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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915474/racial-differences-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-prostate-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Giuliano Di Pietro, Ganna Chornokur, Nagi B Kumar, Chemar Davis, Jong Y Park
Disparities between African American and Caucasian men in prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis and treatment in the United States have been well established, with significant racial disparities documented at all stages of PCa management, from differences in the type of treatment offered to progression-free survival or death. These disparities appear to be complex in nature, involving biological determinants as well as socioeconomic and cultural aspects. We present a review of the literature on racial disparities in the diagnosis of PCa, treatment, survival, and genetic susceptibility...
November 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915460/zinc-supplementation-for-the-prevention-of-pneumonia-in-children-aged-2-months-to-59-months
#2
REVIEW
Zohra S Lassi, Anoosh Moin, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children younger than five years of age. Most deaths occur during infancy and in low-income countries. Daily zinc supplements have been reported to prevent acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and reduce child mortality. This is an update of a review first published in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of zinc supplementation in the prevention of pneumonia in children aged two to 59 months...
December 4, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915438/variations-in-clinical-presentation-and-anatomical-distribution-of-gross-lesions-of-african-swine-fever-in-domestic-pigs-in-the-southern-highlands-of-tanzania-a-field-experience
#3
Maulilio John Kipanyula, Solomon Wilson Nong'ona
African swine fever is a contagious viral disease responsible for up to 100% mortality among domestic pigs. A longitudinal study was carried out to determine the clinical presentation and anatomical distribution of gross lesions in affected pigs in Mbeya region, Tanzania during the 2010 to 2014 outbreaks. Data were collected during clinical and postmortem examination by field veterinarians and using a structured questionnaire. A total of 118 respondents (100%) showed awareness about African swine fever. During previous outbreaks, the mortality rate was almost 100%, while in 2014 it was estimated to be less than 50%...
December 3, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915414/brownification-increases-winter-mortality-in-fish
#4
Per Hedström, David Bystedt, Jan Karlsson, Folmer Bokma, Pär Byström
In northern climates, winter is a bottleneck for many organisms. Low light and resource availability constrains individual foraging rates, potentially leading to starvation and increased mortality. Increasing input of humic substances to aquatic ecosystems causes brownification of water and hence a further decrease of light availability, which may lead to further decreased foraging rates and starvation mortality during winter. To test this hypothesis, we measured the effects of experimentally increased humic water input on consumption and survival of young-of-the-year three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) over winter in large outdoor enclosures...
December 3, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915348/delayed-nephrology-consultation-and-high-mortality-on-acute-kidney-injury-a-meta-analysis
#5
Débora M Soares, José F Pessanha, Aashish Sharma, Alessandra Brocca, Claudio Ronco
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complex syndrome associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and costs. Despite advancements in diagnosis and care practice, AKI remains a disorder usually under/late-recognized with high mortality. One of the hidden reasons for poor outcome might be delayed nephrology consultation, with the involvement of the specialist only in severe stages of AKI when renal replacement therapy (RRT) is required. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane central register for related work on the subject...
December 3, 2016: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915329/acute-kidney-injury-risk-assessment-and-the-nephrology-rapid-response-team
#6
Lilia Maria Rizo-Topete, Mitchell H Rosner, Claudio Ronco
Acute kidney Injury (AKI) is a serious medical condition affecting more than 10 million people around the world annually and resulting in poor outcomes. It has been suggested that late recognition of the syndrome may lead to delayed interventions with increased morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and timely therapeutic strategies may be the cornerstone of future improvement in outcomes. The purpose of this article is to provide a practical model to identify patients at high risk for AKI in different environments, with the goal to prevent AKI...
December 3, 2016: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915328/critical-care-nephrology-a-multidisciplinary-approach
#7
Lilia Rizo-Topete, Claudio Ronco
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious medical condition affecting millions of people. Patients in intensive care unit (ICU) who develop AKI have increased morbidity and mortality, prolonged length of stay in ICU and hospital and increased costs, especially when they require renal replacement therapy. In the latter case, morbidity and mortality increase further. In order to meet the needs of the critically ill patients, a multidisciplinary care team is required, combining the efforts of physicians and nurses from different disciplines as well as nephrologists and intensivists...
December 3, 2016: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915307/diversity-and-antifungal-drug-susceptibility-of-cryptococcus-isolates-in-thailand
#8
Navaporn Worasilchai, Marut Tangwattanachuleeporn, Kornvalee Meesilpavikkai, Claudia Folba, Mourine Kangogo, Uwe Groß, Michael Weig, Oliver Bader, Ariya Chindamporn
Yeasts of the Cryptococcus species complex are the causative agent of cryptococcosis, especially in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals. Cerebral or disseminated cryptococcosis has a very high mortality rate worldwide, including in Thailand. Additionally, an increasing rate of antifungal drug resistant cryptococcal isolates has been reported in several neighboring countries, complicating therapeutic approaches. To understand the situation of this infection in Thailand, we retrospectively investigated the molecular epidemiology and antifungal drug resistance in a collection of 74 clinical, 52 environmental and two veterinary isolates using the URA5-RFLP for typing and the EUCAST guideline for susceptibility testing...
