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antimicrobial resistence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944959/antimicrobial-activity-of-lysozyme-isoforms-key-molecular-features
#1
Melanie Derde, Véronique Vié, Astrid Walrant, Sandrine Sagan, Valérie Lechevalier, Catherine Guérin-Dubiard, Stéphane Pezennec, Marie-Françoise Cochet, Gilles Paboeuf, Maryvonne Pasco, Florence Baron, Michel Gautier, Sophie Jan, Françoise Nau
Increasing bacterial resistance towards antibiotics has stimulated research for novel antimicrobials. Proteins acting on bacterial membranes could be a solution. Lysozyme has been proven active against E. coli by disruption of both outer and cytoplasmic membranes, with dry-heating increasing lysozyme activity. Dry-heated lysozyme (DH-L) is a mixture of isoforms (isoaspartyl, native-like and succinimide lysozymes), giving rise to two questions: what effects does each form have, and which physicochemical properties are critical as regards the antibacterial activity? These issues were investigated by fractionating DH-L, analyzing structural properties of each fraction, and testing each fraction in vivo on bacteria and in vitro on membrane models...
September 25, 2017: Biopolymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944710/high-rates-of-antimicrobial-resistance-of-esbl-producing-enterobacteriaceae-isolated-from-clinical-samples-in-northeast-of-brazil
#2
Miguel Araújo Rios Neto, Vaneska Magalhães Rios, Luiza Franco Corá, Marcela Machado Fonseca, Kennio Ferreira-Paim, Fernanda Machado Fonseca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 23, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944225/conserved-inhibition-of-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-release-by-clinical-candida-albicans-biofilms
#3
John F Kernien, Chad J Johnson, Jeniel E Nett
Candida albicans biofilms are difficult to eradicate due to their resistance to host defenses and antifungal drugs. Although neutrophils are the primary responder to C. albicans during invasive candidiasis, biofilms resist killing by neutrophils. Prior investigation, with the commonly used laboratory strain SC5314, linked this phenotype to the impaired release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are structures of DNA, histones, and antimicrobial proteins involved in extracellular microbial killing...
September 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943868/microbial-shifts-in-the-intestinal-microbiota-of-salmonella-infected-chickens-in-response-to-enrofloxacin
#4
Jun Li, Haihong Hao, Guyue Cheng, Chunbei Liu, Saeed Ahmed, Muhammad A B Shabbir, Hafiz I Hussain, Menghong Dai, Zonghui Yuan
Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are important antibiotics used for treatment of Salmonella infection in poultry in many countries. However, oral administration of fluoroquinolones may affect the composition and abundance of a number of bacterial taxa in the chicken intestine. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the microbial shifts in the gut of Salmonella infected chickens in response to enrofloxacin treatments at different dosages (0, 0.1, 4, and 100 mg/kg b.w.) were quantitatively evaluated. The results showed that the shedding levels of Salmonella were significantly reduced in the high dosage group as demonstrated by both the culturing method and 16S rRNA sequencing method...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943633/vancomycin-induced-leukocytoclastic-vasculitis-and-acute-renal-failure-due-to-tubulointerstitial-nephritis
#5
Chandra Shekar Pingili, Emmanuel E Okon
BACKGROUND Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia and sepsis are commonly treated with intravenous vancomycin. However, vancomycin treatment is associated adverse reactions, including skin rashes and nephrotoxicity. We present a case of acute renal failure due to acute tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with a diffuse leukocytoclastic vasculitic skin eruption following intravenous vancomycin treatment. CASE REPORT A 79-year-old Caucasian male patient was treated with intravenous vancomycin for MRSA bacteremia...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943204/considerations-for-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-head-and-neck-cancer-surgery
#6
Michael P Veve, Susan L Davis, Amy M Williams, John E McKinnon, Tamer A Ghanem
Peri/post-operative antibiotic prophylaxis (POABP) has become standard practice for preventing surgical site infections (SSI) in head and neck cancer patients undergoing microvascular reconstruction, but few data exist on optimal POABP regimens. Current surgical prophylaxis guideline recommendations fail to account for the complexity of microvascular reconstruction relative to other head and neck procedures, specifically regarding wound classification and antibiotic duration. Selection of POABP spectrum is also controversial, and must balance the choice between too narrow, risking subsequent infection, or too broad, and possible unwanted effects (e...
