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I-Lin Wu, Jiun-Hao Yu, Chih-Chuan Lin, Chen-June Seak, Kent R Olson, Hsien-Yi Chen
CONTEXT: Accidental ingestion of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) can cause significant cardiac toxicity. We report a patient who ingested foxglove mistaking it for comfrey and developed refractory ventricular arrhythmias. The patient died despite treatment with digoxin-specific antibody fragments (DSFab) and veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). CASE DETAILS: A 55-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with nausea, vomiting and generalized weakness eight hours after drinking "comfrey" tea...
May 2, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
Lars H Kruse, Thomas Stegemann, Christian Sievert, Dietrich Ober
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are toxic secondary metabolites that are found in several distantly related families of the angiosperms. The first specific step in PA biosynthesis is catalyzed by homospermidine synthase (HSS), which has been recruited several times independently by duplication of the gene encoding deoxyhypusine synthase, an enzyme involved in the posttranslational activation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A. HSS shows highly diverse spatiotemporal gene expression in various PA-producing species...
May 2017: Plant Physiology
S Gokadze, V Barbakadze, K Mulkijanyan, L Bakuridze, A Bakuridze
One of the most actual problems of pharmacy is the development of medication forms for external application with complex effects on (gel, emplastro, aerosol, etc.) skin wounds, burns and inflammatory factors. The centuries-old practice of using phyto-preparations (herbal remedies) proved that they have fewer side effects in comparison with synthetic drugs. Despite the wide application of herbal preparations, in the literature there is a little information about their application in development of wound and burn healing modern dosage forms...
January 2017: Georgian Medical News
Oana Cristina Şeremet, Florica Bărbuceanu, Floriana Elvira Ionică, Denisa Marilena Margină, Claudia Maria GuŢu, Octavian Tudorel Olaru, Mihaela Ilie, Veaceslav Gonciar, Simona Negreş, Cornel ChiriŢă
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a class of toxic compounds which are found in plants. Poisoning caused by these toxins is associated with acute and chronic liver damage. Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot), Petasites hybridus (common butterbur), Senecio vernalis (eastern groundsel) and Symphytum officinale (comfrey) are traditional phytotherapic species, which beside the therapeutic bioactive compounds contain PAs. The aim of the paper was to assess the safety of some dry extracts obtained from these species. For the determination of acute toxicity, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Guideline No...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Mathew Kurian Vithayathil, Matthew Edwards
A previously well woman aged 63 years presents to the emergency department with vomiting, palpitations and 3 presyncopal episodes. She had no previous medical or cardiac history, with the patient stating that she tried a herbal remedy of boiled comfrey leaves for insomnia 18 hours before arrival to the department. Her ECG showed multiple abnormalities, including bradycardia, second-degree atrioventricular node block, Mobitz Type 2, a shortened QT interval, downsloping ST depression and presence of U waves...
December 1, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Timothy G Shepard, Emily A Swanson, Comfrey L McCarthy, Rhea T Eskew
Narrowly tuned, selective noise masking of chromatic detection has been taken as evidence for the existence of a large number of color mechanisms (i.e., higher order color mechanisms). Here we replicate earlier observations of selective masking of tests in the (L,M) plane of cone space when the noise is placed near the corners of the detection contour. We used unipolar Gaussian blob tests with three different noise color directions, and we show that there are substantial asymmetries in the detection contours-asymmetries that would have been missed with bipolar tests such as Gabor patches...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Joel J Gagnier, Hanna Oltean, Maurits W van Tulder, Brian M Berman, Claire Bombardier, Christopher B Robbins
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of herbal medicine for nonspecific low back pain (LBP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Many people with chronic LBP use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), visit CAM practitioners, or both. Several herbal medicines have been purported for use in treating people with LBP. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006...
January 2016: Spine
Daniele Tedesco, Edoardo Fabini, Vakhtang Barbakadze, Maia Merlani, Riccardo Zanasi, Bezhan Chankvetadze, Carlo Bertucci
Caffeic acid-derived polyethers are a class of natural products isolated from the root extracts of comfrey and bugloss, which are endowed with intriguing pharmacological properties as anticancer agents. The synthesis of new polyether derivatives is achieved through ring-opening polymerization of chiral 2,3-disubstituted oxiranes, whose absolute configurations define the overall stereochemistry of the produced polymer. The absolute stereochemistry of one of these building blocks, methyl trans-3-(3,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)glycidate (3), was therefore characterized by the combination of enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy, and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations...
December 2015: Chirality
Nikoletta Jedlinszki, Dezső Csupor
The aim of the present work was to develop and validate an HPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of a major pyrrolizidine alkaloid of comfrey (lycopsamine) in aqueous samples as a basis for the development of a method for the determination of absorption of lycopsamine by human skin. A linear calibration curve was established in the range of 1.32-440 ng. The intraday precision during the 3-day validation period ranged between 0.57 and 2.48% while the interday precision was 1.70% and 1.95% for quality control samples...
July 2015: Natural Product Communications
Timothy Shepard, Rhea Eskew, Comfrey McCarthy, Nicole Ochandarena
In an important study, Hansen & Gegenfurtner (2013) showed that chromatic masking noise placed near the corners of detection contours in the ΔL/L, ΔM/M plane of cone contrast color space can produce selective masking. Rather than being indicative of the existence of large numbers of mechanisms, as they suggested, we (Eskew & Shepard, 2013) demonstrated that this result could be accounted for by a model with a very limited number of mechanisms. Both studies used bipolar test stimuli that contain equal and opposite chromatic contrasts...
