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Mengying Duan, Hongmei Shang, Shilun Chen, Ran Li, Hongxin Wu
The effects of extraction techniques on the physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity and antihyperglycemic activity of comfrey polysaccharides (CPs) were evaluated. Four techniques were used to extract CPs: hot water extraction (HW), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UA), enzyme-assisted extraction (EA) and enzyme-ultrasonic-assisted extraction (EUA). Experimental results indicated that CPs extracted by the UA (UA-CPs) and EUA methods (EUA-CPs) had higher extraction yields. The four CPs showed the same monosaccharide composition but a significant difference in monosaccharide content...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Shanoo Suroowan, Fawzi Mahomoodally
BACKGROUND: Common auto-inflammatory disorders (CAIDs) constitute a wide array of ailments ranging from acute allergies to chronic conditions. Globally, CAIDs remain one of the leading causes of disability and morbidity. Despite playing a leading therapeutic role, the vast profusion of anti-inflammatory synthetic agents have not been able to fully resolve a panoply of CAIDs. Additionally, contemporary synthetic therapy approaches remain bounded by a wide array of limitations essentially being adverse effects and unaffordable costs...
2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Hongmei Shang, Haizhu Zhou, Mengying Duan, Ran Li, Hongxin Wu, Yujie Lou
This study was designed to investigate the extraction conditions of polysaccharides from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) root (CRPs) using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of three variables including liquid-solid ratio, extraction time and extraction temperature on the extraction yield of CRPs were taken into consideration. Moreover, the effects of drying methods including hot air drying (HD), vacuum drying (VD) and freeze drying (FD) on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of CRPs were evaluated...
June 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Adriana Trifan, Sebastian E W Opitz, Roland Josuran, Andreas Grubelnik, Nils Esslinger, Samuel Peter, Sarah Bräm, Nadja Meier, Evelyn Wolfram
Comfrey root preparations are used for the external treatment of joint distortions and myalgia, due to its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Up to date, key activity-determining constituents of comfrey root extracts have not been completely elucidated. Therefore, we applied different approaches to further characterize a comfrey root extract (65% ethanol). The phenolic profile of comfrey root sample was characterized by HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS. Rosmarinic acid was identified as main phenolic constituent (7...
February 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Adrienne Hughes, Robert G Hendrickson, Betty Chia-Chi Chen, Matthew Valento
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
Liting Duan, Jen Hope, Qunxiang Ong, Hsin-Ya Lou, Namdoo Kim, Comfrey McCarthy, Victor Acero, Michael Z Lin, Bianxiao Cui
Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) can simultaneously undergo light-dependent CRY2-CRY2 homo-oligomerization and CRY2-CIB1 hetero-dimerization, both of which have been widely used to optically control intracellular processes. Applications using CRY2-CIB1 interaction desire minimal CRY2 homo-oligomerization to avoid unintended complications, while those utilizing CRY2-CRY2 interaction prefer robust homo-oligomerization. However, selecting the type of CRY2 interaction has not been possible as the molecular mechanisms underlying CRY2 interactions are unknown...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
Marwan S M Al-Nimer, Zainab Wahbee
AIM: Symphytum officinale (comfrey) is a medicinal plant commonly used in decoction and to treat ailments. It protects the skin against ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation. UV irradiation may induce variable effects on the constituents of herbal extracts and thereby may limit or improve the advantages of using these extracts as medicinal supplements. This study aimed to assess the effect of UV radiations including UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C on the constituents of S. officinale aqueous and alcoholic extracts...
July 2017: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
S Gokadze, V Barbakadze, K Mulkijanyan, A Bakuridze, L Bakuridze
Application of phytofilms based on biosolublepolymers is considered as a prospectivemethod for burn treatment . Herbal remedies contain biologically active substances, that are relatively less toxic, do not cause skin irritation or allergic reactions and, importantly, affectstrains of the microorganisms and viruses resistant to antibiotics and synthetic drugs. Nowadays, the advantages are given to such burn healing drugs, which along with high specific efficacy, have analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, and don't irritate the tissues...
June 2017: Georgian Medical News
Łukasz Łuczaj, Boris Tvalodze, David Zalkaliani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Economic Botany
I-Lin Wu, Jiun-Hao Yu, Chih-Chuan Lin, Chen-June Seak, Kent R Olson, Hsien-Yi Chen
CONTEXT: Accidental ingestion of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) can cause significant cardiac toxicity. We report a patient who ingested foxglove mistaking it for comfrey and developed refractory ventricular arrhythmias. The patient died despite treatment with digoxin-specific antibody fragments (DSFab) and veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). CASE DETAILS: A 55-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with nausea, vomiting and generalized weakness eight hours after drinking "comfrey" tea...
August 2017: Clinical Toxicology
Lars H Kruse, Thomas Stegemann, Christian Sievert, Dietrich Ober
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are toxic secondary metabolites that are found in several distantly related families of the angiosperms. The first specific step in PA biosynthesis is catalyzed by homospermidine synthase (HSS), which has been recruited several times independently by duplication of the gene encoding deoxyhypusine synthase, an enzyme involved in the posttranslational activation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A. HSS shows highly diverse spatiotemporal gene expression in various PA-producing species...
