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Gina Greco, Matteo Agostini, Ilaria Tonazzini, Damiano Sallemi, Stefano Barone, Marco Cecchini
In the last decades new types of cell cultures have been introduced to provide better cell survival and development, and micro/nano-environmental physico-chemical conditions aimed to mimic those present in vivo. However, despite the efforts made, the systems available to date are often difficult to replicate and use. Here, an easy-to-use surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based platform is presented for realizing dynamic cell cultures that is compatible with standard optical microscopes, incubators and cell culture dishes...
May 23, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Gang Wang, Yu-Sheng Wang, Emily Kay Huang, Weilun Hung, Kai-Lin Chao, Ping-Yeh Wu, Yi-Hsin Chen, Ite A Yu
We present high-contrast electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) spectra in a heated vapor cell of single isotope 87 Rb atoms. The EIT spectrum has both high resonant transmission up to 67% and narrow linewidth of 1.1 MHz. We get rid of the possible amplification resulted from the effects of amplification without population inversion and four-wave mixing. Therefore, this high transmitted light is not artificial. The theoretical prediction of the probe transmission agrees well with the data and the experimental parameters can be derived reasonably from the model...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
M Sindou, P Mercier
Primary hemifacial spasm with few exceptions is due to the vascular compression of the facial nerve that can be evidenced with high resolution MRI. Microvascular decompression is the only curative treatment for this pathology. According to literature review detailed in chapter "conflicting vessels", the compression is located at the facial Root Exit Zone (REZ) in 95% of the cases, and in 5% distally at the cisternal or the intrameatal portion of the root as the sole conflict or in addition to one at brainstem/REZ...
May 18, 2018: Neuro-Chirurgie
Joren Vanherck, Bart Soree, Wim Magnus
Today, further downscaling of mobile electronic devices poses serious problems, such as energy consumption and local heat dissipation. In this context, spin wave majority gates made of very thin ferromagnetic films may offer a viable alternative. However, similar downscaling of magnetic thin films eventually enforces the latter to operate as quasi-two dimensional magnets, the magnetic properties of which are not yet fully understood, especially those related to anisotropies and external magnetic fields in arbitrary directions...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Yuan Huang, Xiao Wang, Xu Zhang, Xianjue Chen, Baowen Li, Bin Wang, Ming Huang, Chongyang Zhu, Xuewei Zhang, Wolfgang S Bacsa, Feng Ding, Rodney S Ruoff
Raman spectra of large graphene bubbles showed size-dependent oscillations in spectral intensity and frequency, which originate from optical standing waves formed in the vicinity of the graphene surface. At a high laser power, local heating can lead to oscillations in the Raman frequency and also create a temperature gradient in the bubble. Based on Raman data, the temperature distribution within the graphene bubble was calculated, and it is shown that the heating effect of the laser is reduced when moving from the center of a bubble to its edge...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Huan Zhang, Johannes P Werner, Elena García-Bustamante, Fidel González-Rouco, Sebastian Wagner, Eduardo Zorita, Klaus Fraedrich, Johann H Jungclaus, Fredrik Charpentier Ljungqvist, Xiuhua Zhu, Elena Xoplaki, Fahu Chen, Jianping Duan, Quansheng Ge, Zhixin Hao, Martin Ivanov, Lea Schneider, Stefanie Talento, Jianglin Wang, Bao Yang, Jürg Luterbacher
East Asia has experienced strong warming since the 1960s accompanied by an increased frequency of heat waves and shrinking glaciers over the Tibetan Plateau and the Tien Shan. Here, we place the recent warmth in a long-term perspective by presenting a new spatially resolved warm-season (May-September) temperature reconstruction for the period 1-2000 CE using 59 multiproxy records from a wide range of East Asian regions. Our Bayesian Hierarchical Model (BHM) based reconstructions generally agree with earlier shorter regional temperature reconstructions but are more stable due to additional temperature sensitive proxies...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mateusz Krzyzosiak, Ryszard Gonczarek, Adam Gonczarek, Lucjan Jacak
Within the general conformal transformation method a simplified analytical model is proposed to study the effect of external hydrostatic pressure on low- and high-temperature superconducting systems. A single fluctuation in the density of states, placed away from the Fermi level, as well as external pressure are included in the model to derive equations for the superconducting gap, free energy difference, and specific heat difference. The zero- and sub-critical temperature limits are discussed by the method of successive approximations...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kim N Mouritsen, Mikkel M Sørensen, Robert Poulin, Brian L Fredensborg
Mounting evidence suggests that the transmission of certain parasites is facilitated by increasing temperatures, causing their host population to decline. However, no study has yet addressed how temperature and parasitism may combine to shape the functional structure of a whole host community in the face of global warming. Here, we apply an outdoor mesocosm approach supported by field surveys to elucidate this question in a diverse intertidal community of amphipods infected by the pathogenic microphallid trematode, Maritrema novaezealandensis...
