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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442723/a-model-of-selective-masking-in-chromatic-detection
#1
Timothy G Shepard, Emily A Swanson, Comfrey L McCarthy, Rhea T Eskew
Narrowly tuned, selective noise masking of chromatic detection has been taken as evidence for the existence of a large number of color mechanisms (i.e., higher order color mechanisms). Here we replicate earlier observations of selective masking of tests in the (L,M) plane of cone space when the noise is placed near the corners of the detection contour. We used unipolar Gaussian blob tests with three different noise color directions, and we show that there are substantial asymmetries in the detection contours-asymmetries that would have been missed with bipolar tests such as Gabor patches...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26630428/herbal-medicine-for-low-back-pain-a-cochrane-review
#2
REVIEW
Joel J Gagnier, Hanna Oltean, Maurits W van Tulder, Brian M Berman, Claire Bombardier, Christopher B Robbins
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of herbal medicine for nonspecific low back pain (LBP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Many people with chronic LBP use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), visit CAM practitioners, or both. Several herbal medicines have been purported for use in treating people with LBP. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006...
January 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26448200/stopped-flow-enantioselective-hplc-cd-analysis-and-td-dft-stereochemical-characterization-of-methyl-trans-3-3-4-dimethoxyphenyl-glycidate
#3
Daniele Tedesco, Edoardo Fabini, Vakhtang Barbakadze, Maia Merlani, Riccardo Zanasi, Bezhan Chankvetadze, Carlo Bertucci
Caffeic acid-derived polyethers are a class of natural products isolated from the root extracts of comfrey and bugloss, which are endowed with intriguing pharmacological properties as anticancer agents. The synthesis of new polyether derivatives is achieved through ring-opening polymerization of chiral 2,3-disubstituted oxiranes, whose absolute configurations define the overall stereochemistry of the produced polymer. The absolute stereochemistry of one of these building blocks, methyl trans-3-(3,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)glycidate (3), was therefore characterized by the combination of enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy, and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations...
December 2015: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26411005/a-validated-rapid-hplc-esi-ms-ms-method-for-the-determination-of-lycopsamine
#4
Nikoletta Jedlinszki, Dezső Csupor
The aim of the present work was to develop and validate an HPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of a major pyrrolizidine alkaloid of comfrey (lycopsamine) in aqueous samples as a basis for the development of a method for the determination of absorption of lycopsamine by human skin. A linear calibration curve was established in the range of 1.32-440 ng. The intraday precision during the 3-day validation period ranged between 0.57 and 2.48% while the interday precision was 1.70% and 1.95% for quality control samples...
July 2015: Natural Product Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26325948/selective-noise-masking-of-l-and-m-cone-stimuli-unipolar-tests-reveal-theoretically-significant-asymmetries
#5
Timothy Shepard, Rhea Eskew, Comfrey McCarthy, Nicole Ochandarena
In an important study, Hansen & Gegenfurtner (2013) showed that chromatic masking noise placed near the corners of detection contours in the ΔL/L, ΔM/M plane of cone contrast color space can produce selective masking. Rather than being indicative of the existence of large numbers of mechanisms, as they suggested, we (Eskew & Shepard, 2013) demonstrated that this result could be accounted for by a model with a very limited number of mechanisms. Both studies used bipolar test stimuli that contain equal and opposite chromatic contrasts...
2015: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26177929/the-comparative-toxicity-of-a-reduced-crude-comfrey-symphytum-officinale-alkaloid-extract-and-the-pure-comfrey-derived-pyrrolizidine-alkaloids-lycopsamine-and-intermedine-in-chicks-gallus-gallus-domesticus
#6
Ammon W Brown, Bryan L Stegelmeier, Steven M Colegate, Dale R Gardner, Kip E Panter, Edward L Knoppel, Jeffery O Hall
Comfrey (Symphytum officinale), a commonly used herb, contains dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids that, as a group of bioactive metabolites, are potentially hepatotoxic, pneumotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic. Consequently, regulatory agencies and international health organizations have recommended comfrey be used for external use only. However, in many locations comfrey continues to be ingested as a tisane or as a leafy vegetable. The objective of this work was to compare the toxicity of a crude, reduced comfrey alkaloid extract to purified lycopsamine and intermedine that are major constituents of S...
