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Heat wave

Simon A Josey, Joel J-M Hirschi, Bablu Sinha, Aurélie Duchez, Jeremy P Grist, Robert Marsh
Cold ocean temperature anomalies have been observed in the mid- to high-latitude North Atlantic on interannual to centennial timescales. Most notably, a large region of persistently low surface temperatures accompanied by a sharp reduction in ocean heat content was evident in the subpolar gyre from the winter of 2013-2014 to 2016, and the presence of this feature at a time of pervasive warming elsewhere has stimulated considerable debate. Here, we review the role of air-sea interaction and ocean processes in generating this cold anomaly and place it in a longer-term context...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
Martin H Skjelvareid, Svein Kristian Stormo, Kristín Anna Þórarinsdóttir, Karsten Heia
High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) can be used for the localized heating of biological tissue through the conversion of sound waves into heat. Although originally developed for human medicine, HIFU may also be used to weaken the attachment of pin bones in fish fillets to enable easier removal of such bones. This was shown in the present study, where a series of experiments were performed on HIFU phantoms and fillets of cod and salmon. In thin objects such as fish fillets, the heat is mainly dissipated at the surfaces...
September 18, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Xuping Song, Shigong Wang, Tanshi Li, Jinhui Tian, Guowu Ding, Jiaxin Wang, Jiexin Wang, Kezheng Shang
The objectives of this article were (i) to find the association between extreme temperatures and respiratory emergency department (ED) visits and (ii) to explore the added effects of heat waves and cold spells on respiratory ED visits in Beijing from 2009 to 2012. A quasi-Poisson generalised linear model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model was performed to quantify this association. The results indicated that (i) ambient temperature related to respiratory ED visits exhibited a U-shaped association...
September 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Xerxes T Seposo, Tran Ngoc Dang, Yasushi Honda
BACKGROUND: Sustained high temperatures, specifically heat waves (HW), increase the risk of dying, especially among risk populations, which are highly vulnerable to its additional effect. In developing countries, there are only a few studies which focused on the magnitude of the risks attributed to HWs. OBJECTIVES: This study explored the HW effects using 15 HW definitions through the combination of duration (> 2, > 4, and > 7 consecutive days) and intensity (at the ≥ 90th, ≥ 95th, ≥ 97th, ≥ 98th, and ≥ 99th temperature percentiles)...
2017: Global Health Action
Tsuyoshi Okamoto, Kaori Tamura, Naoyuki Miyamoto, Shogo Tanaka, Takaharu Futaeda
Indoor environmental comfort has previously been quantified based on the subjective assessment of thermal physical parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and airflow velocity. However, the relationship of these parameters to brain activity remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of airflow on brain activity using electroencephalograms (EEG) of participants in a living environment under different airflow conditions. Before the recording, the room was set to a standardised air temperature and humidity...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jenny Wang, Yi Quan, Roopa Dalal, Daniel Palanker
Purpose: Recent progress in retinal laser therapy has centered upon using thermal stress below damage threshold or selective destruction of targeted tissue layers as a stimulus for retinal repair. Temporal modulation, including micropulse, is thought to increase the selectivity of laser treatment, but has not been carefully analyzed. We measure and model the tissue response to continuous-wave (CW) and micropulse laser to evaluate the advantages and drawbacks of temporal modulation. Methods: Thresholds of ophthalmoscopic visibility, which indicates damage to photoreceptors, and fluorescein angiography (FA), indicating damage to retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), were measured with 577-nm laser in rabbits for duty cycles ranging from 3% to 100% (CW) and pulse envelopes of 20 and 200 ms...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
M I Pérez-Camacho, J C Ruiz-Suárez
The propagation of sound waves on lipid monolayers supported on water has been previously studied during the melting transition. Since changes in volume, area, and compressibility in lipid membranes have biological relevance, the observed sound propagation is of paramount importance. However, it is unknown what would occur on a lipid bilayer, which is a more approximate model of a cell membrane. With the aim to answer this relevant question, we built an experimental setup to assemble long artificial lipid membranes...