May 16, 2018: Global Change Biology
Rajkumar Sarma, Pranab Kumar Mondal
We investigate Marangoni instability in a thin liquid film resting on a substrate of low thermal conductivity and separated from the surrounding gas phase by a deformable free surface. Considering a nonmonotonic variation of surface tension with temperature, here we analytically derive the neutral stability curve for the monotonic and oscillatory modes of instability (for both the long-wave and short-wave perturbations) under the framework of linear stability analysis. For the long-wave instability, we derive a set of amplitude equations using the scaling k∼(Bi)^{1/2}, where k is the wave number and Bi is the Biot number...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
A G Shalashov, E D Gospodchikov, I V Izotov, D A Mansfeld, V A Skalyga, O Tarvainen
We report the first experimental evidence of a controlled transition from the generation of periodic bursts of electromagnetic radiation into the continuous-wave regime of a cyclotron maser formed in magnetically confined nonequilibrium plasma. The kinetic cyclotron instability of the extraordinary wave of weakly inhomogeneous magnetized plasma is driven by the anisotropic electron population resulting from electron cyclotron plasma heating in a MHD-stable minimum-B open magnetic trap.
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
F de'Donato, M Scortichini, M De Sario, A de Martino, P Michelozzi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the article is to evaluate the temporal change in the effect of heat on mortality in Italy in the last 12 years after the introduction of the national heat plan. STUDY DESIGN: Time series analysis. METHODS: Distributed lag non-linear models were used to estimate the association between maximum apparent temperature and mortality in 23 Italian cities included in the national heat plan in four study periods (before the introduction of the heat plan and three periods after the plan was in place between 2005 and 2016)...
May 8, 2018: Public Health
Lian Song, Luis Guanter, Kaiyu Guan, Liangzhi You, Alfredo Huete, Weimin Ju, Yongguang Zhang
Extremely high temperatures represent one of the most severe abiotic stresses limiting crop productivity. However, understanding crop responses to heat stress is still limited considering the increases in both the frequency and severity of heat wave events under climate change. This limited understanding is partly due to the lack of studies or tools for the timely and accurate monitoring of crop responses to extreme heat over broad spatial scales. In this work, we use novel space-borne data of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), which is a new proxy for photosynthetic activity, along with traditional vegetation indices (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI & Enhanced Vegetation Index EVI) to investigate the impacts of heat stress on winter wheat in northwestern India, one of the world's major wheat production areas...
May 10, 2018: Global Change Biology
Zhou Shi, Azriel Z Genack
Diffusion is the result of repeated random scattering. It governs a wide range of phenomena from Brownian motion, to heat flow through window panes, neutron flux in fuel rods, dispersion of light in human tissue, and electronic conduction. It is universally acknowledged that the diffusion approach to describing wave transport fails in translucent samples thinner than the distance between scattering events such as are encountered in meteorology, astronomy, biomedicine, and communications. Here we show in optical measurements and numerical simulations that the scaling of transmission and the intensity profiles of transmission eigenchannels have the same form in translucent as in opaque media...
May 10, 2018: Nature Communications
Guiming Pang, Michael Smidman, Jinglei Zhang, Lin Jiao, Zongfa Weng, Emilian M Nica, Ye Chen, Wenbing Jiang, Yongjun Zhang, Wu Xie, Hirale S Jeevan, Hanoh Lee, Philipp Gegenwart, Frank Steglich, Qimiao Si, Huiqiu Yuan
The nature of the pairing symmetry of the first heavy fermion superconductor CeCu2 Si2 has recently become the subject of controversy. While CeCu2 Si2 was generally believed to be a [Formula: see text]-wave superconductor, recent low-temperature specific heat measurements showed evidence for fully gapped superconductivity, contrary to the nodal behavior inferred from earlier results. Here, we report London penetration depth measurements, which also reveal fully gapped behavior at very low temperatures. To explain these seemingly conflicting results, we propose a fully gapped [Formula: see text] band-mixing pairing state for CeCu2 Si2 , which yields very good fits to both the superfluid density and specific heat, as well as accounting for a sign change of the superconducting order parameter, as previously concluded from inelastic neutron scattering results...
