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Micro_computed tomography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351052/particulate-coral-hydroxyapatite-sheltered-by-titanium-mesh-for-localized-alveolar-rehabilitation-after-onlay-graft-failure-a-case-report
#1
Miao Zhou, Shuyi Li, Hendrik Terheyden, Shuaishuai Cao, Yuejuan Che, Yuanming Geng
Reconstruction of bone loss in the alveolar ridge has long been challenging. Autologous bone grafts are considered as the "golden standard", while little research has focused on how to repair pronounced alveolar bone defects after autologous bone graft failure. The aim of this study was to detail a method based on the titanium mesh technique coupled with particulate coral hydroxyapatite to solve the Onlay graft failure. With bone deficiency in the #11 and #24- #25 regions, we harvested two autologous bone blocks for reconstruction...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Oral Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350559/visualizing-3d-food-microstructure-using-tomographic-methods-advantages-and-disadvantages
#2
Zi Wang, Els Herremans, Siem Janssen, Dennis Cantre, Pieter Verboven, Bart Nicolaï
X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) provides the unique ability to capture intact internal microstructure data without significant preparation of the sample. The fundamentals of micro-CT technology are briefly described along with a short introduction to basic image processing, quantitative analysis, and derivative computational modeling. The applications and limitations of micro-CT in industries such as meat, dairy, postharvest, and bread/confectionary are discussed to serve as a guideline to the plausibility of utilizing the technique for detecting features of interest...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349884/report-of-a-human-autopsy-case-in-maxillary-sinuses-augmented-using-a-synthetic-bone-substitute-micro-computed-tomographic-and-histologic-observations
#3
Jung-Seok Lee, Jae-Kook Cha, Daniel S Thoma, Ui-Won Jung
OBJECTIVE: This study of a human autopsy case aimed to characterize the histologic and micro-computed tomographic results of maxillary sinus augmentation using a synthetic bone substitute and simultaneous implant placement at 6 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This report is based on the whole-body donation of a 62-year-old male patient who died due to bladder cancer. Implants had been placed in conjunction with sinus augmentation using a mixture of biphasic calcium phosphate and autogenous bone into both maxillary sinuses 6 years prior to the body donation...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Oral Implants Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347368/three-scale-analysis-of-the-permeability-of-a-natural-shale
#4
C A Davy, P M Adler
The macroscopic permeability of a natural shale is determined by using structural measurements on three different scales. Transmission electron microscopy yields two-dimensional (2D) images with pixels smaller than 1 nm; these images are used to reconstruct 3D nanostructures. Three-dimensional focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (5.95- to 8.48-nm voxel size) provides 3D mesoscale pores of limited relative volume (1.71-5.9%). Micro-computed tomography (700-nm voxel size) provides information on the mineralogy of the shale, including the pores on this scale which do not percolate; synthetic 3D media are derived on the macroscopic scale by a training image technique...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344807/inhibition-of-bone-resorption-by-bisphosphonates-interferes-with-orthodontically-induced-midpalatal-suture-expansion-in-mice
#5
Till Koehne, Bärbel Kahl-Nieke, Michael Amling, Heike Korbmacher-Steiner
OBJECTIVES: Craniofacial sutures are important growth sites for skull development and are sensitive to mechanical stress. In order to determine the role of bone resorption in stress-mediated sutural bone growth, midpalatal suture expansion was performed in mice receiving alendronate, an anti-resorptive bisphosphonate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The midpalatal sutures of 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice were expanded by orthodontic wires over the period of 2 weeks. Mice with maxillary expansion without drug treatment as well as untreated animals served as controls...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344306/131i-labeled-copper-sulfide-loaded-microspheres-to-treat-hepatic-tumors-via-hepatic-artery-embolization