September 21, 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943144/the-epidemiology-antibiograms-and-predictors-of-mortality-among-critically-ill-patients-with-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections
#7
Shin-Huei Kuo, Wei-Ru Lin, Jun-You Lin, Chung-Hao Huang, Ya-Ting Jao, Pei-Wen Yang, Jong-Rung Tsai, Wen-Hung Wang, Yen-Hsu Chen, Ching-Tzu Hung, Po-Liang Lu
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: For high risk of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in patients of intensive care units (ICUs) and scarcely epidemiology and therapeutic recommendations in Asia, we aimed to evaluate the annual change in epidemiology, antibiogram, and risk factors for 14-day mortality. METHODS: A retrospective study of ICUs patients with CLABSIs at a medical center in Taiwan (2010-2016), where central line care bundle implemented since 2014, by reviewing clinical data, pathogens, and the antibiogram...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942850/characterization-and-complete-genome-sequences-of-l-rhamnosus-dsm-14870-and-l-gasseri-dsm-14869-contained-in-the-ecovag-%C3%A2-probiotic-vaginal-capsules
#8
Harold Marcotte, Kasper Krogh Andersen, Yin Lin, Fanglei Zuo, Zhu Zeng, Per Göran Larsson, Erik Brandsborg, Gunnar Brønstad, Lennart Hammarström
Lactobacillus rhamnosus DSM 14870 and Lactobacillus gasseri DSM 14869 were previously isolated from the vaginal epithelial cells (VEC) of healthy women and selected for the development of the vaginal EcoVag(®) probiotic capsules. EcoVag(®) was subsequently shown to provide long-term cure and reduce relapse of bacterial vaginosis (BV) as an adjunct to antibiotic therapy. To identify genes potentially involved in probiotic activity, we performed genome sequencing and characterization of the two strains. The complete genome analysis of both strains revealed the presence of genes encoding functions related to adhesion, exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis, antimicrobial activity, and CRISPR adaptive immunity but absence of antibiotic resistance genes...
December 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942832/chemical-composition-antioxidant-and-antibacterial-activity-of-essential-oils-from-etlingera-sayapensis-a-d-poulsen-ibrahim
#9
Behnam Mahdavi, Wan A Yaacob, Laily B Din
OBJECTIVE: To report the chemical composition and bioactivity (including antioxidant and antimicrobial activity) of essential oils from the rhizomes, stems, and leaves of Etlingera sayapensis (E. sayapensis) A.D. Poulsen & Ibrahim for the first time. METHODS: First, the essential oils were obtained using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Then, the essential oils compositions were identified by chromatography methods including GC-FID and GC-MS. For the next step, DPPH radical scavenging activity (RSA), β-carotene bleaching (BCB), and ferrous ion chelating ability (FIC) were chosen to evaluate the essential oils antioxidant activity...
August 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942821/medicinal-plant-products-targeting-quorum-sensing-for-combating-bacterial-infections
#10
REVIEW
Abdelhakim Bouyahya, Nadia Dakka, Abdeslam Et-Touys, Jamal Abrini, Youssef Bakri
Traditional treatment of infectious diseases is based on compounds that aim to kill or inhibit bacterial growth. The bacterial resistance against antibiotics is a serious issue for public health. Today, new therapeutic targets other than the bacterial wall were deciphered. Quorum sensing or bacterial pheromones are molecules called auto-inducer secreted by bacteria to regulate some functions such as antibiotic resistance and biofilms formation. This therapeutic target is well-studied worldwide, nevertheless the scientific data are not updated and only recent researches started to look into its potential as a target to fight against infectious diseases...
August 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942664/-clinical-aspects-of-severe-infections-caused-by-antibiotic-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-the-empire-strikes-back
#11
János Sinkó
In our days, growing incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria has become an eminent public health problem. For survival Gram-negative species possess several different tools to withstand antibiotics: they produce degrading and modifying enzymes, decrease their permeability or expel drug molecules. An increasing proportion of severe nosocomial infections are caused by strains resistant to several antimicrobials (multiresistant, extensively resistant or panresistant species). Development of new antibiotic compounds may serve as a possible solution to this problem...
October 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941914/a-novel-approach-in-acidic-disinfection-through-inhibition-of-acid-resistance-mechanisms-maleic-acid-mediated-inhibition-of-glutamate-decarboxylase-activity-enhances-acid-sensitivity-of-listeria-monocytogenes
#12
Ranju Paudyal, Ruth H Barnes, Kimon Andreas G Karatzas
Here it is demonstrated a novel approach in disinfection regimes where specific molecular acid resistance systems are inhibited aiming to eliminate microorganisms under acidic conditions. Despite the importance of the Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD) system for survival of Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogens under acidic conditions, its potential inhibition by specific compounds that could lead to its elimination from foods or food preparation premises has not been studied. The effects of maleic acid on the acid resistance of L...
February 2018: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941908/prevalence-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-of-methicillin-resistant-s-%C3%A2-aureus-mrsa-along-the-production-chain-of-dairy-products-in-north-western-greece
#13
Panagiotis Papadopoulos, Theofilos Papadopoulos, Apostolos S Angelidis, Evridiki Boukouvala, Antonios Zdragas, Anna Papa, Christos Hadjichristodoulou, Daniel Sergelidis
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the production chain of dairy products. Of 367 tested samples (36 bulk tank milk (BTM), 19 dairy products, 72 human, 185 animal, 55 equipment), 212 (57.8%) were found positive for S. aureus. Almost all isolates (99.6%) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial and 13.3% were multi-drug resistant (MDR), exhibiting resistance to three or more antibiotic classes. Eleven samples (3%) were found contaminated by MRSA carrying the mecA gene...
