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antimicrobial resistence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527358/improving-the-pharmacokinetics-and-tissue-distribution-of-pyrinezolid-by-self-assembled-polymeric-micelles
#1
Haiyue Long, Xiaoling Li, Zitai Sang, Lan Mei, Tao Yang, Zicheng Li, Liangxue Zhou, Yu Zheng, Gu He, Gang Guo, Zhenling Wang, Yong Deng, Youfu Luo
Antibiotic-resistance by bacteria is a growing global concern within the healthcare field, and it has provided an impetus for continued antimicrobial development. Pyrinezolid (PZ), a novel oxazolidinone compound, can effectively inhibit most gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). Though PZ is a promising antimicrobial candidate, the druggability of PZ is limited by its poor water solubility. Therefore, the amphipathic mPEG-PLLA copolymer was used to prepare the pyrinezolid micelles (PZ-M)...
May 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527354/incorporation-of-silver-nanoparticles-into-magnetron-sputtered-calcium-phosphate-layers-on-titanium-as-an-antibacterial-coating
#2
Maria A Surmeneva, Anna A Sharonova, Svitlana Chernousova, Oleg Prymak, Kateryna Loza, Mikhail S Tkachev, Ivan A Shulepov, Matthias Epple, Roman A Surmenev
A three-layer system of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (first layer; 1000nm thick), silver nanoparticles (second layer; 1.5μg Ag cm(-2)) and calcium phosphate (third layer, either 150 or 1000nm thick) on titanium was prepared by a combination of electrophoretic deposition of silver nanoparticles and the deposition of calcium phosphate by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the silver nanoparticles were evenly distributed over the surface. The adhesion of multilayered coating on the substrate was evaluated using the scratch test method...
May 9, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527285/-genetic-diversity-of-extraintestinal-escherichia-coli-strains-producers-of-beta-lactamases-tem-shv-and-ctx-m-associated-with-healthcare
#3
Yasmin Varela, Beatriz Millán, María Araque
INTRODUCTION: There are few reports from Venezuela describing the genetic basis that sustains the pathogenic potential and phylogenetics of Escherichia coli extraintestinal strains isolated in health care units. OBJECTIVE: To establish the genetic diversity of extraintestinal E. coli strains producers of betalactamases TEM, SHV and CTX-M associated with healthcare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied a collection of 12 strains of extraintestinal E...
June 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526836/characterisation-of-antibiotic-prescriptions-for-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-in-danish-general-practice-a-retrospective-registry-based-cohort-study
#4
Rune Aabenhus, Malene Plejdrup Hansen, Laura Trolle Saust, Lars Bjerrum
Inappropriate use of antibiotics is contributing to the increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance. Several Danish guidelines on antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in general practice have been issued to promote rational prescribing of antibiotics, however it is unclear if these recommendations are followed. We aimed to characterise the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions for patients diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infections, by means of electronic prescriptions, labeled with clinical indications, from Danish general practice...
May 19, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526788/zinc-resistance-within-swine-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-isolates-in-the-usa-is-associated-with-mlst-lineage
#5
Samantha J Hau, Timothy Frana, Jisun Sun, Peter R Davies, Tracy L Nicholson
Zinc resistance in livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) sequence type (ST) 398 is primarily mediated by the czrC gene co-located with the mecA gene, encoding methicillin resistance, within the type V SCCmec element. Because czrC and mecA are located within the same mobile genetic element, it has been suggested that the use of in feed zinc as an antidiarrheal agent has the potential to contribute to the emergence and spread of MRSA in swine through increased selection pressure to maintain the SCCmec element in isolates obtained from pigs...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526638/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-salmonella-and-shigella-spp-among-children-with-gastroenteritis-in-an-iranian-referral-hospital
#6
Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Mina Moradzadeh, Hamid Eshaghi, Amitis Ramezani, Mohammad Taghi Haghi Ashtiani, Sepideh Keshavarz Valian, Setareh Mamishi
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis is one of the leading cause of illnesses through the world, especially in developing countries.Salmonella and Shigella infections are considered as the main public health problems in children. The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella and Shigella spp. among children with gastroenteritis in an Iranian referral hospital. METHODS: During April 2013 to April 2014, all medical records of children with gastroenteritis admitted to a pediatric medical center were evaluated...
May 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526548/at-the-nexus-of-antibiotics-and-metals-the-impact-of-cu-and-zn-on-antibiotic-activity-and-resistance
#7
REVIEW
Keith Poole
Environmental influences on antibiotic activity and resistance can wreak havoc with in vivo antibiotic efficacy and, ultimately, antimicrobial chemotherapy. In nature, bacteria encounter a variety of metal ions, particularly copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), as contaminants in soil and water, as feed additives in agriculture, as clinically-used antimicrobials, and as components of human antibacterial responses. Importantly, there is a growing body of evidence for Cu/Zn driving antibiotic resistance development in metal-exposed bacteria, owing to metal selection of genetic elements harbouring both metal and antibiotic resistance genes, and metal recruitment of antibiotic resistance mechanisms...