#6
Qiufang Liu, Yuyi Qian, Panli Li, Sihang Zhang, Jianjun Liu, Xiaoguang Sun, Michael Fulham, Dagan Feng, Gang Huang, Wei Lu, Shaoli Song
Purpose: Transcatheter hepatic artery embolization therapy is a minimally invasive alternative for treating inoperable liver cancer but recurrence is frequent. Multifunctional agents, however, offer an opportunity for tumor eradication. In this study, we were aim to synthesized poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres encapsulating hollow CuS nanoparticles (HCuSNPs) and paclitaxel (PTX) that were then labeled with radioiodine-131 (131I) to produce 131I-HCuSNPs-MS-PTX. This compound combines the multi-theranostic properties of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and photothermal therapy...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343614/suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-2-socs2-deletion-protects-bone-health-of-mice-with-dss-induced-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
Ross Dobie, Vicky E MacRae, Chloe Pass, Elspeth M Milne, S Faisal Ahmed, Colin Farquharson
Individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often present with poor bone health. The development of targeted therapies for this bone loss requires a fuller understanding of the underlying cellular mechanisms. Although bone loss in IBD is multifactorial, the altered sensitivity and secretion of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in IBD is understood to be a critical contributing mechanism. The expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2), a well-established negative regulator of GH signaling, is stimulated by proinflammatory cytokines...
January 17, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343155/carboxymethyl-chitosan-zinc-coating-for-prevention-of-pin-tract-infection-an-animal-model
#8
Vidmi Taolam Martin, Lei Wang, Rong Zeng, DeQiang You, XianRong Zhang, Welera Haissou Elodie, Bin Yu
BACKGROUND: Pin tract infection is a common problem in orthopedic and traumatology surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an implant coated with carboxymethyl chitosan-zinc (CMC-Zn2+) in prevention of pin tract infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four male New Zealand White rabbits were randomized into two equal groups ( n = 12, uncoated and CMC-Zn2+). The implants were colonized with 1 × 106 colony forming units of Staphylococcus aureus and inserted into the lateral right proximal tibia in each rabbit...
January 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341335/osteogenic-efficacy-of-bmp-2-mixed-with-hydrogel-and-bone-substitute-in-peri-implant-dehiscence-defects-in-dogs-16%C3%A2-weeks-of-healing
#9
Jae-Kook Cha, Ui-Won Jung, Daniel S Thoma, Christoph H F Hämmerle, Ronald E Jung
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) mixed with either polyethylene glycol hydrogel or synthetic bone substitute (SBS) on new bone formation in peri-implant dehiscence defects after 16 weeks of healing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A guided bone regeneration procedure was performed in box-type peri-implant defects that were surgically prepared in six beagle dogs. The following four experimental groups were used (i) control (no graft), (ii) SBS+hydrogel, (iii) SBS+BMP-2/hydrogel and (iv) BMP-2/SBS+hydrogel...
January 17, 2018: Clinical Oral Implants Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338324/effect-of-vertical-or-beveled-chondral-defect-creation-on-rim-deformation-and-contact
#10
Adam B Yanke, Megan L Konopka, Davietta C Butty, Maximilian A Meyer, Eric J Cotter, Alejandro A Espinoza, Brian J Cole
Objective To determine biomechanical effects of knee cartilage defect perimeter morphology based on cartilage strain and opposing subchondral bone contact. Design Articular cartilage defects were created in 5 bovine femoral condyles: group 1, 45° inner bevel with 8-mm rim; group 2, vertical with 8-mm rim; and group 3, 45° outer bevel with 8-mm base. Samples were placed into a custom-machined micro-computed tomography tube and subjected to 800 N of axial loading. DICOM data were used to calculate cartilage thickness 4 and 6 mm from the center, distance between tibial cartilage surface and femoral subchondral bone, and contact width between tibial cartilage and subchondral bone...