May 2017: Plant Physiology
S Gokadze, V Barbakadze, K Mulkijanyan, L Bakuridze, A Bakuridze
One of the most actual problems of pharmacy is the development of medication forms for external application with complex effects on (gel, emplastro, aerosol, etc.) skin wounds, burns and inflammatory factors. The centuries-old practice of using phyto-preparations (herbal remedies) proved that they have fewer side effects in comparison with synthetic drugs. Despite the wide application of herbal preparations, in the literature there is a little information about their application in development of wound and burn healing modern dosage forms...
January 2017: Georgian Medical News
Oana Cristina Şeremet, Florica Bărbuceanu, Floriana Elvira Ionică, Denisa Marilena Margină, Claudia Maria GuŢu, Octavian Tudorel Olaru, Mihaela Ilie, Veaceslav Gonciar, Simona Negreş, Cornel ChiriŢă
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a class of toxic compounds which are found in plants. Poisoning caused by these toxins is associated with acute and chronic liver damage. Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot), Petasites hybridus (common butterbur), Senecio vernalis (eastern groundsel) and Symphytum officinale (comfrey) are traditional phytotherapic species, which beside the therapeutic bioactive compounds contain PAs. The aim of the paper was to assess the safety of some dry extracts obtained from these species. For the determination of acute toxicity, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Guideline No...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Mathew Kurian Vithayathil, Matthew Edwards
A previously well woman aged 63 years presents to the emergency department with vomiting, palpitations and 3 presyncopal episodes. She had no previous medical or cardiac history, with the patient stating that she tried a herbal remedy of boiled comfrey leaves for insomnia 18 hours before arrival to the department. Her ECG showed multiple abnormalities, including bradycardia, second-degree atrioventricular node block, Mobitz Type 2, a shortened QT interval, downsloping ST depression and presence of U waves...
December 1, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Timothy G Shepard, Emily A Swanson, Comfrey L McCarthy, Rhea T Eskew
Narrowly tuned, selective noise masking of chromatic detection has been taken as evidence for the existence of a large number of color mechanisms (i.e., higher order color mechanisms). Here we replicate earlier observations of selective masking of tests in the (L,M) plane of cone space when the noise is placed near the corners of the detection contour. We used unipolar Gaussian blob tests with three different noise color directions, and we show that there are substantial asymmetries in the detection contours-asymmetries that would have been missed with bipolar tests such as Gabor patches...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Joel J Gagnier, Hanna Oltean, Maurits W van Tulder, Brian M Berman, Claire Bombardier, Christopher B Robbins
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of herbal medicine for nonspecific low back pain (LBP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Many people with chronic LBP use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), visit CAM practitioners, or both. Several herbal medicines have been purported for use in treating people with LBP. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006...
January 2016: Spine
Daniele Tedesco, Edoardo Fabini, Vakhtang Barbakadze, Maia Merlani, Riccardo Zanasi, Bezhan Chankvetadze, Carlo Bertucci
Caffeic acid-derived polyethers are a class of natural products isolated from the root extracts of comfrey and bugloss, which are endowed with intriguing pharmacological properties as anticancer agents. The synthesis of new polyether derivatives is achieved through ring-opening polymerization of chiral 2,3-disubstituted oxiranes, whose absolute configurations define the overall stereochemistry of the produced polymer. The absolute stereochemistry of one of these building blocks, methyl trans-3-(3,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)glycidate (3), was therefore characterized by the combination of enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy, and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations...
December 2015: Chirality
Nikoletta Jedlinszki, Dezső Csupor
The aim of the present work was to develop and validate an HPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of a major pyrrolizidine alkaloid of comfrey (lycopsamine) in aqueous samples as a basis for the development of a method for the determination of absorption of lycopsamine by human skin. A linear calibration curve was established in the range of 1.32-440 ng. The intraday precision during the 3-day validation period ranged between 0.57 and 2.48% while the interday precision was 1.70% and 1.95% for quality control samples...
July 2015: Natural Product Communications
Timothy Shepard, Rhea Eskew, Comfrey McCarthy, Nicole Ochandarena
In an important study, Hansen & Gegenfurtner (2013) showed that chromatic masking noise placed near the corners of detection contours in the ΔL/L, ΔM/M plane of cone contrast color space can produce selective masking. Rather than being indicative of the existence of large numbers of mechanisms, as they suggested, we (Eskew & Shepard, 2013) demonstrated that this result could be accounted for by a model with a very limited number of mechanisms. Both studies used bipolar test stimuli that contain equal and opposite chromatic contrasts...
2015: Journal of Vision
Ammon W Brown, Bryan L Stegelmeier, Steven M Colegate, Dale R Gardner, Kip E Panter, Edward L Knoppel, Jeffery O Hall
Comfrey (Symphytum officinale), a commonly used herb, contains dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids that, as a group of bioactive metabolites, are potentially hepatotoxic, pneumotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic. Consequently, regulatory agencies and international health organizations have recommended comfrey be used for external use only. However, in many locations comfrey continues to be ingested as a tisane or as a leafy vegetable. The objective of this work was to compare the toxicity of a crude, reduced comfrey alkaloid extract to purified lycopsamine and intermedine that are major constituents of S...
May 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
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