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Zhanfeng Si, Hui Liu, Jiankun Zhu, Jiedan Chen, Qiong Wang, Lei Fang, Fengkai Gao, Yue Tian, Yali Chen, Lijing Chang, Bingliang Liu, Zegang Han, Baoliang Zhou, Yan Hu, Xianzhong Huang, Tianzhen Zhang
In cotton, the formation of fruiting branches affects both plant architecture and fiber yield. Here, we report map-based cloning of the Gossypium barbadense axillary flowering (GbAF) mutation gene, which causes bolls to be borne directly on the main plant stem, and of the G. hirsutum clustered boll (cl1) mutation gene. Both mutant alleles were found to represent point mutations at the Cl1 locus of the corresponding species, and therefore we propose that the GbAF mutation be referred to as cl1b. These Cl1 loci correspond to homologs of tomato SELF-PRUNING (SP), i...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Mohammad Hadi Karbalaie Niya, Hossein Keyvani, Fahimeh Safarnezhad Tameshkel, Mostafa Salehi-Vaziri, Sedigheh Teaghinezhad-S, Farah Bokharaei Salim, Seyed Hamid Reza Monavari, Davod Javanmard
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common viral infection worldwide associated with a variety of cancers. The integration of the HPV genome in these patients causes chromosomal instability and triggers carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the HPV-16 genome physical status in four major cancers related to HPV infection. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks from our previous projects on head and neck, colorectal, penile, and cervical cancers were collected, and HPV-16-positive specimens were used for further analysis...
March 13, 2018: Translational Oncology
Jianjun Chang, Yan Ding, Zhiyu Zhou, Hong-Guang Nie, Hong-Long Ji
Transepithelial fluid and salt re-absorption in epithelial tissues play an important role in fluid and salt homeostasis. In absorptive epithelium, fluid and salt flux is controlled by machinery mainly composed of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger (NHE), aquaporin, and sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase). Dysregulation of fluid and salt transport across epithelium contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases, such as pulmonary edema and cystic fibrosis...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hadas Urca, Frida Ben-Ami
The microsporidian parasite Hamiltosporidium tvaerminnensis can infect Daphnia magna both horizontally (through environmental spores) and vertically (through parthenogenetic and sexually produced eggs). The spores of H. tvaerminnensis come in three distinguishable morphologies, which are thought to have different roles in the transmission of the parasite. In this study, we examined the role of the two most common spore morphologies (i.e. oval-shaped spores and pear-shaped spores) in horizontal transmission of H...
March 16, 2018: Parasitology
Ruiyan Tao, Songling Bai, Junbei Ni, Qinsong Yang, Yuan Zhao, Yuanwen Teng
A conserved blue light sensing and transduction pathway contributes to blue light-induced anthocyanin accumulation in the peel of red pear. Peel color is an economically important characteristic that influences the appearance quality of red pear, whose red color is due to anthocyanin accumulation. The process of coloration in the fruit peel is strongly influenced by light. However, how light quality influences color development remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the effects of different light qualities on color development in the red pear 'Red Zaosu', a mutant of the hybrid cultivar 'Zaosu' of Pyrus pyrifolia and P...
March 15, 2018: Planta
Ke Xie, Suowei Wu, Ziwen Li, Yan Zhou, Danfeng Zhang, Zhenying Dong, Xueli An, Taotao Zhu, Simiao Zhang, Shuangshuang Liu, Jinping Li, Xiangyuan Wan
Map-based cloning of maize ms33 gene showed that ZmMs33 encodes a sn-2 glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, the ortholog of rice OsGPAT3, and it is essential for male fertility in maize. Genetic male sterility has been widely studied for its biological significance and commercial value in hybrid seed production. Although many male-sterile mutants have been identified in maize (Zea mays L.), it is likely that most genes that cause male sterility are unknown. Here, we report a recessive genetic male-sterile mutant, male sterility33 (ms33), which displays small, pale yellow anthers, and complete male sterility...
March 15, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Matthew R Marcello, Marina Druzhinina, Andrew Singson
The interaction and organization of proteins in the sperm membrane are important for all aspects of sperm function. We have determined the interactions between twelve known mutationally defined and cloned sperm membrane proteins in a model system for reproduction, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Identification of the interactions between sperm membrane proteins will improve our understanding of and ability to characterize defects in sperm function. To identify interacting proteins, we conducted a split-ubiquitin membrane yeast two-hybrid (MYTH) analysis of gene products identified through genetic screens that are necessary for sperm function and predicted to encode transmembrane proteins...
