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antimicrobial resistence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145465/hospital-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-risk-factors-in-south-african-tertiary-public-hospitals
#1
Liliwe L Shuping, Lazarus Kuonza, Alfred Musekiwa, Samantha Iyaloo, Olga Perovic
INTRODUCTION: Hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We conducted a study to determine risk factors for HA-MRSA in order to inform control strategies in South Africa. METHODS: We used surveillance data collected from five tertiary hospitals in Gauteng and Western Cape provinces during 2014 for analysis. A case of HA-MRSA was defined as isolation of MRSA from a blood culture 48 hours after admission and/or if the patient was hospitalised in the six months prior to the current culture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145017/membrane-interactions-of-microgels-as-carriers-of-antimicrobial-peptides
#2
Randi Nordström, Lina Nyström, Oliver C J Andrén, Michael Malkoch, Anita Umerska, Mina Davoudi, Artur Schmidtchen, Martin Malmsten
Microgels are interesting as potential delivery systems for antimicrobial peptides. In order to elucidate membrane interactions of such systems, we here investigate effects of microgel charge density on antimicrobial peptide loading and release, as well as consequences of this for membrane interactions and antimicrobial effects, using ellipsometry, circular dichroism spectroscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, dynamic light scattering and z-potential measurements. Anionic poly(ethyl acrylate-co-methacrylic acid) microgels were found to incorporate considerable amounts of the cationic antimicrobial peptides LL-37 (LLGDFFRKSKEKIGKEFKRIVQRIKDFLRNLVPRTES) and DPK-060 (GKHKNKGKKNGKHNGWKWWW) and to protect incorporated peptides from degradation by infection-related proteases at high microgel charge density...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144958/isolation-of-blandm-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-a-public-hospital-in-salvador-bahia-brazil
#3
Maria Goreth Barberino, Silvia de Araujo Cruvinel, Célio Faria, Marco Aurélio Salvino, Márcio Oliveira
Carbapenemases have great importance in the global epidemiological scenario since infections with carbapenemase-producing bacteria are associated with high mortality, especially in hospitalized patients in intensive care units. This study describes two microorganisms producers of the New Delhi Metallo-b-lactamase (NDM), Klebsiella pneumoniae and Citrobacter freundii, from two patients admitted to a public hospital in Salvador, Bahia. These are the first clinical cases of NDM described in microorganisms in the north and northeast Brazil...
November 13, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144204/specific-hypersensitive-response-associated-recognition-of-new-apoplastic-effectors-from-cladosporium-fulvum-in-wild-tomato
#4
Carl H Mesarich, Bilal Ӧkmen, Hanna Rovenich, Scott A Griffiths, Changchun Wang, Mansoor Karimi Jashni, Aleksandar Mihajlovski, Jérôme Collemare, Lukas Hunziker, Cecilia H Deng, Ate van der Burgt, Henriek G Beenen, Matthew D Templeton, Rosie E Bradshaw, Pierre J G M de Wit
Tomato leaf mold disease is caused by the biotrophic fungus Cladosporium fulvum. During infection, C. fulvum produces extracellular small secreted protein (SSP) effectors that function to promote colonization of the leaf apoplast. Resistance to the disease is governed by Cf immune receptor genes that encode receptor-like proteins (RLPs). These RLPs recognize specific SSP effectors to initiate a hypersensitive response (HR) that renders the pathogen avirulent. C. fulvum strains capable of overcoming one or more of all cloned Cf genes have now emerged...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143727/characterization-of-clinically-isolated-thymidine-dependent-small-colony-variants-of-escherichia-coli-producing-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase
#5
Tatsuya Negishi, Takehisa Matsumoto, Kazuki Horiuchi, Eriko Kasuga, Tatsuya Natori, Mina Matsuoka, Naoko Ogiwara, Mitsutoshi Sugano, Takeshi Uehara, Noriyuki Nagano, Takayuki Honda
PURPOSE: Thymidine-dependent small-colony variants (TD-SCVs) are difficult to detect or test for antimicrobial susceptibility. We investigated the characteristics of clonal TD-SCVs of Escherichia coli, both with and without blaCTX-M-3, isolated from a patient. METHODOLOGY: Mutation in the thyA gene was analysed by sequencing, and morphological abnormalities in the colonies and cells of the isolates were examined. Additionally, conjugational transfer experiments were performed to prove the horizontal transferability of plasmids harbouring resistance genes...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143719/microbial-protein-targets-towards-understanding-and-intervention
#6
Paul W Denny
The rise of antimicrobial resistance, coupled with a lack of industrial focus on antimicrobial discovery over preceding decades, has brought the world to a crisis point. With both human and animal health set to decline due to increased disease burdens caused by near untreatable microbial pathogens, there is an urgent need to identify new antimicrobials. Central to this is the elucidation of new, robustly validated, drug targets. Informed by industrial practice and concerns, the use of both biological and chemical tools in validation is key...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143452/engineering-improved-variants-of-the-antifungal-peptide-histatin-5-with-reduced-susceptibility-to-candida-albicans-secreted-aspartic-proteases-and-enhanced-antimicrobial-potency
#7
Svetlana P Ikonomova, Parisa Moghaddam-Taaheri, Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk, Yan Wang, Amy J Karlsson
Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen and a commensal organism that commonly colonizes mucosal surfaces, including those inside the human mouth. To help control C. albicans, human saliva contains the antifungal peptide histatin 5 (Hst-5), which has strong antifungal activity against C. albicans. However, the pathogen produces secreted aspartic proteases (Saps) that cleave Hst-5 at lysine residues and eliminate its antifungal properties. We designed variants of Hst-5 with its lysine residues substituted with arginine or leucine to evaluate the effect on proteolysis by Saps...