December 3, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915304/invasive-aspergillosis-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-are-we-making-progress-in-reducing-mortality
#9
Giulia Dragonetti, Marianna Criscuolo, Luana Fianchi, Livio Pagano
The incidence of invasive fungal disease (IFD) has varied during the last decades. However, over the years, we have observed a progressive reduction of mortality, mainly due to wider use of prophylactic antifungal therapy (i.e., new azoles, such as posaconazole), the development of new and more effective antifungal drugs (lipid compounds of amphotericin B, candins, and azoles of the previous generation) and improvement of diagnostic tools. Based on a number of international studies across three decades, the attributable mortality rate for IFD and invasive aspergillosis (IA) among patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has progressively declined...
December 2, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915250/importance-of-fumarate-and-nitrate-reduction-regulatory-protein-for-proliferation-for-intestinal-proliferation-of-vibrio-vulnificus
#10
Takehiro Kado, Takashige Kashimoto, Kohei Yamazaki, Shunji Ueno
The sepsis caused by Vibrio vulnificus is characterized by an average incubation period of 26 hours and a high mortality rate exceeding 50%. The fast growth and dissemination of V. vulnificus in vivo lead to poor clinical outcomes in patients. Therefore, elucidation of the proliferation mechanisms of this organism in vivo may lead to development of an effective therapeutic strategy. In this study, we focused on the low oxygen concentration in the intestinal milieu because of its drastic difference from that in the air...
December 2, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915229/increased-orthogeriatrician-involvement-in-hip-fracture-care-and-its-impact-on-mortality-in-england
#11
Jenny Neuburger, Colin Currie, Robert Wakeman, Antony Johansen, Carmen Tsang, Fay Plant, Helen Wilson, David A Cromwell, Jan van der Meulen, Bianca De Stavola
OBJECTIVES: to describe the increase in orthogeriatrician involvement in hip fracture care in England and its association with improvements in time to surgery and mortality. STUDY DESIGN: analysis of Hospital Episode Statistics for 196,401 patients presenting with hip fracture to 150 hospitals in England between 1 April 2010 and 28 February 2014, combined with data on orthogeriatrician hours from a national organisational survey. METHODS: we examined changes in the average number of hours worked by orthogeriatricians in orthopaedic departments per patient with hip fracture, and their potential effect on mortality within 30 days of presentation...
December 2, 2016: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915164/can-the-cerebral-regional-oxygen-saturation-be-a-perfusion-parameter-in-shock
#12
Ashraf Al Tayar, Amr Abouelela, Khaja Mohiuddeen
INTRODUCTION: Shock, defined as a state of tissue hypoperfusion and the tissues reperfusion, is the main goal of management of shock. Increase in central venous saturation (CvSo2) and decrease in blood lactate level are useful in assessment of adequacy of tissue perfusion. Near-infrared spectroscopy is a noninvasive way to observe real-time changes in regional cerebral saturation and has been used in patients with different brain diseases. There is a small body of literature suggesting that cerebral regional oxygen saturation (CrSo2) monitoring added a value in assessment and management of intensive care unit (ICU) patients...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915109/decreased-myeloid-dendritic-cells-indicate-a-poor-prognosis-of-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-patients
#13
Wenjing Zhang, Mengmeng Li, Shue Xiong, Hua Wang, Yan Xiong, Mingyue Li, Mengji Lu, DongliangYang, Cheng Peng, Xin Zheng
OBJECTIVES: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a newly emerging infectious disease caused by a novel Bunyavirus in which host immune system suppression is thought to be crucial in the development of disease. The study is designed to study the frequencies and activation status of dendritic cells(DCs) at different stages of SFTS and its association with the disease severity. METHODS: All confirmed 115 SFTS patients were recruited from the Wuhan Union Hospital in 2015 and routine laboratory parameters were collected...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915096/universal-contact-precautions-do-not-change-the-prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistant-organisms-in-a-tertiary-burn-unit
#14
Adelyn L Ho, Reid Chambers, Claudia Malic, Anthony Papp
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms (ARO) in burn units is increasing worldwide and contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality. Study aims are to describe the burden of AROs in burn patients admitted to a tertiary burn unit, to evaluate the impact of contact precautions implemented after an outbreak of antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, and to identify possible predictors of ARO acquisition. METHODS: Data of burn inpatients between 2006 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed...