March 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Xiqi Li, Cesar A Arias, Samuel L Aitken, Jessica Galloway Peña, Diana Panesso, Michael Chang, Lorena Diaz, Rafael Rios, Yazan Numan, Sammi Ghaoui, Sruti DebRoy, Micah M Bhatti, Dawn E Simmons, Isaam Raad, Ray Hachem, Stephanie A Folan, Pranoti Sahasarabhojane, Awdhesh Kalia, Samuel A Shelburne
Background: Pathobionts, bacteria that are typically human commensals but can cause disease, contribute significantly to antimicrobial resistance. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a prototypical pathobiont as it is a ubiquitous human commensal but also a leading cause of healthcare-associated bacteremia. We sought to determine the etiology of a recent increase in invasive S. epidermidis isolates resistant to linezolid. Methods: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on 176 S...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Hidejiro Torigoe, Hiromasa Yamamoto, Masakiyo Sakaguchi, Chen Youyi, Kei Namba, Hiroki Sato, Kazuhiko Shien, Junichi Soh, Ken Suzawa, Shuta Tomida, Kazunori Tsukuda, Shinichiro Miyoshi, Shinichi Toyooka
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the ErbB (HER) family that is known to play important roles in the pathogenesis of various human cancers. Mutations of the EGFR gene are commonly found as oncogenic driver mutations, and have been targeted for treatment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Leucine-rich repeat and immunoglobulin-like domain protein-1 (LRIG1) is a cell-surface protein that is known as a negative regulator of the ErbB (HER) family. In this study, we first confirmed that the expression levels of LRIG1 were much lower in NSCLC than in non-malignant cells or tissues...
March 13, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Lei Zhang, Jie Ren, Peidian Shi, Dong Lu, Chengxue Zhao, Yanxin Su, Lilin Zhang, Jinhai Huang
B4GALT5, also known as β-1, 4 galactosyltransferase V, is one of the members of β-1, 4 galactosyltransferase gene (B4GALT) family, which was concerned with embryonic development, tumor generation, other malignant diseases. In this study, we firstly cloned porcine B4GALT (pB4GALT5) from porcine alveolar macrophages, and predicted the structural domain and function of seven porcine β-1, 4 galactosyltransferase (I-VII) based on transcriptome analysis of PRRSV infected cells. Additionally, the upregulated porcine B4GALT5 expression was detected from PRRSV infected porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Kerstin M Kampa-Schittenhelm, Wichard Vogel, Irina Bonzheim, Falko Fend, Marius Horger, Lothar Kanz, Martin Soekler, Marcus M Schittenhelm
Activating KIT D816V mutations are frequently found in CBF AML, which predicts for an unfavorable outcome. Dasatinib is a potent inhibitor of wildtype and mutant-KIT isoforms - including D816V. We now provide proof of antileukemic efficacy in a patient with relapsing mutant- KIT D816V CBF AML. Importantly, this effect is mediated via overriding the differentiation blockage of the leukemia clone. In addition, we show that dasatinib is capable to induce pulmonary differentiation syndrome - and therefore needs close monitoring of patients under therapy...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Li Liu, Jue Wang, Xiaomeng Song, Qingping Zhu, Shuping Shen, Wei Zhang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) in the osteogenic differentiation of human alveolar bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hABMMSCs). To investigate whether Sema3A affects hABMMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, a stable Sema3A-overexpression cell line was generated by infection with the pAdCMV-SEMA3A-MCS-EGFP vector. Cell counting kit-8 and clone formation assays were performed to determine the proliferation ability of hABMMSCs, while cell osteogenic differentiation was assayed using Alizarin Red S staining...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Seung Yub Han, Alesia Antoine, David Howard, Bryant Chang, Woo Sung Chang, Matthew Slein, Gintaras Deikus, Sofia Kossida, Patrice Duroux, Marie-Paule Lefranc, Robert P Sebra, Melissa L Smith, Ismael Ben F Fofana
The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/macaque model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome pathogenesis is critical for furthering our understanding of the role of antibody responses in the prevention of HIV infection, and will only increase in importance as macaque immunoglobulin (IG) gene databases are expanded. We have previously reported the construction of a phage display library from a SIV-infected rhesus macaque ( Macaca mulatta ) using oligonucleotide primers based on human IG gene sequences...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Andrea Galli, Helene Mens, Judith M Gottwein, Jan Gerstoft, Jens Bukh