May 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25880800/comparative-study-of-the-biological-activity-of-allantoin-and-aqueous-extract-of-the-comfrey-root
#7
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Vesna Lj Savić, Vesna D Nikolić, Ivana A Arsić, Ljiljana P Stanojević, Stevo J Najman, Sanja Stojanović, Ivana I Mladenović-Ranisavljević
This study investigates the biological activity of pure allantoin (PA) and aqueous extract of the comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) root (AECR) standardized to the allantoin content. Cell viability and proliferation of epithelial (MDCK) and fibroblastic (L929) cell line were studied by using MTT test. Anti-irritant potential was determined by measuring electrical capacitance, erythema index (EI) and transepidermal water loss of artificially irritated skin of young healthy volunteers, 3 and 7 days after application of creams and gels with PA or AECR...
August 2015: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25536022/herbal-medicine-for-low-back-pain
#8
REVIEW
Hanna Oltean, Chris Robbins, Maurits W van Tulder, Brian M Berman, Claire Bombardier, Joel J Gagnier
BACKGROUND: Low-back pain (LBP) is a common condition and imposes a substantial economic burden upon people living in industrialized societies. A large proportion of people with chronic LBP use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), visit CAM practitioners, or both. Several herbal medicines have been purported for use in treating people with LBP. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of herbal medicine for non-specific LBP...
December 23, 2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25531790/tlc-densitometric-method-for-screening-of-lycopsamine-in-comfrey-root-symphytum-officinale-l-extracts-using-retrorsine-as-a-reference-compound
#9
Damjan Janeš, Samo Kreft
Due to severe toxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, their quantification in medicinal products is very important. The idea of this research was to use retrorsine as a surrogate reference compound instead of lycopsamine reference or lycopsamine isolated from comfrey. A method for the analysis of lycopsamine in extracts of comfrey roots was developed and validated, employing thin layer chromatography, derivatisation with Dann-Mattocks reagent followed by densitometric analysis. The new method showed linearity within 0...
December 2014: Acta Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25435497/moxibustion-for-asthma-acupuncture-for-epilepsy-psychological-therapies-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-exercise-training-for-multiple-sclerosis-and-comfrey-root-for-acute-back-pain
#10
Richard Glickman-Simon, Atreyi Mukherji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25352712/protective-role-of-comfrey-leave-extracts-on-uv-induced-zebrafish-fin-damage
#11
Chien-Chung Cheng, Chi-Yuan Chou, Yao-Chin Chang, Hsuan-Wen Wang, Chi-Chung Wen, Yau-Hung Chen
In zebrafish, UV exposure leads to fin malformation phenotypes including fin reduction or absence. The present study evaluated UV-protective activities of comfrey leaves extracts in a zebrafish model by recording fin morphological changes. Chemopreventive effects of comfrey leave extracts were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression. The results showed that (1) the mean times of return to normal fin in the UV+comfrey (50 and 100 ppm) groups were 3.43 and 2.86 days and were quicker compared with that in the UV only group (4...
July 2014: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25113427/the-external-use-of-comfrey-a-practitioner-survey
#12
Rachael Frost, Susan O'Meara, Hugh MacPherson
AIM: The survey aimed to assess how often and in what ways herbal practitioners use comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) externally in everyday practice. METHODS: A 2-sided A4 survey was sent to all UK members of the National Institute of Medical Herbalists, the College of Practitioners of Phytotherapy and the Association of Master Herbalists with viable practice addresses (n = 598). RESULTS: 239 herbalists responded, of whom 179 (75%) reported regularly using comfrey, in 15% of their consultations...
November 2014: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24993834/skin-wound-healing-and-phytomedicine-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Nader Pazyar, Reza Yaghoobi, Esmail Rafiee, Abolfath Mehrabian, Amir Feily
Skin integrity is restored by a physiological process aimed at repairing the damaged tissues. The healing process proceeds in four phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and remodeling. Phytomedicine presents remedies, which possess significant pharmacological effects. It is popular amongst the general population in regions all over the world. Phytotherapeutic agents have been largely used for cutaneous wound healing. These include Aloe vera, mimosa, grape vine, Echinacea, chamomile, ginseng, green tea, jojoba, tea tree oil, rosemary, lemon, soybean, comfrey, papaya, oat, garlic, ginkgo, olive oil and ocimum...
2014: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24816769/semi-automated-separation-of-the-epimeric-dehydropyrrolizidine-alkaloids-lycopsamine-and-intermedine-preparation-of-their-n-oxides-and-nmr-comparison-with-diastereoisomeric-rinderine-and-echinatine
#14
Steven M Colegate, Dale R Gardner, Joseph M Betz, Kip E Panter
INTRODUCTION: The diversity of structure and, particularly, stereochemical variation of the dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids can present challenges for analysis and the isolation of pure compounds for the preparation of analytical standards and for toxicology studies. OBJECTIVE: To investigate methods for the separation of gram-scale quantities of the epimeric dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids lycopsamine and intermedine and to compare their NMR spectroscopic data with those of their heliotridine-based analogues echinatine and rinderine...