November 15, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142593/prevailing-clone-st69-of-vibrio-cholerae-o139-in-india-over-10%C3%A2-years
#8
Shalini Anandan, Naveen Kumar Devanga Ragupathi, Dhiviya Prabaa Muthuirulandi Sethuvel, Suji Thangamani, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Vibrio cholerae is responsible for the cause of severe life-threatening infection known as cholera. The study aimed to analyze the genetic make-up of V. cholerae O139 isolates from India and compare its phylogeny with the global strains. The genome data revealed that all isolates were of same sequence type (ST69) which belongs to seventh pandemic clone, with same virulence gene profile and, antimicrobial resistance gene profile except for two isolates. No known CRISPR repeats were identified in any of these isolates...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141637/molecules-produced-by-probiotics-prevent-enteric-colibacillosis-in-pigs
#9
Ricardo Nordeste, Akalate Tessema, Sapana Sharma, Zlatko Kovač, Chuan Wang, Rocio Morales, Mansel William Griffiths
BACKGROUND: With the advent of antimicrobial resistance in animal pathogens, novel methods to combat infectious diseases are being sought. Among these, probiotics have been proposed as a means of promoting animal health but problems with their use has been reported. Research has demonstrated that bioactive molecules produced during the growth of certain probiotics interfere with bacterial cell-to-cell communication, which consequently results in an attenuation of virulence in a number of pathogens, including E...
November 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141347/-antimicrobial-resistance-and-molecular-subtypes-of-salmonella-typhi-and-salmonella-paratyphoid-isolates-from-jiangsu-province-2012-2015
#10
X X Kong, C Dong, H Ji, Y Wang, C C Bao, X Huo, H M Qian
Objective: To retrospectively analyze the antimicrobial resistance phenotype and molecular typing characteristics of Salmonella (S.) typhi and S. paratyphi in Jiangsu province from 2012 to 2015. Methods: The samples were collected from typhoid and paratyphoid patients in Jiangsu province. The biochemical identification and serotyping were carried out after isolation and culture. Kirby-Bauer (K-B) testing was used to detect the drug susceptibility of the strains. The molecular typing characteristics of S. typhi and S...
November 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141346/-etiologic-characteristics-of-shigella-sonnei-strains-isolated-from-some-areas-of-guangdong-province-and-guangxi-zhuang-autonomous-region-of-china-2014-2016
#11
B S Li, L J Chen, B X Ke, J M Lin, L Q Xu, H L Tan, D M He, Y H Liang, C W Ke, Y H Zhang
Objective: To investigated the etiologic characteristics of Shigella (S.) sonnei strains causing outbreaks and sporadic cases in some areas of Guangdong province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region during 2014-2016. Methods: Fourteen S. sonnei strains isolated from outbreaks and 6 S. sonnei strains from sporadic cases from Guangdong and Liuzhou of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region were tested for antimicrobial resistance and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Six typical strains were selected for whole genome sequencing typing and compared with 51 strains isolated both at home and abroad from NCBI genome database...
November 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141147/a-water-soluble-galactose-decorated-cationic-photodynamic-therapy-agent-based-on-bodipy-to-selectively-eliminate-biofilm
#12
Xiaomei Dai, Xuelei Chen, Yu Zhao, Yunjian Yu, Xiaosong Wei, Xinge Zhang, Chaoxing Li
A multitude of serious chronic infections involved in bacterial biofilms that are difficult to eradicate. Here, a water-soluble galactose functionalized cationic 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY)-based photodynamic therapy agent was synthesized for selectively eliminating the bacterial biofilm. These conjugates can capture bacteria to form aggregations through electrostatic interaction and then generate a large number of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under visible light irradiation to kill the bacteria without the emergence of bacterial resistance...