May 16, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526496/molecular-characterization-and-antimicrobial-resistance-profile-of-clostridium-perfringens-type-a-isolates-from-humans-animals-fish-and-their-environment
#8
Jay Prakash Yadav, Suresh Chandra Das, Pankaj Dhaka, Deepthi Vijay, Manesh Kumar, Asish Kumar Mukhopadhyay, Goutam Chowdhury, Pranav Chauhan, Rahul Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Satya Veer Singh Malik, Ashok Kumar
The study was aimed to characterize, and determine antibiogram of C. perfringens type A isolated from the feces of human and animal diarrhoeal cases, as well as healthy animals, meat of pigs and goats, gills and intestine of fish and samples from fish pond. A total of 460 samples, including human diarrhoeal cases (n = 130); diarrhoeal cases of pig (n = 52) and goat (n = 50); fecal samples from healthy pig (n = 50) and goat (n = 50); meat samples viz. pork meat (n = 52); goat meat (n = 50) and fish including their environmental sources (n = 26) were used for isolation and identification of C...
May 16, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526311/dramatic-effects-of-a-new-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-in-a-rural-community-hospital
#9
Claudia R Libertin, Stephanie H Watson, William L Tillett, Joy H Peterson
BACKGROUND: New Joint Commission antimicrobial stewardship requirements took effect on January 1, 2017, promoted as a central strategy for coping with the emerging problems of antimicrobial resistance and Clostridium difficile infection. Our objective was to measure the effects of a new antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) in a rural community hospital with no prior ASP, in the context of having a new infectious disease specialist on staff. METHODS: An ASP team was formed to implement a prospective audit with health care provider feedback and targeting 12 antimicrobial agents in a rural hospital in Georgia...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526020/salmonella-serotypes-and-their-antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-apparently-healthy-dogs-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#10
Bitsu Kiflu, Haile Alemayehu, Mukarim Abdurahaman, Yohannes Negash, Tadesse Eguale
BACKGROUND: The close bond between pet animals and family members poses risk of infection with zoonotic bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella. No data is available on occurrence of Salmonella in dogs in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence, serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from feces of apparently healthy dogs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. RESULTS: Of the total 360 dogs examined, 42 (11.7%; 95% Confidence limit of 8...
May 19, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525997/increased-resistance-of-gram-negative-urinary-pathogens-after-kidney-transplantation
#11
Johannes Korth, Julia Kukalla, Peter-Michael Rath, Sebastian Dolff, Marco Krull, Hana Guberina, Anja Bienholz, Benjamin Wilde, Stefan Becker, Birgit Ross, Olympia Evdoxia Anastasiou, Andreas Kribben, Oliver Witzke
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection is the most common complication after kidney transplantation. It can cause severe sepsis and transplant loss. Emergence of drug resistance among gram-negative urinary pathogens is the current challenge for urinary tract infection treatment after kidney transplantation. METHODS: This study analyzes the antimicrobial susceptibility of gram-negative urinary pathogens after kidney transplantation from 2009 to 2012 at the Transplant Outpatient Clinic of the University Hospital Essen, Germany...
May 19, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525923/a-national-implementation-project-to-prevent-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infection-in-nursing-home-residents
#12
Lona Mody, M Todd Greene, Jennifer Meddings, Sarah L Krein, Sara E McNamara, Barbara W Trautner, David Ratz, Nimalie D Stone, Lillian Min, Steven J Schweon, Andrew J Rolle, Russell N Olmsted, Dale R Burwen, James Battles, Barbara Edson, Sanjay Saint
Importance: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (UTI) in nursing home residents is a common cause of sepsis, hospital admission, and antimicrobial use leading to colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms. Objective: To develop, implement, and evaluate an intervention to reduce catheter-associated UTI. Design, Setting, and Participants: A large-scale prospective implementation project was conducted in community-based nursing homes participating in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Safety Program for Long-Term Care...
