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antimicrobial resistence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335438/the-food-production-environment-and-the-development-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-human-pathogens-of-animal-origin
#1
REVIEW
Manjusha Lekshmi, Parvathi Ammini, Sanath Kumar, Manuel F Varela
Food-borne pathogens are a serious human health concern worldwide, and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant food pathogens has further confounded this problem. Once-highly-efficacious antibiotics are gradually becoming ineffective against many important pathogens, resulting in severe treatment crises. Among several reasons for the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance, their overuse in animal food production systems for purposes other than treatment of infections is prominent. Many pathogens of animals are zoonotic, and therefore any development of resistance in pathogens associated with food animals can spread to humans through the food chain...
March 14, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335414/inhibition-of-listeria-monocytogenes-on-ready-to-eat-meats-using-bacteriocin-mixtures-based-on-mode-of-action
#2
Paul Priyesh Vijayakumar, Peter M Muriana
Bacteriocin-producing (Bac⁺) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) comprising selected strains of Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Enterococcus faecium and thailandicus were examined for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes during hotdog challenge studies. The Bac⁺ strains, or their cell-free supernatants (CFS), were grouped according to mode-of-action (MOA) as determined from prior studies. Making a mixture of as many MOAs as possible is a practical way to obtain a potent natural antimicrobial mixture to address L...
March 14, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335205/photosensitizer-embedded-polyacrylonitrile-nanofibers-as-antimicrobial-non-woven-textile
#3
Sarah L Stanley, Frank Scholle, Jiadeng Zhu, Yao Lu, Xiangwu Zhang, Xingci Situ, Reza A Ghiladi
Toward the objective of developing platform technologies for anti-infective materials based upon photodynamic inactivation, we employed electrospinning to prepare a non-woven textile comprised of polyacrylonitrile nanofibers embedded with a porphyrin-based cationic photosensitizer; termed PAN-Por((+)). Photosensitizer loading was determined to be 34.8 nmol/mg material; with thermostability to 300 °C. Antibacterial efficacy was evaluated against four bacteria belonging to the ESKAPE family of pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus; vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium; Acinetobacter baumannii; and Klebsiella pneumonia), as well as Escherichia coli...
April 20, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334919/antibiotics-trigger-initiation-of-sccmec-transfer-by-inducing-sos-responses
#4
Pilong Liu, Zhaowei Wu, Huping Xue, Xin Zhao
The rise of antimicrobial resistance limits therapeutic options for infections by methicillin-resistant staphylococci. The staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) is a mobile genetic element as the only carrier of the methicillin-resistance determinants, the mecA or mecC gene. The use of antibiotics increases the spread of antibiotic resistance, but the mechanism by which antibiotics promote horizontal dissemination of SCCmec is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that many antibiotics, including β-lactams, can induce the expression of ccrC1 and SCCmec excision from the bacterial chromosome...
March 3, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334702/in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-of-7-substituted-6-fluoroquinolone-and-7-substituted-6-8-difluoroquinolone-derivatives
#5
Socorro Leyva-Ramos, Denisse de Loera, Jaime Cardoso-Ortiz
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones are widely prescribed synthetic antimicrobial agents. Quinolones act by converting their targets, gyrase and topoisomerase IV, into toxic enzymes that fragment the bacterial chromosome; the irreversible DNA damage eventually causes the killing of bacteria. Thorough knowledge of the structure-activity relationship of quinolones is essential for the development of new drugs with improved activity against resistant strains. METHODS: The compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against 4 representing strains using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method...
March 24, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334141/distribution-of-antimicrobial-resistance-determinants-virulence-associated-factors-and-crispr-loci-in-isolates-of-enterococcus-faecalis-from-various-settings-and-genetic-lineages
#6
Iwona Gawryszewska, Katarzyna Malinowska, Alicja Kuch, Dorota Chrobak-Chmiel, Lucja Laniewska-Trokenheim, Waleria Hryniewicz, Ewa Sadowy
Enterococcus faecalis represents an important factor of hospital-associated infections (HAIs). The knowledge on its evolution from a commensal to an opportunistic pathogen is still limited, thus we performed a study to characterize distribution of factors that may contribute to this adaptation. Using a collection obtained from various settings (hospitalized patients, community carriers, animals, fresh food, sewage, water) we investigated differences in antimicrobial susceptibility, distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes, virulence-associated determinants and phenotypes, and CRISPR loci in the context of the clonal relatedness of isolates...