September 12, 2017: Soft Matter
Wen Yi, Albert P C Chan
Global warming is bringing more frequent and severe heat waves, and the result will be serious for vulnerable populations such as construction workers. Excessive heat stress has profound effects on physiological responses, which cause occupational injuries, fatalities and low productivity. Construction workers are particularly affected by heat stress, because of the body heat production caused by physically demanding tasks, and hot and humid working conditions. Field studies were conducted between August and September 2016 at two construction training grounds in Hong Kong...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
B Kakati, S S Kausik, M Bandyopadhyay, B K Saikia, P K Kaw
H(-) ion based neutral beam injector is a critical heating and current drive system in a fusion reactor. However, the present H(-) ion source configuration has limitations in terms of production, extraction, cesium (Cs) inventory and management. To overcome these limitations, a proof-of-principle experiment based on a novel concept regarding surface assisted volume H(-) ions production by sprinkling Cs coated tungsten (W) dust grains (low work function surface) into a hydrogen plasma is carried out. Four different diagnostics have been used to validate the concept...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jens Amendt, Sandra Rodner, Claus-Peter Schuch, Heinz Sprenger, Lars Weidlich, Frank Reckel
One of the most common techniques applied for searching living and even dead persons is the FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared) system fixed on an aircraft like e.g. a helicopter, visualizing the thermal patterns emitted from objects in the long-infrared spectrum. However, as body temperature cools down to ambient values within approximately 24h after death, it is common sense that searching for deceased persons can be just applied the first day post-mortem. We postulated that the insect larval masses on a decomposing body generate a heat which can be considerably higher than ambient temperatures for a period of several weeks and that such heat signatures might be used for locating insect infested human remains...
September 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
János Unger, Nóra Skarbit, Tamás Gál
This study gives a comprehensive picture on the diurnal and seasonal general outdoor human thermal sensation levels in different urban quarters based on long-term (almost 3 years) data series from urban and rural areas of Szeged, Hungary. It is supplemented with a case study dealing with an extreme heat wave period which is more and more frequent in the last decades in the study area. The intra-urban comparison is based on a thermal aspect classification of the surface, namely, the local climate zone (LCZ) system, on an urban meteorological station network and on the utilization of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) comfort index with categories calibrated to the local population...
September 9, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
Sourabh Barua, M Ciomaga Hatnean, M R Lees, G Balakrishnan
VSe2 is a transition metal dichaclogenide which has a charge- density wave transition that has been well studied. We report on a low-temperature upturn in the resistivity and, at temperatures below this resistivity minimum, an unusual magnetoresistance which is negative at low fields and positive at higher fields, in single crystals of VSe2. The negative magnetoresistance has a parabolic dependence on the magnetic field and shows little angular dependence. The magnetoresistance at temperatures above the resistivity minimum is always positive...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Dimitra Founda, Mattheos Santamouris
Heat waves (HWs) are recognized as a serious threat for human health worldwide, with urban areas being more vulnerable due to the urban heat island (UHI) effect and population density. Yet, in the climate change context, HWs are becoming more frequent, stronger and longer, which, coupled with intensifying urbanization exacerbates thermal risk for urban residents. Despite the profound impact of this global phenomenon there is no clear consensus so far on possible synergies between UHIs and HWs. The study sheds light on the complex synergies between UHIs and HWs focusing on coastal sites...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Pierre-François Lory, Stéphane Pailhès, Valentina M Giordano, Holger Euchner, Hong Duong Nguyen, Reiner Ramlau, Horst Borrmann, Marcus Schmidt, Michael Baitinger, Matthias Ikeda, Petr Tomeš, Marek Mihalkovič, Céline Allio, Mark Robert Johnson, Helmut Schober, Yvan Sidis, Frédéric Bourdarot, Louis Pierre Regnault, Jacques Ollivier, Silke Paschen, Yuri Grin, Marc de Boissieu
Engineering lattice thermal conductivity requires to control the heat carried by atomic vibration waves, the phonons. The key parameter for quantifying it is the phonon lifetime, limiting the travelling distance, whose determination is however at the limits of instrumental capabilities. Here, we show the achievement of a direct quantitative measurement of phonon lifetimes in a single crystal of the clathrate Ba7.81Ge40.67Au5.33, renowned for its puzzling 'glass-like' thermal conductivity. Surprisingly, thermal transport is dominated by acoustic phonons with long lifetimes, travelling over distances of 10 to 100 nm as their wave-vector goes from 0...