November 15, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141129/recent-trends-in-salmonella-outbreaks-and-emerging-technology-for-biocontrol-of-salmonella-using-phages-in-foods-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Jun-Hyun Oh, Mi-Kyung Park
Salmonella is one of the principal causes of foodborne outbreaks. As traditional control methods have shown efficacy against emerging Salmonella serotypes or antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella, new approaches have been attempted. The use of lytic phages for the biocontrol of Salmonella in food industry has become an attractive method owing to the many advantages offered by the use of phages as biocontrol agents. Phages are natural alternatives to traditional antimicrobial agents; they have proven effective in the control of bacterial pathogens in food industry, which has led to the development of different phage products...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141051/molecular-and-epidemiological-characterization-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-norway-2007-to-2014
#14
Ørjan Samuelsen, Søren Overballe-Petersen, Jørgen Vildershøj Bjørnholt, Sylvain Brisse, Michel Doumith, Neil Woodford, Katie L Hopkins, Bettina Aasnæs, Bjørg Haldorsen, Arnfinn Sundsfjord
The prevalence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is increasing worldwide. Here we present associated patient data and molecular, epidemiological and phenotypic characteristics of all CPE isolates in Norway from 2007 to 2014 confirmed at the Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance. All confirmed CPE isolates were characterized pheno- and genotypically, including by whole genome sequencing (WGS). Patient data were reviewed retrospectively. In total 59 CPE isolates were identified from 53 patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140103/salmonella-gallinarum-field-isolates-and-its-relationship-to-vaccine-strain-sg9r
#15
P K V Koerich, B B Fonseca, E Balestrin, V Tagliari, P G Hoepers, C Ueira-Vieira, I Oldoni, R H Rauber, L Ruschel, V P Do Nascimento
1. The aim of the present study was to determine if the 9R-strain of the Salmonella gallinarum live vaccine was responsible for having fowl typhoid outbreaks in chicken flocks from both chicken and turkey breeders as well as to verify the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates from the outbreaks. 2. The triplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), standard antimicrobial test, beta-lactamase genes identification and Ion Torrent PMG whole genome sequence were used in the field isolates and in the vaccine strain of S...
November 15, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140081/the-human-milk-glycome-as-a-defense-against-infectious-diseases-rationale-challenges-and-opportunities
#16
Kelly M Craft, Steven D Townsend
Each year over 3 million people die from infectious diseases with most of these deaths being poor and young children who live in low- and middle-income countries. Infectious diseases emerge for a multitude of reasons. On the social front, reasons include a breakdown of public health standards, international travel, and immigration (for financial, civil, and social reasons). At the molecular level, the modern rise of infectious diseases is tied to the juxtaposition of drug-resistant pathogens and a lack of new antimicrobials...
November 15, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138665/-epidemiological-profile-of-uropathogenic-enterobacteria-producing-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases
#17
Mohammed Sbiti, Khalid Lahmadi, Lhoussaine Louzi
Urinary tract infections due to enterobacteria producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL-E) constitute a infectious risk, a major therapeutic challenge and can even lead, in some cases, to a deadlock beacuse of their multi-resistance to antibiotics. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological profile of uropathogenic ESBL-E and to describe their current level of resistance to antibiotics for a better patient management according to local data. We conducted a retrospective study of all ESBL-E strains isolated from all cytobacteriogical testing of urine (CBEU) treated in the Microbiology Laboratory at the Military Hospital of Moulay Ismail, Meknes over a period of three years (from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015)...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138650/evaluation-of-antibiotic-self-medication-among-outpatients-of-the-state-university-hospital-of-port-au-prince-haiti-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Kenny Moise, Joseph Junior Bernard, Jean Hugues Henrys
In Haiti, where all drugs are available over the counter, self-medication with antibiotics appears as a common practice. Inappropriate use of beta-lactams and macrolides is likely to contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance. This study aimed to (i) assess the extent of self-medication with antibiotics, (ii) explore the contributing factors (age, gender and educational background) and (iii) identify specific antibiotic drug classes used among patients attending the outpatient clinic of the State University Hospital of Port-au-Prince...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138562/dual-uv-irradiation-based-metal-oxide-nanoparticles-for-enhanced-antimicrobial-activity-in-escherichia-coli-and-m13-bacteriophage
#19
Su-Eon Jin, Woochul Hwang, Hyo Jung Lee, Hyo-Eon Jin
Metal oxide (MO) nanoparticles have been studied as nano-antibiotics due to their antimicrobial activities even in antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. We hypothesized that a hybrid system of dual UV irradiation and MO nanoparticles would have enhanced antimicrobial activities compared with UV or MO nanoparticles alone. In this study, nanoparticles of ZnO, ZnTiO3, MgO, and CuO were selected as model nanoparticles. A dual UV collimated beam device of UV-A and UV-C was developed depending upon the lamp divided by coating...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138537/development-of-novel-ultrashort-antimicrobial-peptide-nanoparticles-with-potent-antimicrobial-and-antibiofilm-activities-against-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#20
Ammar Almaaytah, Gubran Khalil Mohammed, Ahmad Abualhaijaa, Qosay Al-Balas
Conventional antibiotics are facing strong microbial resistance that has recently reached critical levels. This situation is leading to significantly reduced therapeutic potential of a huge proportion of antimicrobial agents currently used in clinical settings. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could provide the medical community with an alternative strategy to traditional antibiotics for combating microbial resistance. However, the development of AMPs into clinically useful antibiotics is hampered by their relatively low stability, toxicity, and high manufacturing costs...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
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