November 30, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915085/monocyte-derived-circulating-microparticles-cd14-cd14-cd11b-and-cd14-cd142-are-related-to-long-term-prognosis-for-cardiovascular-mortality-in-stemi-patients
#15
Gemma Chiva-Blanch, Vibeke Bratseth, Vibeke Ritschel, Geir Ø Andersen, Sigrun Halvorsen, Jan Eritsland, Harald Arnesen, Lina Badimon, Ingebjørg Seljeflot
BACKGROUND: Circulating microparticles (cMPs) have been proposed as novel biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to investigate the prognostic relevance of cMPs for future major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in STEMI patients. METHODS: We included 200 STEMI patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). One hundred patients with a primary composite end point (recurrent nonfatal acute MI, rehospitalization for heart failure, unscheduled PCI or death because of CV causes) were case-matched for sex, age, and CVD risk factors to 100 patients without a primary endpoint at the end of study follow-up (4...
November 27, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915084/predicting-hospitalization-and-mortality-in-patients-with-heart-failure-the-bardiche-index
#16
Nicole H M K Uszko-Lencer, Lutz Frankenstein, Martijn A Spruit, Micha T Maeder, Marc Gutmann, Stefano Muzzarelli, Stefan Osswald, Matthias E Pfisterer, Christian Zugck, Hans-Peter Brunner-La Rocca
BACKGROUND: Prediction of events in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients is still difficult and available scores are often complex to calculate. Therefore, we developed and validated a simple-to-use, multidimensional prognostic index for such patients. METHODS: A theoretical model was developed based on known prognostic factors of CHF that are easily obtainable: Body mass index (B), Age (A), Resting systolic blood pressure (R), Dyspnea (D), N-termInal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (I), Cockroft-Gault equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate (C), resting Heart rate (H), and Exercise performance using the 6-min walk test (E) (the BARDICHE-index)...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915082/the-heart-failure-pandemic-the-clinical-and-economic-burden-in-greece
#17
P Stafylas, D Farmakis, G Kourlaba, G Giamouzis, K Tsarouhas, N Maniadakis, J Parissis
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to identify the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of heart failure (HF) patients in Greece as well as the economic burden and the distribution of costs for the management of the disease. METHODS: Eight Greek secondary and tertiary cardiology centres from different cities have participated in a prospective, observational survey, the ESC HF Pilot Survey. 307 patients with HF, 177 hospitalised and 130 outpatients, have been recruited and monitored for 12months...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915066/the-impact-of-hospital-teaching-status-on-timing-of-intervention-inpatient-morbidity-and-mortality-after-surgery-for-vertebral-column-fractures-with-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Rafael De la Garza Ramos, Jonathan Nakhla, Rani Nasser, Ajit Jada, Daniel M Sciubba, Merritt D Kinon, Reza Yassari
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of hospital teaching status on the timing of intervention and inpatient morbidity and mortality after surgery for acute spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2002 - 2011) were reviewed. Patients were included if they had a diagnosis of closed vertebral column fracture with SCI, underwent spine surgery, and were admitted urgently or emergently. Early intervention (the day of or the day after admission), inpatient morbidity and mortality rates were compared between patients admitted to teaching versus nonteaching hospitals...
November 30, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915044/a-novel-aldosterone-synthase-inhibitor-ameliorates-mortality-in-pressure-overload-mice-with-heart-failure
#19
Shinji Furuzono, Masaki Meguro, Satoru Miyauchi, Shinichi Inoue, Tsuyoshi Homma, Keisuke Yamada, Yoh-Ichi Tagawa, Futoshi Nara, Takahiro Nagayama
It has been elucidated that mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists reduce mortality in patients with congestive heart failure and post-acute myocardial infarction. A direct inhibition of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is also expected to have therapeutic benefits equal in quality to mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in terms of reducing mineralocorticoid receptor signaling. Therefore, we have screened our chemical libraries and identified a novel and potent aldosterone synthase inhibitor, 2,2,2-trifluoro-1-{4-[(4-fluorophenyl)amino]pyrimidin-5-y}-1-[1-(methylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl]ethanol (compound 1), by lead optimization...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915042/non-coding-rnas-and-berberine-a-new-mechanism-of-its-anti-diabetic-activities
#20
REVIEW
Wenguang Chang
Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disease with high mortality and morbidity. Non-coding RNAs, including small and long non-coding RNAs, are a novel class of functional RNA molecules that regulate multiple biological functions through diverse mechanisms. Studies in the last decade have demonstrated that non-coding RNAs may represent compelling therapeutic targets and play important roles in regulating the course of insulin resistance and T2D. Berberine, a plant-based alkaloid, has shown promise as an anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic agent against T2D...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
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