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Cold spell

E-Jin Kim, Ho Kim
Many studies have investigated the associations between heat waves, ambient temperature, cold spells, and mortality or morbidity. Some studies have utilized effect modification to reveal the factors that increase an individual's susceptibility to temperature extremes, which can then be used to reshape public policy. In this study, we used a time-stratified case-crossover technique to examine how individual- and regional-scale characteristics modified heat wave-related impacts on mortality rates in Seoul, South Korea, between 2009 and 2012...
April 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Martins Briedis, Steffen Hahn, Peter Adamík
BACKGROUND: Adjusting the timing of annual events to gradual changes in environmental conditions is necessary for population viability. However, adaptations to weather extremes are poorly documented in migratory species. Due to their vast seasonal movements, long-distance migrants face unique challenges in responding to changes as they rely on an endogenous circannual rhythm to cue the timing of their migration. Furthermore, the exact mechanisms that explain how environmental factors shape the migration schedules of long-distance migrants are often unknown...
April 4, 2017: BMC Ecology
Anna Ponjoan, Jordi Blanch, Lia Alves-Cabratosa, Ruth Martí-Lluch, Marc Comas-Cufí, Dídac Parramon, María Del Mar Garcia-Gil, Rafel Ramos, Irene Petersen
BACKGROUND: Cold spells and heatwaves increase mortality. However little is known about the effect of heatwaves or cold spells on cardiovascular morbidity. This study aims to assess the effect of cold spells and heatwaves on cardiovascular diseases in a Mediterranean region (Catalonia, Southern Europe). METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective study. Data were obtained from the System for the Development of Research in Primary Care and from the Catalan Meteorological Service...
April 4, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Peilong Liu, Lu Hao, Cen Pan, Decheng Zhou, Yongqiang Liu, Ge Sun
Leaf area index (LAI) is a key parameter to characterize vegetation dynamics and ecosystem structure that determines the ecosystem functions and services such as clean water supply and carbon sequestration in a watershed. However, linking LAI dynamics and environmental controls (i.e., coupling biosphere, atmosphere, and anthroposphere) remains challenging and such type of studies have rarely been done at a watershed scale due to data availability. The present study examined the spatial and temporal variations of LAI for five ecosystem types within a watershed with a complex topography in the Upper Heihe River Basin, a major inland river in the arid and semi-arid western China...
March 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Xuping Song, Shigong Wang, Yuling Hu, Man Yue, Tingting Zhang, Yu Liu, Jinhui Tian, Kezheng Shang
The objectives were (i) to conduct an overview of systematic reviews to summarize evidence from and evaluate the methodological quality of systematic reviews assessing the impact of ambient temperature on morbidity and mortality; and (ii) to reanalyse meta-analyses of cold-induced cardiovascular morbidity in different age groups. The registration number is PROSPERO-CRD42016047179. PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Global Health were systematically searched to identify systematic reviews...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Niilo R I Ryti, Elina M S Mäkikyrö, Harri Antikainen, M Juhani Junttila, Eeva Hookana, Tiina M Ikäheimo, Marja-Leena Kortelainen, Heikki V Huikuri, Jouni J K Jaakkola
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading cause of death. The current paradigm in SCD requires the presence of an abnormal myocardial substrate and an internal or external transient factor that triggers cardiac arrest. Based on prior mechanistic evidence, we hypothesized that an unusually cold weather event (a cold spell) could act as an external factor triggering SCD. We tested potential effect modification of prior diagnoses and select pharmacological agents disrupting pathological pathways between cold exposure and death...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lijun Wang, Tao Liu, Mengjue Hu, Weilin Zeng, Yonghui Zhang, Shannon Rutherford, Hualiang Lin, Jianpeng Xiao, Peng Yin, Jiangmei Liu, Cordia Chu, Shilu Tong, Wenjun Ma, Maigeng Zhou
In China, the health impact of cold weather has received little attention, which limits our understanding of the health impacts of climate change. We collected daily mortality and meteorological data in 66 communities across China from 2006 to 2011. Within each community, we estimated the effect of cold spell exposure on mortality using a Distributed Lag Nonlinear Model (DLNM). We also examined the modification effect of cold spell characteristics (intensity, duration, and timing) and individual-specific factors (causes of death, age, gender and education)...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
J J Camarero, G Guada, R Sánchez-Salguero, E Cervantes
Continental Mediterranean forests face drought but also cold spells and both climate extremes can impair the resilience capacity of these forests. Climate warming could amplify the negative effects of cold spells by inducing premature dehardening. Here we capitalize on a winter drought-induced dieback triggered by a cold spell which occurred in December 2001 affecting Scots pine forests in eastern Spain. We assessed post-dieback recovery by quantifying and comparing radial growth and xylem anatomy of non-declining (ND, crown cover >50%) and declining (D, crown cover ≤50%) trees in two sites (VP, Villarroya de los Pinares; TO, Torrijas)...