May 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Shreyas Chavan, Deokgeun Park, Nitish Singla, Peter Sokalski, Kalyan Boyina, Nenad Miljkovic
Frost spreads on non-wetting surfaces during condensation frosting via an inter-droplet frost wave. When a supercooled condensate water droplet freezes on a hydrophobic or superhydrophobic surface, neighboring droplets still in the liquid phase begin to evaporate. Two possible mechanisms govern the evaporation of neighboring water droplets: (1) the difference in saturation pressure of the water vapor surrounding the liquid and frozen droplets induces a vapor pressure gradient, and (2) the latent heat released by freezing droplets locally heats the substrate, evaporating nearby droplets...
May 7, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Huan Zhang, Caizhe Pan, Shaohan Gu, Qiaomei Ma, Yiqing Zhang, Xin Li, Kai Shi
Climate changes such as heat waves often affect plant growth and pose a growing threat to natural and agricultural ecosystems. Elevated atmospheric CO2 can mitigate the negative effects of heat stress, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. We examined the interactive effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2 ) and temperature on the generation of the hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and stomatal movement characteristics associated with heat tolerance in tomato seedlings grown under two CO2 concentrations (400 and 800 μmol mol-1 ) and two temperatures (25 and 42°C)...
May 7, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Sebastian Bathiany, Vasilis Dakos, Marten Scheffer, Timothy M Lenton
Extreme events such as heat waves are among the most challenging aspects of climate change for societies. We show that climate models consistently project increases in temperature variability in tropical countries over the coming decades, with the Amazon as a particular hotspot of concern. During the season with maximum insolation, temperature variability increases by ~15% per degree of global warming in Amazonia and Southern Africa and by up to 10%°C-1 in the Sahel, India, and Southeast Asia. Mechanisms include drying soils and shifts in atmospheric structure...
May 2018: Science Advances
Kush Panara, John M Masterson, Luis F Savio, Ranjith Ramasamy
CONTEXT: Male factor infertility plays a significant role in infertility. Many factors have been associated with male infertility; however, the link between many sports and recreational factors and male reproduction remains poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the current literature regarding the impact of many common sports and recreational factors on male reproduction. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive PubMed and Embase search for relevant articles published between 1970 and 2017 was performed by combining the following search terms: male, sports (including individual sports), traumatic brain injury, sauna, hot tub, fertility, erectile dysfunction, varicocele, environment, cell phone, and laptop computer...
May 3, 2018: European Urology Focus
Hongcheng Wang, Liqun Wu, Ting Zhang, Rangrang Chen, Linan Zhang
Stable continuous micro-feeding of fine cohesive powders has recently gained importance in many fields. However, it remains a great challenge in practice because of the powder aggregate caused by interparticle cohesive forces in small capillaries. This paper describes a novel method of feeding fine cohesive powder actuated by a pulse inertia force and acoustic radiation force simultaneously in an ultrasonic standing wave field using a tapered glass nozzle. Nozzles with different outlet diameters are fabricated using glass via a heating process...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Hidetaka Miyazaki, Takafumi Ohshiro, Umberto Romeo, Tadahide Noguchi, Yutaka Maruoka, Gianfranco Gaimari, Georgi Tomov, Yoshitaka Wada, Kae Tanaka, Toshio Ohshiro, Shinichi Asamura
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of laser treatment of oral vascular lesions using the multiple spot irradiation technique with a single-pulsed wave. BACKGROUND DATA: In laser therapy for vascular lesions, heat accumulation induced by excessive irradiation can cause adverse events postoperatively, including ulcer formation, resultant scarring, and severe pain. To prevent heat accumulation and side effects, we have applied a multiple pulsed spot irradiation technique, the so-called "leopard technique" (LT) to oral vascular lesions...
May 2, 2018: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
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