan Fu, Haigang Liu, Hao Wen
Propagation-based phase-contrast computed micro-tomography (PPCT) dominates the non-destructive, three-dimensional inner-structure measurement in synchrotron-based biomedical research due to its simple experimental setup. To quantitatively visualize tiny density variations in soft tissues and organs closely related to early pathological morphology, an experimental study of synchrotron-based X-ray PPCT combined with generalized phase and attenuation duality (PAD) phase retrieval was implemented with the hepatic echinococcosis (HE) infection rat model at different stages...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885726/achieving-interfragmentary-compression-without-special-drilling-technique-or-screw-design
#20
Jonathan Eastman, Bradley Deafenbaugh, Blaine Christiansen, Tanya Garcia-Nolen, Mark Lee
Traditional fracture fixation teaching suggests that fully threaded screws do not provide interfragmentary compression unless placed through a glide hole. Based on this assumption, pelvic surgeons typically use fully threaded screws in the treatment of comminuted transforaminal sacral fractures to limit iatrogenic neuroforaminal stenosis. Clinical experience with fully threaded screws suggests that interfragmentary compression actually does occur. We hypothesized that the use of a fully threaded screw does not produce any interfragmentary compression and that there is no difference in insertional torque between partially threaded and fully threaded screws...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
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