December 2016: Tree Physiology
Louis Lebel, Phimphakan Lebel, Boripat Lebel
Weather is suspected to influence fish growth and survival, and be a factor in mass mortality events in cage aquaculture in reservoirs. The purpose of this study was to identify the important climate-related risks faced by cage aquaculture farms; evaluate how these risks were currently being managed; and explore how farmers might adapt to the effects of climate change. Fish farmers were interviewed across the northern region of Thailand to get information on impacts, perceptions and practices. Drought or low water levels, heat waves, cold spells and periods with dense cloud cover, each caused significant financial losses...
September 1, 2016: Environmental Management
Cathy B Kurz-Besson, José L Lousada, Maria J Gaspar, Isabel E Correia, Teresa S David, Pedro M M Soares, Rita M Cardoso, Ana Russo, Filipa Varino, Catherine Mériaux, Ricardo M Trigo, Célia M Gouveia
Western Iberia has recently shown increasing frequency of drought conditions coupled with heatwave events, leading to exacerbated limiting climatic conditions for plant growth. It is not clear to what extent wood growth and density of agroforestry species have suffered from such changes or recent extreme climate events. To address this question, tree-ring width and density chronologies were built for a Pinus pinaster stand in southern Portugal and correlated with climate variables, including the minimum, mean and maximum temperatures and the number of cold days...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mallikarjuna Rao Kovi, Åshild Ergon, Odd Arne Rognli
Climate change creates new patterns of seasonal climate variation with higher temperatures, longer growth seasons and more variable winter climates. This is challenging the winter survival of perennial herbaceous plants. In this review, we focus on the effects of variable temperatures during autumn/winter/spring, and its interactions with light, on the development and maintenance of freezing tolerance. Cold temperatures induce changes at several organizational levels in the plant (cold acclimation), leading to the development of freezing tolerance, which can be reduced/lost during warm spells (deacclimation) in winters, and attained again during cold spells (reacclimation)...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
David M Oliver, Clare Bird, Emmy Burd, Michael Wyman
The relationship between culturable counts (CFU) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) cell equivalent counts of Escherichia coli in dairy feces exposed to different environmental conditions and temperature extremes was investigated. Fecal samples were collected in summer and winter from dairy cowpats held under two treatments: field-exposed versus polytunnel-protected. A significant correlation in quantified E. coli was recorded between the qPCR and culture-based methods (r = 0.82). Evaluation of the persistence profiles of E...
September 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Y Q Zhang, P R Zhong, R Wu, B Ye, X J Tian, C H Zhu, L Ma
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between cold spells and nonaccidental mortality from 2001 to 2011 in the Jiang'an District of Wuhan, China. METHODS: We collected mortality data for December 2001 to 2010 and January to March 2002 to 2011 in the study area. According to the International Classification of Diseases, we stratified the mortality data into three cause-specific categories: nonaccidental mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and respiratory mortality...