Ribavirin (RBV) is a broad-spectrum antiviral active against a wide range of RNA viruses. Despite having been used for decades in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the precise mechanism of action of RBV is unknown. In other viruses, it inhibits propagation by increasing the rate of G-to-A and C-to-U transitions. Here, we utilized the J6/JFH1 HCV cell-culture system to investigate whether RBV inhibits HCV through the same mechanism. Infected Huh7.5 cells were treated with increasing concentrations of RBV or its phosphorylated forms...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shelby Meier, Assaf A Gilad, J Anthony Brandon, Chenghao Qian, Erhe Gao, Jose F Abisambra, Moriel Vandsburger
Research into gene therapy for heart failure has gained renewed interest as a result of improved safety and availability of adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV). While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is standard for functional assessment of gene therapy outcomes, quantitation of gene transfer/expression relies upon tissue biopsy, fluorescence or nuclear imaging. Imaging of gene expression through the use of genetically encoded chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST)-MRI reporter genes could be combined with clinical cardiac MRI methods to comprehensively probe therapeutic gene expression and subsequent outcomes...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ardashel Latsuzbaia, Marc Arbyn, Sankhadeep Dutta, Marc Fischer, Tarik Gheit, Jessica Tapp, Massimo Tommasino, Steven Weyers, Joël Mossong
A novel human papillomavirus genotype was detected in a cervical swab specimen by next-generation sequencing after rolling circular amplification. It was fully cloned and characterized. The L1 open reading frame showed 77% nucleotide similarity with the closest genotype, HPV101, belonging to the gamma-6 species.
March 15, 2018: Genome Announcements
Adelaide Tawiah, Steve Cornick, France Moreau, Hayley Gorman, Manish Kumar, Sameer Tiwari, Kris Chadee
MUC2 mucin is a large glycoprotein produced by goblet cells that forms the protective mucus blanket overlying the intestinal epithelium as the first line of innate host defense. High MUC2 production in inflammatory bowel disease and infectious colitis depletes goblet cells and the mucus layer by an unknown mechanism. Here, we analyzed the effect of high MUC2 biosynthesis on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis in goblet cells using a high MUC2-producing human goblet cell line (HT29-H) and a HT29-H clone (HT29-L) silenced for MUC2 expression by lentivirus-mediated shRNA...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Nisar Ahmed, Adeel Riaz, Zahra Zubair, Muhammad Saqib, Sehrish Ijaz, Muhammad Shah Nawaz-Ul-Rehman, Ahmed Al-Qahtani, Muhammad Mubin
BACKGROUND: The infection in dogs due to canine parvovirus (CPV), is a highly contagious one with high mortality rate. The present study was undertaken for a detailed genetic analysis of partial VP2 gene i.e., 630 bp isolated from rectal swab samples of infected domestic and stray dogs from all areas of district Faisalabad. Monitoring of viruses is important, as continuous prevalence of viral infection might be associated with emergence of new virulent strains. METHODS: In the present study, 40 rectal swab samples were collected from diarrheic dogs from different areas of district Faisalabad, Pakistan, in 2014-15 and screened for the presence of CPV by immunochromatography...
March 15, 2018: Virology Journal
Sophie Mißbach, Denis Aleksic, Lisa Blaschke, Timm Hassemer, Kyung Jin Lee, Martin Mansfeld, Jana Hänske, Johannes Handler, Robert Kammerer
BACKGROUND: The CEA gene family is one of the most rapidly evolving gene families in the human genome. The founder gene of the family is thought to be an ancestor of the inhibitory immune checkpoint molecule CEACAM1. Comprehensive analyses of mammalian genomes showed that the CEA gene family is subject to tremendous gene family expansion and contraction events in different mammalian species. While in some species (e.g. rabbits) less than three CEACAM1 related genes exist, were in others (certain microbat species) up to 100 CEACAM1 paralogs identified...
March 15, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
A A Gordeev, A B Chetverin
Cell screening or, in other words, identification of cells with certain properties is now increasingly used in scientific and medical research, e.g., in diagnostics, drug testing, and production of cell clones with desired characteristics. In this review, we discuss existing methods of cell screening and their classification according to the cell presentation format. We describe the principles of the one-dimensional and two-dimensional formats and compare the main advantages and drawbacks of these formats. The first part describes the methods based on the 2D-format of cell presentation, when cells are immobilized in the same plane by various techniques...
January 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
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