May 19, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525841/ll-37-derived-short-antimicrobial-peptide-kr-12-a5-and-its-d-amino-acid-substituted-analogs-with-cell-selectivity-anti-biofilm-activity-synergistic-effect-with-conventional-antibiotics-and-anti-inflammatory-activity
#13
Eun Young Kim, Ganesan Rajasekaran, Song Yub Shin
KR-12-a5 is a 12-meric α-helical antimicrobial peptide (AMP) with dual antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities designed from human cathelicidin LL-37. We designed and synthesized a series of d-amino acid-substituted analogs of KR-12-a5 with the aim of developing novel α-helical AMPs that possess higher cell selectivity than KR-12-a5, while maintaining the anti-inflammatory activity. d-amino acid incorporation into KR-12-a5 induced a significant improvement in the cell selectivity by 2.6- to 13.6-fold as compared to KR-12-a5, while maintaining the anti-inflammatory activity...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525337/molecular-characterization-and-detection-of-enterotoxins-methicillin-resistance-genes-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-staphylococcus-aureus-from-fish-and-ground-beef
#14
S Arslan, F Özdemir
A total of 120 samples including 40 freshwaterfish(Oncorhynchus mykiss), 40 seawater fish (Sparus aurata) and 40 ground beef samples were examined for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. The isolates were identified using biochemical tests and a PCR for the species-specific fragment (Sa442) and thermonuclease gene (nucA). The presence of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes (sea, seb, sec, sed and see), toxin genes (eta, etb, tsst), methicillin resistance gene (mecA) and some phenotypic virulence factors was also tested...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524273/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-novel-peptides-based-on-antimicrobial-peptides-as-potential-agents-with-anti-tumor-and-multidrug-resistance-reversing-activities
#15
Bo Zhang, Wei Shi, Jieming Li, Chen Liao, Limei Yang, Wenlong Huang, Hai Qian
Tumor chemotherapy, which plays an important role in the clinical treatment of metastatic cancer, is limited by low selectivity and drug resistance in clinical application. In our study, we selected antimicrobial peptide BP100 as a lead peptide, designed and synthesized a series of novel antineoplastic peptides through solid-phase synthesis. Amongst them, B4 and B8 showed excellent anti-cancer activity. As revealed by further investigations, these peptides could disrupt the cell membrane, trigger the cytochrome C release into cytoplasm and ultimately lead to apoptosis...
May 19, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524024/-efficacy-and-safety-of-colistimethate-sodium-in-critical-patients-an-in-vitro-study-by-using-of-monte-carlo-simulation
#16
Aijun Pan, Qing Mei, Tianjun Yang, Xiaolan Gao, Huaiwei Lu, Ying Ye, Jiabin Li, Bao Liu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of colistimethate sodium (CMS) for the treatment of critical patients infected by pan-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (PDR-AB) or pan-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PDR-PA). METHODS: 321 isolates of PDR-AB and 204 isolates of PDR-PA from critical patients admitted to 35 intensive care units (ICUs) of grade two or above were collected from the Anhui Antimicrobial Resistance Investigation Net (AHARIN) program from September 2012 to September 2015, while the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of colistin were determined by the E-test...
May 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522994/new-potent-membrane-targeting-antibacterial-peptides-from-viral-capsid-proteins
#17
Susana A Dias, João M Freire, Clara Pérez-Peinado, Marco M Domingues, Diana Gaspar, Nuno Vale, Paula Gomes, David Andreu, Sónia T Henriques, Miguel A R B Castanho, Ana S Veiga
The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria urges the development of new antibacterial agents. With a broad spectrum activity, antimicrobial peptides have been considered potential antibacterial drug leads. Using bioinformatic tools we have previously shown that viral structural proteins are a rich source for new bioactive peptide sequences, namely antimicrobial and cell-penetrating peptides. Here, we test the efficacy and mechanism of action of the most promising peptides among those previously identified against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522992/molecular-characterization-of-community-acquired-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-in-young-children-in-southern-mozambique-2001-2009
#18
Delfino Vubil, Marcelino Garrine, Ulla Ruffing, Sozinho Acácio, Betuel Sigaúque, Pedro L Alonso, Lutz von Müller, Mathias Herrmann, Inácio Mandomando
Background: The emergence of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections is increasingly recognized as life threating problem worldwide. In Manhiça district, southern Mozambique, S. aureus is the leading cause of community-acquired bacteremia in neonates. Methods: Eighty-four S. aureus isolates from children less than 5 years admitted to Manhiça District Hospital from 2001 to 2009 were randomly selected and genetically characterized by DNA microarray and spa typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by VITEK 2...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522904/importance-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-for-the-management-of-eradication-in-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#19
REVIEW
Nazlı Arslan, Özlem Yılmaz, Ebru Demiray-Gürbüz
The management of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection treatment differs from the common treatment protocol for other infectious diseases. Because culture- or molecular-guided approaches face several practical issues, such as the invasive procedures required to obtain gastric biopsy specimens and the lack of availability of routine laboratory testing in some places, H. pylori treatment includes the administration of two or three empirically selected antibiotics combined with a proton pump inhibitor rather than evidence-based eradication treatment...
April 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522372/effective-antimicrobial-activity-of-a-peptide-mutant-cbf-14-2-against-penicillin-resistant-bacteria-based-on-its-unnatural-amino-acids
#20
Wei Kang, Hanhan Liu, Lingman Ma, Mengxiao Wang, Shanshan Wei, Pengbo Sun, Meiling Jiang, Min Guo, Changlin Zhou, Jie Dou
Broad spectrum activities, a unique mode of actions and rare resistant variants make antimicrobial peptide (AMP) a potential alternative to antibiotics. However, AMPs still have limitations in clinical development due to their physiological stability, toxicity and manufacturing costs. Cbf-14, derived from cathelicidin-BF has been proven to be effective against drug-resistant bacteria. Herein, a series of Cbf-14 mutants were designed to overcome these limitations. Design strategies included substitutions of lysine (Lys) or leucine (Leu) with similar residues such as ornithine (Orn) and norleucine (Ile), which are unnatural amino acids, to generate AMPs with enhanced therapeutic potential...
May 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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