March 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334005/multi-scale-model-of-drug-induced-adaptive-resistance-of-gram-negative-bacteria-to-polymyxin-b
#7
Wojciech Krzyzanski, Gauri G Rao
The purpose of this report is to apply multi-scale modeling using the theory of physiologically structured populations (PSP) to develop a mathematical model for antimicrobial resistance based on a heterogeneous distribution of receptors and affinities among bacterial cells. The theory has been tested on data obtained from an in vitro static time-kill infection model analyzing the pharmacodynamics of polymyxin B against Gram-negative bacteria. The drug binding parameter KD (dissociation equilibrium constant) is assumed to vary between the bacterial cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333615/use-of-whonet-satscan-system-for-simulated-real-time-detection-of-antimicrobial-resistance-clusters-in-a-hospital-in-italy-2012-to-2014
#8
Alessandra Natale, John Stelling, Marcello Meledandri, Louisa A Messenger, Fortunato D'Ancona
Resistant pathogens infections cause in healthcare settings, higher patient mortality, longer hospitalisation times and higher costs for treatments. Strengthening and coordinating local, national and international surveillance systems is the cornerstone for the control of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). In this study, the WHONET-SaTScan software was applied in a hospital in Italy to identify potential outbreaks of AMR. Data from San Filippo Neri Hospital in Rome between 2012 and 2014 were extracted from the national surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance (AR-ISS) and analysed using the simulated prospective analysis for real-time cluster detection included in the WHONET-SaTScan software...
March 16, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333355/wgs-to-predict-antibiotic-mics-for-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#9
David W Eyre, Dilrini De Silva, Kevin Cole, Joanna Peters, Michelle J Cole, Yonatan H Grad, Walter Demczuk, Irene Martin, Michael R Mulvey, Derrick W Crook, A Sarah Walker, Tim E A Peto, John Paul
Background: Tracking the spread of antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major priority for national surveillance programmes. Objectives: We investigate whether WGS and simultaneous analysis of multiple resistance determinants can be used to predict antimicrobial susceptibilities to the level of MICs in N. gonorrhoeae. Methods: WGS was used to identify previously reported potential resistance determinants in 681 N. gonorrhoeae isolates, from England, the USA and Canada, with phenotypes for cefixime, penicillin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline determined as part of national surveillance programmes...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333340/evaluation-of-the-new-genotype-ntm-dr-kit-for-the-molecular-detection-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-non-tuberculous-mycobacteria
#10
Faiza Mougari, Jade Loiseau, Nicolas Veziris, Christine Bernard, Béatrice Bercot, Wladimir Sougakoff, Vincent Jarlier, Laurent Raskine, Emmanuelle Cambau
Objectives: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are emerging pathogens causing difficult-to-treat infections. We tested a new assay (GenoType NTM-DR) that detects natural and acquired resistance mechanisms to macrolides and aminoglycosides in frequently isolated NTM species. Methods: Performance was assessed on 102 isolates including reference strains [16 Mycobacterium avium , 10 Mycobacterium intracellulare , 8 Mycobacterium chimaera , 15 Mycobacterium chelonae and 53 Mycobacterium abscessus (including subsp...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333330/genomic-landscape-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-from-an-urban-african-setting
#11
Patrick Musicha, Nicholas A Feasey, Amy K Cain, Teemu Kallonen, Chrispin Chaguza, Chikondi Peno, Margaret Khonga, Sarah Thompson, Katherine J Gray, Alison E Mather, Robert S Heyderman, Dean B Everett, Nicholas R Thomson, Chisomo L Msefula
Objectives: Efforts to treat Escherichia coli infections are increasingly being compromised by the rapid, global spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Whilst AMR in E. coli has been extensively investigated in resource-rich settings, in sub-Saharan Africa molecular patterns of AMR are not well described. In this study, we have begun to explore the population structure and molecular determinants of AMR amongst E. coli isolates from Malawi. Methods: Ninety-four E...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333277/antimicrobial-resistance-in-staphylococcus-pseudintermedius-and-the-molecular-epidemiology-of-methicillin-resistant-s-pseudintermedius-in-small-animals-in-finland
#12
Thomas Grönthal, Marjut Eklund, Katariina Thomson, Heli Piiparinen, Tarja Sironen, Merja Rantala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333200/antibiotic-prescribing-frequency-amongst-patients-in-primary-care-a-cohort-study-using-electronic-health-records
#13
Laura Shallcross, Nick Beckley, Greta Rait, Andrew Hayward, Irene Petersen
Background: Reducing inappropriate antibiotic prescribing in primary care is a public health priority. Objectives: We hypothesized that a subset of patients account for the majority of antibiotic prescriptions in primary care. We investigated the relationship between the total amount of antibiotics prescribed, individual-level antibiotic use and comorbidity. Methods: This was a cohort study using electronic health records from 1 948 390 adults registered with 385 primary care practices in the UK in 2011-13...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332593/injections-through-skin-colonized-with-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-introduce-contamination-despite-standard-antimicrobial-preparation-procedures
#14
Yi Wang, Valery Leng, Viraj Patel, K Scott Phillips
While surgical site preparation has been extensively studied, there is little information about resistance of skin microbiota in the biofilm form to antimicrobial decontamination, and there are no quantitative models to study how biofilm might be transferred into sterile tissue/implant materials during injections for joint spine and tendon, aspiration biopsies and dermal fillers (DF). In this work, we develop two in vitro models to simulate the process of skin preparation and DF injection using pig skin and SimSkin (silicone) materials, respectively...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332345/high-incidence-of-virulence-factors-among-clinical-enterococcus-faecalis-isolates-in-southwestern-iran
#15
Hamid Heidari, Somayeh Hasanpour, Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, Mohammad Motamedifar
BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, enterococci have emerged as an important agent responsible for hospital acquired infection. Several virulence factors contribute to the adherence, colonization, evasion of the host immune response, and pathogenicity and severity of the infection. Enterococcus faecalis is the most common and virulent species causing infections in hospitalized patients. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of genes encoding virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance patterns of E...