September 8, 2017: Nature Communications
Yuming Guo, Antonio Gasparrini, Ben G Armstrong, Benjawan Tawatsupa, Aurelio Tobias, Eric Lavigne, Micheline de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coelho, Xiaochuan Pan, Ho Kim, Masahiro Hashizume, Yasushi Honda, Yue-Liang Leon Guo, Chang-Fu Wu, Antonella Zanobetti, Joel D Schwartz, Michelle L Bell, Matteo Scortichini, Paola Michelozzi, Kornwipa Punnasiri, Shanshan Li, Linwei Tian, Samuel David Osorio Garcia, Xerxes Seposo, Ala Overcenco, Ariana Zeka, Patrick Goodman, Tran Ngoc Dang, Do Van Dung, Fatemeh Mayvaneh, Paulo Hilario Nascimento Saldiva, Gail Williams, Shilu Tong
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined variation in the associations between heat waves and mortality in an international context. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to systematically examine the impacts of heat waves on mortality with lag effects internationally. METHODS: We collected daily data of temperature and mortality from 400 communities in 18 countries/regions and defined 12 types of heat waves by combining community-specific daily mean temperature ≥90th, 92...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Jifu Mao, Chaojing Li, Hyun Jin Park, Mahmoud Rouabhia, Ze Zhang
The poor mechanical properties and processability of pristine heterocyclic conductive polymers represent the most notable scientific and technological challenges that have greatly limited the application of these polymers. We report a soft and mechanically processable free-standing pristine polypyrrole (PPy) membrane (PPy-N) that is as soft in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C) as it is at room temperature, despite a glass transition temperature (Tg) above 100 °C. This PPy membrane also displays a highly attractive combination of properties, including mechanical processability, lightweight (9 g m(-2)), large surface area (14...
September 12, 2017: ACS Nano
Bruno M Carreira, Pedro Segurado, Anssi Laurila, Rui Rebelo
In the Mediterranean basin, the globally increasing temperatures are expected to be accompanied by longer heat waves. Commonly assumed to benefit cold-limited invasive alien species, these climatic changes may also change their feeding preferences, especially in the case of omnivorous ectotherms. We investigated heat wave effects on diet choice, growth and energy reserves in the invasive red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. In laboratory experiments, we fed juvenile and adult crayfish on animal, plant or mixed diets and exposed them to a short or a long heat wave...
2017: PloS One
Xiaohong Fan, Fantao Kong, Aiguo Kong, Aoling Chen, Ziqian Zhou, Yongkui Shan
A new porous covalent porphyrin framework (CPF) filled with triphenylphosphine was designed and synthesized using the rigid tetrakis(p-bromophenyl)porphyrin (TBPP) and 1,3,5-benzenetriboronic acid trivalent alcohol ester as building blocks. The carbonization of this special CPF has afforded coupled Fe2P and Fe4N nanoparticles embedded in N-doped carbons (Fe2P/Fe4N@N-doped carbons). This CPF serves as an "all in one" precursor of Fe, N, P, and C. The porous property and solid skeleton of the CPF endow Fe2P/Fe4N@N-doped carbons with porous structure and a high degree of graphitization...
September 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Anna Błażejczyk, Krzysztof Błażejczyk, Jarosław Baranowski, Magdalena Kuchcik
Heat stress is one of the environmental factors influencing the health of individuals and the wider population. There is a large body of research to document significant increases in mortality and morbidity during heat waves all over the world. This paper presents key results of research dealing with heat-related mortality (HRM) in various cities in Poland which cover about 25% of the country's population. Daily mortality and weather data reports for the years 1991-2000 were used. The intensity of heat stress was assessed by the universal thermal climate index (UTCI)...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
Khouloud Mtibaa, Athol Thomson, David Nichols, Christophe Hautier, Sébastien Racinais
PURPOSE: Hyperthermia has been shown to affect both central and peripheral nervous systems. However, the consequences of these alterations on the proprioceptive mechanisms underlying human movement control remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of passive hyperthermia on various measures of proprioception and balance, two key components of injury prevention and movement efficiency. METHODS: Following a familiarization session, 14 volunteers (8 males, 6 females) completed 2 experimental sessions in temperate (CON, 24°C) and hot (HOT, 44-50°C) conditions, in a counterbalanced order...
August 31, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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