January 1, 2018: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336820/micro-ct-and-micro-fe-analysis-of-pedicle-screw-fixation-under-different-loading-conditions
#11
Y Chevalier, M Matsuura, S Krüger, C Fleege, M Rickert, M Rauschmann, C Schilling
Anchorage of pedicle screw instrumentation in the elderly spine with poor bone quality remains challenging. In this study, micro finite element (µFE) models were used to assess the specific influence of screw design and the relative contribution of local bone density to fixation mechanics. These were created from micro computer tomography (µCT) scans of vertebras implanted with two types of pedicle screws, including a full region-or-interest of 10 mm radius around each screw, as well as submodels for the pedicle and inner trabecular bone of the vertebral body...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334669/anti-obesity-effects-of-clausena-excavata-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#12
Young-Rak Cho, Jung A Lee, Yoon Yeon Kim, Jae-Shin Kang, Jae-Ho Lee, Eun-Kyung Ahn
Clausena excavata (C. excavata) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of abdominal pain, enteritis, dysentery, and malaria. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of a 50% ethanol extract of C. excavata (ECE) on weight loss, adipocyte size, and obesity-related biochemical parameters in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. After 6 weeks of HFD + ECE administration, HFD-induced total fat, subcutaneous fat, and visceral fat were evaluated by micro-computed tomography. The serum levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCH), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were evaluated with a biochemical analyzer, and leptin and adiponectin levels in the serum were assessed via enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA)...
January 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334137/calcium-phosphate-precipitation-in-experimental-gaps-between-fluoride-containing-fast-setting-calcium-silicate-cement-and-dentin
#13
Bahram Ranjkesh, Ming Ding, Michel Dalstra, Jens R Nyengaard, Jacques Chevallier, Flemming Isidor, Henrik Løvschall
A novel fast-setting calcium silicate cement containing fluoride (novel-CSC) has been developed for applications in tooth crowns. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of the novel-CSC to close the experimental gaps at the dentin-cement interface. The novel-CSC was tested against Vitrebond and GC Fuji II LC. Experimental gaps of 50 or 300 μm width were created between the materials and dentin. Specimens with the 300-μm-wide gap were immersed in phosphate-buffered saline and the closed gap area was measured during 96 h...
January 15, 2018: European Journal of Oral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334127/non-enzymatic-cross-linking-of-collagen-type-ii-fibrils-is-tuned-via-osmolality-switch
#14
Behdad Pouran, Parisa R Moshtagh, Vahid Arbabi, Jessica Snabel, Reinout Stoop, Jeffrey Ruberti, Jos Malda, Amir A Zadpoor, Harrie Weinans
An important aspect in cartilage ageing is accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) after exposure to sugars. Advanced glycation results in crosslinks formation between the collagen fibrils in articular cartilage, hampering their flexibility and making cartilage more brittle. In the current study, we investigate whether collagen crosslinking after exposure to sugars depends on the stretching condition of the collagen fibrils. Healthy equine cartilage specimens were exposed to L-threose sugar and placed in hypo-, iso- or hyper-osmolal conditions that expanded or shrank the tissue and changed the 3D conformation of collagen fibrils...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332951/soil-seal-development-under-simulated-rainfall-structural-physical-and-hydrological-dynamics
#15
Elena Armenise, Robert W Simmons, Sujung Ahn, Amin Garbout, Stefan H Doerr, Sacha J Mooney, Craig J Sturrock, Karl Ritz
This study delivers new insights into rainfall-induced seal formation through a novel approach in the use of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT). Up to now seal and crust thickness have been directly quantified mainly through visual examination of sealed/crusted surfaces, and there has been no quantitative method to estimate this important property. X-ray CT images were quantitatively analysed to derive formal measures of seal and crust thickness. A factorial experiment was established in the laboratory using open-topped microcosms packed with soil...