March 13, 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332311/characterization-of-blue-light-irradiation-effects-on-pathogenic-and-nonpathogenic-escherichia-coli
#16
Courtney M Abana, John R Brannon, Rebecca A Ebbott, Taryn L Dunigan, Kirsten R Guckes, Hubaida Fuseini, Jennifer Powers, Bridget R Rogers, Maria Hadjifrangiskou
Blue light irradiation (BLI) is an FDA-approved method for treating certain types of infections, like acne, and is becoming increasingly attractive as an antimicrobial strategy as the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant "superbugs" rises. However, no study has delineated the effectiveness of BLI throughout different bacterial growth phases, especially in more BLI-tolerant organisms such as Escherichia coli. While the vast majority of E. coli strains are nonpathogenic, several E. coli pathotypes exist that cause infection within and outside the gastrointestinal tract...
March 22, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332133/molecular-typing-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-to-six-antimicrobials-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-three-czech-hospitals-in-eastern-bohemia-in-2011-2012
#17
V Beran, E J Kuijper, C Harmanus, I M Sanders, S M van Dorp, C W Knetsch, J Janeckova, A Seidelova, L Barekova, J Tvrdik, D Chmelar, I Ciznar
In 2011-2012, a survey was performed in three regional hospitals in the Czech Republic to determine the incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) and to characterize bacterial isolates. C. difficile isolates were characterized by PCR ribotyping, toxin genes detection, multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing to fidaxomicin, vancomycin, metronidazole, clindamycin, LFF571, and moxifloxacin using agar dilution method. The incidence of CDI in three studied hospitals was 145, 146, and 24 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2011 and 177, 258, and 67 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2012...
March 22, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331912/effect-of-visible-range-electromagnetic-radiations-on-escherichia-coli
#18
Samina T Yousuf Azeemi, Saleem Farooq Shaukat, Khawaja Shamsuddin Azeemi, Idrees Khan, Khalid Mahmood, Farah Naz
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli is the agent responsible for a range of clinical diseases. With emerging antimicrobial resistance, other treatment options including solar/photo-therapy are becoming increasingly common. Visible Range Radiation Therapy/Colour Therapy is an emerging technique in the field of energy/vibrational medicine that uses visible spectrum of Electromagnetic Radiations to cure different diseases. In this study, our goal was to understand the effect of Visible Range Electromagnetic Radiations on E...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331866/clinical-response-and-outcome-in-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-infections
#19
Masoume Malekolkottab, Lida Shojaei, Hossein Khalili, Mahsa Doomanlou
OBJECTIVE: In this study, frequency and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganisms were evaluated in a referral teaching hospital in Iran. METHODS: Patients with MDR Gram-negative pathogens were followed during the course of hospitalization. Demographic data, baseline diseases, type of biological sample, isolated microorganism, type of infection, antibiotic regimen before the availability of the culture result and change in the antibiotic regimen following receiving the antibiogram results, response to the treatment regimen, and duration of hospitalization and patient's outcome were considered variables for each recruited patient...
January 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331838/bibliometric-analysis-of-literature-on-antifungal-triazole-resistance-1980-2015
#20
Waleed M Sweileh, Ansam F Sawalha, Samah Al-Jabi, Sa'ed H Zyoud
BACKGROUND: Triazole antifungal agents play an important role in the treatment of a wide range of fungal infections. Little is known about antifungal triazole drug resistance when compared to antibiotic resistance. Therefore, this study was carried out to give a bibliometric overview of literature on triazole antifungal drug resistance. METHODS: Keywords related to triazole drug class and resistance were used in a search query in the Scopus search engine. The time span was set from 1980 to 2015...
March 2017: Germs
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