February 2018: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941843/antibiotic-optimisation-in-the-bush-local-know-how-and-core-periphery-relations
#14
Alexander Broom, Jennifer Broom, Emma Kirby, Alexandra Gibson, Mark Davis
The growing global concern around antimicrobial mis-use and proliferating resistance has resulted in increasing interest in optimising antibiotics, particularly in hospitals. While the agenda to tighten antibiotic use has been critically explored in metropolitan settings, the dynamics of rural and remote settings have remained largely unexplored. Drawing on 30 interviews with doctors, nurses, and pharmacists in a remote Australian hospital, we focus on the pertinence of setting, and its importance for contextualising and potentially achieving antibiotic optimisation...
September 20, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941790/resistance-mechanism-and-clinical-characteristics-of-linezolid-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-a-single-center-study-in-korea
#15
Sun Young Cho, Hye Mee Kim, Doo Ryeon Chung, So Hyun Kim, Hee Jae Huh, Cheol-In Kang, Kyong Ran Peck, Nam Yong Lee, Jae-Hoon Song
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of linezolid-resistant vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (LR-VRE) and investigate the mechanisms for linezolid resistance with clinical and microbiological characterization. METHODS: All vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) isolates from blood and rectal swab cultures during 2012-2015 were tested for linezolid resistance. LR-VREF isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, genes for glycopeptide resistance, and virulence genes...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941633/sustained-pediatric-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-with-consultation-to-infectious-diseases-reduced-carbapenem-resistance-and-infection-related-mortality
#16
Yuho Horikoshi, Junichi Suwa, Hiroshi Higuchi, Testuji Kaneko, Mihoko Furuichi, Yuta Aizawa, Kahoru Fukuoka, Kaoru Okazaki, Kenta Ito, Takayo Shoji
OBJECTIVE: The impact of pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is still scarce. We aimed to evaluate carbapenem's AMR in gram negative bacilli (GNB) and carbapenem use with infectious diseases consultation after introduction of ASP. METHOD: This quasi-experimental study was conducted at Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center in Japan. The pre- and post-intervention periods were April 2010 to September 2011 and October 2011 to March 2017, respectively...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941632/professional-practice-evaluation-of-emergency-department-prescriptions-for-community-acquired-infections-in-lebanon
#17
Iqbal Fahs, Zeina Shrayteh, Rima Abdulkhalek, Pascale Salameh, Souheil Hallit, Diana Malaeb
BACKGROUND: Selecting appropriate antibiotic regimens is extremely an important role in improving patient outcomes, minimizing antimicrobial resistance, and reducing costs. This study was conducted to evaluate current practices of prescribing empiric antibiotics at the time of admission to the emergency department (ED) and to assess their appropriateness in Lebanon. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study conducted at three different Lebanese hospitals between June and December 2016...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941394/ceftolozane-tazobactam-activity-against-drug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-causing-healthcare-associated-infections-in-latin-america-report-from-an-antimicrobial-surveillance-program-2013-2015
#18
Michael A Pfaller, Dee Shortridge, Helio S Sader, Ana Gales, Mariana Castanheira, Robert K Flamm
This study evaluated the in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam and comparator agents tested against Latin American isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients with healthcare-associated infection (HAI). Ceftolozane-tazobactam is an antipseudomonal cephalosporin combined with a well-established β-lactamase inhibitor. A total of 2415 Gram-negative organisms (537 P. aeruginosa and 1878 Enterobacteriaceae) were consecutively collected in 12 medical centers located in four Latin American countries...
September 20, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941393/mobile-health-application-to-assist-doctors-in-antibiotic-prescription-an-approach-for-antibiotic-stewardship
#19
Felipe Francisco Tuon, Juliano Gasparetto, Luciana Cristina Wollmann, Thyago Proença de Moraes
BACKGROUND: Technologies applied to mobile devices can be an important strategy in antibiotic stewardship programs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a decision-making application on antibiotic prescription. METHODS: This was an observational, analytical and longitudinal study on the implementation of an antimicrobial guide for mobile application (app). This study analyzed the period of 12 months before and 12 months after the app implementation at a university hospital based on local epidemiology, avoiding high cost drugs and reducing the potential for drug resistance including carbapenem...
September 20, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941310/tyrosine-hydroxylase-coordinates-larval-pupal-tanning-and-immunity-in-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis
#20
Er-Hu Chen, Qiu-Li Hou, Dan-Dan Wei, Wei Dou, Zhao Liu, Pei-Jin Yang, Guy Smagghe, Jin-Jun Wang
BACKGROUND: The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a notorious world pest infesting fruit and vegetable, which has evolved high level of resistance to many commonly used insecticides. In this study, we investigated whether tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) that is required for cuticle tanning (sclerotization and pigmentation) in many insects, could be a potential target in controlling B. dorsalis. RESULTS: We cloned TH cDNA (BdTH) of B. dorsalis, and the complete open reading frame of BdTH (KY911196) was 1737 bp in length, encoding a protein of 578 amino acids...
September 23, 2017: Pest Management Science
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