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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533987/exoskeleton-may-influence-the-internal-body-temperatures-of-neotropical-dung-beetles-col-scarabaeinae
#1
Valentina Amore, Malva I M Hernández, Luis M Carrascal, Jorge M Lobo
The insect exoskeleton is a multifunctional coat with a continuum of mechanical and structural properties constituting the barrier between electromagnetic waves and the internal body parts. This paper examines the ability of beetle exoskeleton to regulate internal body temperature considering its thermal permeability or isolation to simulated solar irradiance and infrared radiation. Seven Neotropical species of dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) differing in colour, surface sculptures, size, sexual dimorphism, period of activity, guild category and altitudinal distribution were studied...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528394/a-novel-dual-wavelength-laser-stimulator-to-elicit-transient-and-tonic-nociceptive-stimulation
#2
Xiaoxi Dong, Tianjun Liu, Han Wang, Jichun Yang, Zhuying Chen, Yong Hu, Yingxin Li
This study aimed to develop a new laser stimulator to elicit both transient and sustained heat stimulation with a dual-wavelength laser system as a tool for the investigation of both transient and tonic experimental models of pain. The laser stimulator used a 980-nm pulsed laser to generate transient heat stimulation and a 1940-nm continuous-wave (CW) laser to provide sustained heat stimulation. The laser with 980-nm wavelength can elicit transient pain with less thermal injury, while the 1940-nm CW laser can effectively stimulate both superficial and deep nociceptors to elicit tonic pain...
May 20, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518176/seasonal-variations-in-cardiovascular-disease
#3
REVIEW
Simon Stewart, Ashley K Keates, Adele Redfern, John J V McMurray
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) follows a seasonal pattern in many populations. Broadly defined winter peaks and clusters of all subtypes of CVD after 'cold snaps' are consistently described, with corollary peaks linked to heat waves. Individuals living in milder climates might be more vulnerable to seasonality. Although seasonal variation in CVD is largely driven by predictable changes in weather conditions, a complex interaction between ambient environmental conditions and the individual is evident. Behavioural and physiological responses to seasonal change modulate susceptibility to cardiovascular seasonality...
May 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516045/exploration-of-highly-accelerated-magnetic-resonance-elastography-using-high-density-array-coils
#4
John C Bosshard, Naresh Yallapragada, Mary P McDougall, Steven M Wright
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) measures tissue mechanical properties by applying a shear wave and capturing its propagation using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By using high density array coils, MRE images are acquired using single echo acquisition (SEA) and at high resolutions with significantly reduced scan times. METHODS: Sixty-four channel uniplanar and 32×32 channel biplanar receive arrays are used to acquire MRE wave image sets from agar samples containing regions of varying stiffness...
April 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513175/effect-of-voc-emissions-from-vegetation-on-air-quality-in-berlin-during-a-heatwave
#5
Galina Churkina, Friderike Kuik, Boris Bonn, Axel Lauer, Rüdiger Grote, Karolina Tomiak, Tim M Butler
The potential of emissions from urban vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone and particulate matter has long been recognized. This potential increases with rising temperatures and may lead to severe problems with air quality in densely populated areas during heat waves. Here, we investigate how heat waves affect emissions of volatile organic compounds from urban/suburban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone and particulate matter. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with atmospheric chemistry (WRF-Chem) with emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from vegetation simulated with MEGAN to quantify some of these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany, during the heat wave in 2006...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507824/non-invasive-radiofrequency-field-treatment-to-produce-hepatic-hyperthermia-efficacy-and-safety-in-swine
#6
Jason C Ho, Lam Nguyen, Justin J Law, Matthew J Ware, V Keshishian, N C Lara, Trac Nguyen, Steven A Curley, Stuart J Corr
The Kanzius non-invasive radio-frequency hyperthermia system (KNiRFH) has been investigated as a treatment option for hepatic hyperthermia cancer therapy. The treatment involves exposing the patient to an external high-power RF (13.56 MHz) electric field, whereby the propagating waves penetrate deep into the tumor causing targeted heating based on differential tissue dielectric properties. However, a comprehensive examination of the Kanzius system alongside any associated toxicities and its ability to induce hepatic hyperthermia in larger animal models, such as swine, are the subjects of the work herein...