July 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Penelope Greenslade
Katianna coeruleocephala was described by Handschin in 1920 from Poespo, Java. It was collected in December, 1896 by Dr. Zehntner with the collecting details given as rotten "Louv" (leaves?) from live orchard. Handschin (1920) labelled his figures of the species (p. 146) as Katianna coerulescephala but the first spelling of the species name (p. 145) has priority. Katianna coeruleocephala has never been recollected. The only mention of the species in the literature since 1920 has been by Suhardjono (1989) in a check list for Indonesia and Suhardjono (2012) who listed it as present on Java and provided the main characteristics of the genus Katianna Börner, 1923...
January 12, 2016: Zootaxa
Claudio Sartini, Sarah J E Barry, S Goya Wannamethee, Peter H Whincup, Lucy Lennon, Ian Ford, Richard W Morris
OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of cold weather spells on incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and potential effect modification of socio-demographic, clinical, behavioural and environmental exposures. METHODS: Data from two prospective studies were analysed: the British Regional Heart Study (BRHS), a population-based study of British men aged 60-79years, followed for CVD incidence from 1998-2000 to 2012; and the PROSPER study of men and women aged 70-82 recruited to a trial of pravastatin vs placebo from 1997 to 9 (followed until 2009)...
September 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Junzhe Bao, Zhenkun Wang, Chuanhua Yu, Xudong Li
BACKGROUND: Global climate change is one of the most serious environmental issues faced by humanity, and the resultant change in frequency and intensity of heat waves and cold spells could increase mortality. The influence of temperature on human health could be immediate or delayed. Latitude, relative humidity, and air pollution may influence the temperature-mortality relationship. We studied the influence of temperature on mortality and its lag effect in four Chinese cities with a range of latitudes over 2008-2011, adjusting for relative humidity and air pollution...
2016: BMC Public Health
M Mollaei, H Izadi, P Šimek, V Koštál
Pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella is an important pest of pistachio trees. It has an univoltine life-cycle and its larvae tunnel and feed inside pistachio twigs for almost 10 months each year. The last larval instars overwinter inside the twigs. Survival/mortality associated with low temperatures during overwintering stage is currently unknown. We found that overwintering larvae of the Rafsanjan (Iran) population of K. pistaciella rely on maintaining a stably high supercooling capacity throughout the cold season...
August 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
M Oliveira-Santos, J A Santos, J Soares, A Dias, M Quaresma
Acute viral bronchiolitis is a common cause for infant hospital admissions. Of all etiological agents, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is commonly the most frequent. The present study assesses relationships between atmospheric factors and RSV infections in under 3-year-old patients admitted to the Inpatient Paediatric Service of Vila Real (North of Portugal). For this purpose, (1) clinical files of children admitted with a diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis from September 2005 to December 2015 (>10 years) were scrutinised and (2) local daily temperature/precipitation series, as well as six weather types controlling meteorological conditions in Portugal, were used...
December 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
Åshild Ergon, Tone I Melby, Mats Höglind, Odd A Rognli
Plants adapted to cold winters go through annual cycles of gain followed by loss of freezing tolerance (cold acclimation and deacclimation). Warm spells during winter and early spring can cause deacclimation, and if temperatures drop, freezing damage may occur. Many plants are vernalized during winter, a process making them competent to flower in the following summer. In winter cereals, a coincidence in the timing of vernalization saturation, deacclimation, downregulation of cold-induced genes, and reduced ability to reacclimate, occurs under long photoperiods and is under control of the main regulator of vernalization requirement in cereals, VRN1, and/or closely linked gene(s)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jan S Boratyński, Małgorzata Jefimow, Michał S Wojciechowski
As photoperiod shortens with the approach of winter, small mammals should reduce their energy expenditure to survive periods of food limitation. However, within seasons, animals should balance their energy budgets as abiotic conditions change, sometimes unpredictably; cold spells should increase heat production, while warm spells should do the opposite. Therefore, we addressed specific questions about the possible interactions between seasonal acclimatization and the intra-seasonal phenotypic flexibility of metabolic rate...
April 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
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