2015: Journal of Vision
Ammon W Brown, Bryan L Stegelmeier, Steven M Colegate, Dale R Gardner, Kip E Panter, Edward L Knoppel, Jeffery O Hall
Comfrey (Symphytum officinale), a commonly used herb, contains dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids that, as a group of bioactive metabolites, are potentially hepatotoxic, pneumotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic. Consequently, regulatory agencies and international health organizations have recommended comfrey be used for external use only. However, in many locations comfrey continues to be ingested as a tisane or as a leafy vegetable. The objective of this work was to compare the toxicity of a crude, reduced comfrey alkaloid extract to purified lycopsamine and intermedine that are major constituents of S...
May 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Vesna Lj Savić, Vesna D Nikolić, Ivana A Arsić, Ljiljana P Stanojević, Stevo J Najman, Sanja Stojanović, Ivana I Mladenović-Ranisavljević
This study investigates the biological activity of pure allantoin (PA) and aqueous extract of the comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) root (AECR) standardized to the allantoin content. Cell viability and proliferation of epithelial (MDCK) and fibroblastic (L929) cell line were studied by using MTT test. Anti-irritant potential was determined by measuring electrical capacitance, erythema index (EI) and transepidermal water loss of artificially irritated skin of young healthy volunteers, 3 and 7 days after application of creams and gels with PA or AECR...
August 2015: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Hanna Oltean, Chris Robbins, Maurits W van Tulder, Brian M Berman, Claire Bombardier, Joel J Gagnier
BACKGROUND: Low-back pain (LBP) is a common condition and imposes a substantial economic burden upon people living in industrialized societies. A large proportion of people with chronic LBP use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), visit CAM practitioners, or both. Several herbal medicines have been purported for use in treating people with LBP. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of herbal medicine for non-specific LBP...
December 23, 2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Damjan Janeš, Samo Kreft
Due to severe toxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, their quantification in medicinal products is very important. The idea of this research was to use retrorsine as a surrogate reference compound instead of lycopsamine reference or lycopsamine isolated from comfrey. A method for the analysis of lycopsamine in extracts of comfrey roots was developed and validated, employing thin layer chromatography, derivatisation with Dann-Mattocks reagent followed by densitometric analysis. The new method showed linearity within 0...
December 2014: Acta Pharmaceutica
Richard Glickman-Simon, Atreyi Mukherji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
Chien-Chung Cheng, Chi-Yuan Chou, Yao-Chin Chang, Hsuan-Wen Wang, Chi-Chung Wen, Yau-Hung Chen
In zebrafish, UV exposure leads to fin malformation phenotypes including fin reduction or absence. The present study evaluated UV-protective activities of comfrey leaves extracts in a zebrafish model by recording fin morphological changes. Chemopreventive effects of comfrey leave extracts were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression. The results showed that (1) the mean times of return to normal fin in the UV+comfrey (50 and 100 ppm) groups were 3.43 and 2.86 days and were quicker compared with that in the UV only group (4...
July 2014: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Rachael Frost, Susan O'Meara, Hugh MacPherson
AIM: The survey aimed to assess how often and in what ways herbal practitioners use comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) externally in everyday practice. METHODS: A 2-sided A4 survey was sent to all UK members of the National Institute of Medical Herbalists, the College of Practitioners of Phytotherapy and the Association of Master Herbalists with viable practice addresses (n = 598). RESULTS: 239 herbalists responded, of whom 179 (75%) reported regularly using comfrey, in 15% of their consultations...
November 2014: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
Nader Pazyar, Reza Yaghoobi, Esmail Rafiee, Abolfath Mehrabian, Amir Feily
Skin integrity is restored by a physiological process aimed at repairing the damaged tissues. The healing process proceeds in four phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and remodeling. Phytomedicine presents remedies, which possess significant pharmacological effects. It is popular amongst the general population in regions all over the world. Phytotherapeutic agents have been largely used for cutaneous wound healing. These include Aloe vera, mimosa, grape vine, Echinacea, chamomile, ginseng, green tea, jojoba, tea tree oil, rosemary, lemon, soybean, comfrey, papaya, oat, garlic, ginkgo, olive oil and ocimum...
2014: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Steven M Colegate, Dale R Gardner, Joseph M Betz, Kip E Panter
INTRODUCTION: The diversity of structure and, particularly, stereochemical variation of the dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids can present challenges for analysis and the isolation of pure compounds for the preparation of analytical standards and for toxicology studies. OBJECTIVE: To investigate methods for the separation of gram-scale quantities of the epimeric dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids lycopsamine and intermedine and to compare their NMR spectroscopic data with those of their heliotridine-based analogues echinatine and rinderine...
September 2014: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Nicole M Kolacz, Mark T Jaroch, Monica L Bear, Rosanna F Hess
PURPOSE: The purposes of this pilot study were to measure pain associated with dressing changes, assess the presence of infection, and document healing times of burn-injured Amish in central Ohio using an herbal therapy consisting of Burns and Wounds™ ointment (B&W) and burdock (Arctium ssp.) leaves. B&W contains honey, lanolin, olive oil, wheat germ oil, marshmallow root, Aloe vera gel, wormwood, comfrey root, white oak bark, lobelia inflata, vegetable glycerin, bees wax, and myrrh...
December 2014: Journal of Holistic Nursing: Official Journal of the American Holistic Nurses' Association
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