2017: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507305/overcoming-thermal-noise-in-non-volatile-spin-wave-logic
#7
Sourav Dutta, Dmitri E Nikonov, Sasikanth Manipatruni, Ian A Young, Azad Naeemi
Spin waves are propagating disturbances in magnetically ordered materials, analogous to lattice waves in solid systems and are often described from a quasiparticle point of view as magnons. The attractive advantages of Joule-heat-free transmission of information, utilization of the phase of the wave as an additional degree of freedom and lower footprint area compared to conventional charge-based devices have made spin waves or magnon spintronics a promising candidate for beyond-CMOS wave-based computation. However, any practical realization of an all-magnon based computing system must undergo the essential steps of a careful selection of materials and demonstrate robustness with respect to thermal noise or variability...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505770/resonance-phonon-approach-to-phonon-relaxation-time-and-mean-free-path-in-one-dimensional-nonlinear-lattices
#8
Lubo Xu, Lei Wang
We extend a previously proposed resonance phonon approach that is based on the linear response theory. By studying the complex response function in depth, we work out the phonon relaxation time besides the oscillating frequency of the phonons in a few one-dimensional nonlinear lattices. The results in the large wave-number-k regime agree with the expectations of the effective phonon theory. However, in the small-k limit they follow different scaling laws. The phonon mean free path can also be calculated indirectly...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498684/giant-thermal-magnetoresistance-in-plasmonic-structures
#9
Ivan Latella, Philippe Ben-Abdallah
A giant thermal magnetoresistance is predicted for the electromagnetic transport of heat in magneto-optical plasmonic structures. In chains of InSb-Ag nanoparticles at room temperature, we find that the resistance can be increased by almost a factor of 2 with magnetic fields of 2 T. We show that this important change results from the strong spectral dependence of localized surface waves on the magnitude of the magnetic field.
April 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491321/thermotolerance-capacities-of-native-and-exotic-coastal-plants-will-lead-to-changes-in-species-composition-under-increased-heat-waves
#10
Kris French, Sharon A Robinson, Jodie Lia
With an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme heat events, plants are likely to reach their thermal limits and show slower growth or increased mortality. We investigated differences amongst coastal native and invasive shrubs and grasses to investigate if particular species might be more at risk in the future. Using an ecologically relevant experimental set of heat waves over a month, we assessed changes in biomass and photosynthetic efficiency in a laboratory setting using 25 coastal Australian species divided into native and exotic shrubs, and native and exotic grasses...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484901/racemization-of-valine-by-impact-induced-heating
#11
Yoshihiro Furukawa, Atsushi Takase, Toshimori Sekine, Takeshi Kakegawa, Takamichi Kobayashi
Homochirality plays an important role in all living organisms but its origin remains unclear. It also remains unclear whether such chiral molecules survived terrestrial heavy impact events. Impacts of extraterrestrial objects on early oceans were frequent and could have affected the chirality of oceanic amino acids when such amino acids accumulated during impacts. This study investigated the effects of shock-induced heating on enantiomeric change of valine with minerals such as olivine ([Mg0.9, Fe0.1]2SiO4), hematite (Fe2O3), and calcite (CaCO3)...
May 9, 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483875/evolution-caused-by-extreme-events
#12
Peter R Grant, B Rosemary Grant, Raymond B Huey, Marc T J Johnson, Andrew H Knoll, Johanna Schmitt
Extreme events can be a major driver of evolutionary change over geological and contemporary timescales. Outstanding examples are evolutionary diversification following mass extinctions caused by extreme volcanism or asteroid impact. The evolution of organisms in contemporary time is typically viewed as a gradual and incremental process that results from genetic change, environmental perturbation or both. However, contemporary environments occasionally experience strong perturbations such as heat waves, floods, hurricanes, droughts and pest outbreaks...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482676/skin-microvascular-endothelial-dysfunction-is-associated-with-type-2-diabetes-independently-of-microalbuminuria-and-arterial-stiffness
#13
Hanna Jonasson, Sara Bergstrand, Fredrik H Nystrom, Toste Länne, Carl Johan Östgren, Niclas Bjarnegård, Ingemar Fredriksson, Marcus Larsson, Tomas Strömberg
Skin and kidney microvascular functions may be affected independently in diabetes mellitus. We investigated skin microcirculatory function in 79 subjects with diabetes type 2, where 41 had microalbuminuria and 38 not, and in 41 age-matched controls. The oxygen saturation, fraction of red blood cells and speed-resolved microcirculatory perfusion (% red blood cells × mm/s) divided into three speed regions: 0-1, 1-10 and above 10 mm/s, were assessed during baseline and after local heating of the foot with a new device integrating diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry...