September 2014: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24668061/the-effect-of-burns-wounds-b-w-burdock-leaf-therapy-on-burn-injured-amish-patients-a-pilot-study-measuring-pain-levels-infection-rates-and-healing-times
#15
Nicole M Kolacz, Mark T Jaroch, Monica L Bear, Rosanna F Hess
PURPOSE: The purposes of this pilot study were to measure pain associated with dressing changes, assess the presence of infection, and document healing times of burn-injured Amish in central Ohio using an herbal therapy consisting of Burns and Wounds™ ointment (B&W) and burdock (Arctium ssp.) leaves. B&W contains honey, lanolin, olive oil, wheat germ oil, marshmallow root, Aloe vera gel, wormwood, comfrey root, white oak bark, lobelia inflata, vegetable glycerin, bees wax, and myrrh...
December 2014: Journal of Holistic Nursing: Official Journal of the American Holistic Nurses' Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24280482/a-critical-scoping-review-of-external-uses-of-comfrey-symphytum-spp
#16
REVIEW
R Frost, H MacPherson, S O'Meara
BACKGROUND: External preparations of the herb comfrey (most commonly Symphytum officinale L.) are widely available for over-the-counter, practitioner and healthcare professional usage. Traditional practice suggests comfrey can be used to treat musculoskeletal disorders, wounds and various other conditions; however a full and critical coverage of the evidence base has not yet been undertaken. METHODS: A critical scoping review was undertaken. Six bibliographic databases, 10 grey literature databases and nine trials registers were searched plus reference lists of included studies and a descriptive overview of comfrey...
December 2013: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24271908/quantitative-and-qualitative-effects-of-larval-diet-on-male-scent-secretions-ofestigmene-acrea-phragmatobia-foliginosa-andpyrrharctia-isabella-lepidoptera-arctiidae
#17
S B Krasnoff, W L Roelofs
In feeding experiments with insects reared in the laboratory, the presence of the dihydropyrrolizines hydroxydanaidal and danaidal in the male scent organs (coremata) of the arctiids,Estigmene acrea (Drury),Phragmatobia fuliginosa (L.), andPyrrharctia isabella (J.E. Smith), was shown to depend on the presence of a source of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in the larval diet.Phragmatobia males given an artificial diet supplemented with the powdered roots of the PA-containing plantSymphytum officinale L. (comfrey) produced more hydroxydanaidal than danaidal, whereas males given an artificial diet supplemented with dried whole plants of another PA-containing species,Senecio vulgaris L...
March 1989: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24031320/selection-of-endophytic-fungi-from-comfrey-symphytum-officinale-l-for-in-vitro-biological-control-of-the-phytopathogen-sclerotinia-sclerotiorum-lib
#18
Rafaeli Rocha, Daniela Eleutério da Luz, Cibelle Engels, Sônia Alvim Veiga Pileggi, David de Souza Jaccoud Filho, Rodrigo Rodrigues Matiello, Marcos Pileggi
Biological control consists of using one organism to attack another that may cause economic damage to crops. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a very common strategy. The white mold produced by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) causes considerable damage to bean crops. This fungus is a soil inhabitant, the symptoms of which are characterized by water-soaked lesions covered by a white cottony fungal growth on the soil surface and/or the host plant. Possible biological control agents taken from plants are being investigated as phytopathogen inhibitors...
January 2009: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23787512/-development-of-technology-for-the-substance-of-poly-3-3-4-dihydroxyphenyl-glyceric-acid-from-symphytum-asperum
#19
(no author information available yet)
Comfrey (Symphytum L.) is used to treat bone fractures, tendon injuries, ulcer lesions of gastrointestinal tract. It promotes wound healing, accelerates exudates resorption in lungs and reduces joints' inflammation. In Georgian folk medicine, herbal remedies from comfrey are used to accelerate regeneration processes. Comfrey contains hepatotoxic and carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, besides the main active ingredient is poly [3 - (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) glyceric acid] (PDPGA). The aim of present work was to develop a technology for the substance - poly [3-(3,4dihydroxyphenyl) glyceric acid] (PDPGA) from comfrey stems, free of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids...
May 2013: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23772427/botanical-briefs-comfrey-symphytum-officinale
#20
Cíntia Ds Horinouchi, Michel F Otuki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2013: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
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