January 2018: Journal of Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332500/microstructure-and-mechanical-properties-of-porous-titanium-structures-fabricated-by-electron-beam-melting-for-cranial-implants
#16
Khaja Moiduddin
The traditional methods of metallic bone implants are often dense and suffer from adverse reactions, biomechanical mismatch and lack of adequate space for new bone tissue to grow into the implant. The objective of this study is to evaluate the customized porous cranial implant with mechanical properties closer to that of bone and to improve the aesthetic outcome in cranial surgery with precision fitting for a better quality of life. Two custom cranial implants (bulk and porous) are digitally designed based on the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine files and fabricated using additive manufacturing...
January 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331298/spatiotemporal-characterization-of-microdamage-accumulation-in-rat-ulnae-in-response-to-uniaxial-compressive-fatigue-loading
#17
Xuhui Zhang, Xiyu Liu, Zedong Yan, Jing Cai, Fei Kang, Shuai Shan, Pan Wang, Mingming Zhai, X Edward Guo, Erping Luo, Da Jing
Repetitive fatigue loading can induce microdamage accumulation in bone matrix, which results in impaired mechanical properties and increased fracture susceptibility. However, the spatial distribution and time-variant process of microdamage accumulation in fatigue-loaded skeleton, especially for linear microcracks which are known to initiate bone remodeling, remain not fully understood. In this study, the time-varying process of the morphology and distribution of microcracks in rat ulnae subjected to uniaxial compressive fatigue loading was investigated...
January 10, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329716/gelatin-hydroxyapatite-calcium-sulphate-based-biomaterial-for-long-term-sustained-delivery-of-bone-morphogenic-protein-2-and-zoledronic-acid-for-increased-bone-formation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-carrier-properties
#18
Deepak Bushan Raina, David Larsson, Filip Mrkonjic, Hanna Isaksson, Ashok Kumar, Lars Lidgren, Magnus Tägil
In this study, a novel macroporous composite biomaterial consisting of gelatin-hydroxyapatite-calcium sulphate for delivery of bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and zoledronic acid (ZA) has been developed. The biomaterial scaffold has a porous structure and functionalization of the scaffold with rhBMP-2 induces osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-e1 cells seen by a significant increase in biochemical and genetic markers of osteoblastic differentiation. In-vivo muscle pouch experiments showed higher mineralization using scaffold+rhBMP-2 when compared to an approved absorbable collagen sponge (ACS)+rhBMP-2 as verified by micro-CT...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327431/enhanced-bone-regeneration-and-visual-monitoring-via-super-paramagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticle-scaffold-in-rats
#19
Shuying Hu, Yi Zhou, Yantao Zhao, Yang Xu, Feimin Zhang, Ning Gu, Junqing Ma, Mark A Reynolds, Yang Xia, Hockin H K Xu
A main challenge for use of scaffolds in bone engineering involves non-invasive monitoring in vivo and enhanced bone regeneration. The tissue-repair effect of super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) was demonstrated previously by our group. However, testing in vivo is needed to confirm in vitro results. Here, SPIONs loaded gelatin sponge (GS) was used as a scaffold (SPIONs-GS) and implanted in the incisor sockets of Sprague-Dawley rats. Incisor sockets filled with nothing and filled with GS served as controls...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327379/influence-of-varying-stem-and-metaphyseal-sleeve-size-on-the-primary-stability-of-cementless-revision-tibial-trays-used-to-reconstruct-aori-iia-defects-a-simulation-study
#20
Maged Awadalla, Rami M A Al-Dirini, Dermot O'Rourke, Lucian Bogdan Solomon, Mark Heldreth, Mark Taylor
Traditionally, diaphyseal stems have been utilized to augment the stability of revision total knee replacement (rTKR) implants. More recently metaphyseal augments, such as sleeves, have been introduced to further augment component fixation. The effect of augments such as stems and sleeves have on the primary stability of a rTKR implant is poorly understood, however it has important implications on the complexity, costs and survivorship of the procedure. Finite element analysis was used to investigate the primary stability and strain distribution of various size stems and sleeves used in conjunction with a cementless revision tibial tray...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
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