May 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479993/temperature-increase-and-fluctuation-induce-phytoplankton-biodiversity-loss-evidence-from-a-multi-seasonal-mesocosm-experiment
#14
Serena Rasconi, Katharina Winter, Martin J Kainz
Global climate change scenarios predict lake water temperatures to increase up to 4°C and extreme weather events, including heat waves and large temperature fluctuations, to occur more frequently. Such changes may result in a reorganization of the plankton community structure, causing shifts in diversity and structure toward a community dominated by fewer species that are more adapted to endure warmer and irregular temperature conditions. We designed a long-term (8 months) mesocosm experiment to explore how ambient water temperature (C: control), induced increased temperature (T: +4°C), and temperature fluctuations (F: ±4°C relative to T) change phytoplankton phenology, taxonomical diversity, and community structure, and how such changes affected zooplankton abundance and composition...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477222/the-influence-of-surface-type-on-the-absorbed-radiation-by-a-human-under-hot-dry-conditions
#15
A W Hardin, J K Vanos
Given the predominant use of heat-retaining materials in urban areas, numerous studies have addressed the urban heat island mitigation potential of various "cool" options, such as vegetation and high-albedo surfaces. The influence of altered radiational properties of such surfaces affects not only the air temperature within a microclimate, but more importantly the interactions of long- and short-wave radiation fluxes with the human body. Minimal studies have assessed how cool surfaces affect thermal comfort via changes in absorbed radiation by a human (R abs) using real-world, rather than modeled, urban field data...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475553/competition-load-described-by-objective-and-subjective-methods-during-a-surfing-championship
#16
Iosu Fernández-Gamboa, Javier Yanci, Cristina Granados, Bret Freemyer, Jesús Cámara
The aims of this study were to describe the competition load of surfers during a single heat via objective and subjective methods and to analyze the relationship between objective and subjective methods with the judges' score. Ten competitive surfers were fitted with a global positioning system (GPS) during a competitive heat. The GPS was synchronized with a chronometer and a stationary video camera to identify the surfer's specific actions. After the end of each heat, participants were assessed for the rating of perceived respiratory and muscular exertion (RPEres, RPEmus) and also official scores from every participant were collected...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471234/protective-effects-of-diltiazem-and-tadalafil-on-shock-wave-induced-kidney-injury-in-rats
#17
G Ozmerdiven, B A Vuruskan, O Kaygisiz, H Vuruskan
BACKGROUND: We aimed to compare the protective effects of tadalafil and diltiazem on renal histology after ischemia and reperfusion injury in a rat model of shock wave lithotripsy. METHODS: A total of 40 adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups as follows; control group (group C), group S (SWL + nephrectomy), group T (SWL + tadalafil given before nephrectomy) and group D (SWL + diltiazem given before nephrectomy). Both kidneys were evaluated regarding tubular damage, peritubular fibrosis and heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) immune-expression of glomeruli, cortical and medullar collector tubules on light microscopy...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468072/-impact-of-daily-mean-temperature-cold-spells-and-heat-waves-on-stroke-mortality-a-multivariable-meta-analysis-from-12-counties-of-hubei-province-china
#18
Y Q Zhang, C H Yu, J Z Bao
Objective: To assess the acute effects of daily mean temperature, cold spells, and heat waves on stroke mortality in 12 counties across Hubei province, China. Methods: Data related to daily mortality from stroke and meteorology in 12 counties across Hubei province during 2009-2012, were gathered. Distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) was first used, to estimate the county-specific associations between daily mean temperature, cold spells, heat waves and stroke mortality. Multivariate Meta-analysis was then applied to pool the community-specific relationships between temperature and stroke mortality (exposure-response relationship) as well as both cold- and- heat-associated risks on mortality at different lag days (lag-response relationship)...
April 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465307/the-impact-of-temperature-extremes-on-mortality-a-time-series-study-in-jinan-china
#19
Jing Han, Shouqin Liu, Jun Zhang, Lin Zhou, Qiaoling Fang, Ji Zhang, Ying Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between temperature extremes and daily number of deaths in Jinan, a temperate city in northern China. METHODS: Data ondaily number of deaths and meteorological variables over the period of 2011-2014 were collected. Cold spells or heat waves were defined as ≥3 consecutive days with mean temperature ≤5th percentile or ≥95th percentile, respectively. We applied a time-series adjusted Poisson regression to assess the effects of extreme temperature on deaths...
May 2, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464648/laser-driven-resonance-of-dye-doped-oil-coated-microbubbles-a-theoretical-and-numerical-study
#20
Guillaume Lajoinie, Erik Linnartz, Pieter Kruizinga, Nico de Jong, Eleanor Stride, Gijs van Soest, Michel Versluis
Microbubbles are used to enhance the contrast in ultrasound imaging. When coated with an optically absorbing material, these bubbles can also provide contrast in photoacoustic imaging. This multimodal aspect is of pronounced interest to the field of medical imaging. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework to describe the physical phenomena underlying the photoacoustic response. This article presents a model for a spherical gas microbubble suspended in an aqueous environment and coated with an oil layer containing an optically absorbing dye...
April 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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