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Laura K Ferris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Chang Liu, Xueqin Ran, Jiafu Wang, Sheng Li, Jianfeng Liu
Genomic structural variation (SV) is noticed for the contribution to genetic diversity and phenotypic changes. Guizhou indigenous pig (GZP) has been raised for hundreds of years with many special characteristics. The present paper aimed to uncover the influence of SV on gene polymorphism and the genetic mechanisms of phenotypic traits for GZP. Eighteen GZPs were chosen for resequencing by Illumina sequencing platform. The confident SVs of GZP were called out by both programs of pindel and softSV simultaneously and compared with the SVs deduced from the genomic data of European pig (EUP) and the native pig outside of Guizhou, China (NPOG)...
2018: PloS One
Ethan Phillip M LaRochelle, Jennifer R Shell, Jason R Gunn, Scott C Davis, Brian W Pogue
During external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), in vivo Cherenkov optical emissions can be used as a dosimetry tool or to excite luminescence, termed Cherenkov-excited luminescence (CEL) with microsecond-level time-gated cameras. The goal of this work was to develop a complete theoretical foundation for the detectable signal strength, in order to provide guidance on optimization of the limits of detection and how to optimize near real time imaging. The key parameters affecting photon production, propagation and detection were considered and experimental validation with both tissue phantoms and a murine model are shown...
March 20, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Hao Li, Ming Li, Zhan Kang
The competition between the out-of-plane rigidity and the van der Waals interaction leads to the scrolled and folded structural configurations of graphene. These configuration changes, as compared with the initially planar geometry, significantly affect the electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene, promising exciting applications in graphene-nanoelectronics. We propose a finite-deformation theoretical model, in which no presumed assumptions on the geometries of deformed configurations are required...
March 20, 2018: Nanotechnology
Franklin N Tessler, William D Middleton, Edward G Grant
In 2017, the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) Committee of the American College of Radiology (ACR) published a white paper that presented a new risk-stratification system for classifying thyroid nodules on the basis of their appearance at ultrasonography (US). In ACR TI-RADS, points in five feature categories are summed to determine a risk level from TR1 to TR5. Recommendations for biopsy or US follow-up are based on the nodule's ACR TI-RADS level and its maximum diameter. The purpose of this article is to offer practical guidance on how to implement and apply ACR TI-RADS based on the authors' experience with the system...
April 2018: Radiology
Sean M Murphy, Jared A Leff, Benjamin P Linas, Jake R Morgan, Kathryn McCollister, Bruce R Schackman
BACKGROUND: Health economic evaluation findings assist stakeholders in improving the quality, availability, scalability, and sustainability of evidence-based services, and in maximizing the efficiency of service delivery. The Center for Health Economics of Treatment Interventions for Substance Use Disorders, HCV, and HIV (CHERISH) is a NIDA-funded multi-institutional center of excellence whose mission is to develop and disseminate health-economic research on healthcare utilization, health outcomes, and health-related behaviors that informs substance use disorder treatment policy, and HCV and HIV care of people who use substances...
March 20, 2018: Substance Abuse
Felix G E Dyrna, Florian B Imhoff, Andreas Voss, Sepp Braun, Elifho Obopilwe, John M Apostolakos, Daichi Morikawa, Brendan Comer, Andreas B Imhoff, Augustus D Mazzocca, Knut Beitzel
BACKGROUND: The acromioclavicular (AC) capsule is an important stabilizer against horizontal translation and also contributes to the strut function of the clavicle, which guides rotation of the scapula. To best reproduce the biomechanical properties and the complex 3-dimensional (3D) guidance of the AC joint, detailed knowledge of the contribution of each of the distinctive capsular structures is needed. Purpose/Hypothesis: To perform a detailed biomechanical evaluation of the specific capsular structures of the AC joint and their contribution to translational and rotational stability...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Olivia Samotus, Jack Lee, Mandar Jog
BACKGROUND: Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections is the accepted first-line therapy for cervical dystonia (CD), however, numerous patients discontinue treatment early due to perceived sub-optimal relief. To improve BoNT-A therapy for CD, proper assessment of neck motion and selection of relevant muscles and dosing must be met. Kinematic technology may improve treatment outcomes by guiding physicians to better tailor muscle selection and BoNT-A dosing for CD therapy. METHODS: 28 CD participants were placed into either group: expert injector determined injection patterns by visual assessment ("vb") versus injection patterns based on kinematics interpreted by an expert injector ("kb")...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Alexandra Pitman
Analyses of population-based registers provide evidence to support an increased risk of suicide and mental illness after the suicide of a relative or partner. This editorial explores the implications of this work for progressing recommendations made in suicide prevention strategies regarding the specific support provided to people bereaved by suicide. Declaration of interest A.P. served on the Public Health England expert reference committee contributing to local guidance on commissioning and delivering postvention support (Public Health England, 2016...
April 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Neill Storrar, David Hope, Helen Cameron
PURPOSE: Competency-based medical education (CBME) seeks to prepare undergraduate and postgraduate trainees for clinical practice. Its major emphasis is on outcomes, but questions about how best to reach these remain. One key issue is the need to integrate what matters most to students when setting educational goals: this is crucial if we are to design curricula that trainees understand and engage with, and that promote successful achievement of competencies. METHOD: We interviewed medical students in years 4 and 6 of a 6-year medical degree and used thematic analysis to understand their main educational priorities and how these fit with the aims of CBME...
March 20, 2018: Medical Teacher
Guillaume Le Saux, Avishay Edri, Yossi Keydar, Uzi Hadad, Angel Porgador, Mark Schvartzman
Studying of how different signaling pathways spatially integrate in cells requires selective manipulation and control of different transmembrane ligand-receptor pairs at the same time. This work explores a novel method for precisely arranging two arbitrarily chosen ligands on a micron-scale 2D pattern. The approach is based on lithographic patterning of Au and TiO2 films, followed by their selective functionalization with Ni-NTA/histidine and biotin/avidin chemistries, respectively. The selectivity of chemical and biological functionalizations is demonstrated by XPS and immunofluorescence imaging, respectively...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hamidreza Arandiyan, Yuan Wang, Hongyu Sun, Mehran Rezaei, Hongxing Dai
This feature article summarizes the recent progress in porous perovskite oxides as advanced catalysts for both energy conversion applications and various heterogeneous reactions. Recently, research has been focused on specifically designing porous perovskite materials so that large surface areas can be harnessed and surface properties can be improved. Numerous potential applications of porous perovskites have been investigated, including heterogeneous catalysis and air battery applications that rely on interactions and/or reactions of other components with porous perovskites...
March 20, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Yin Yuan, Xiu-Yue Xu, Jie Lao, Xin Zhao
Nerve transfer is the most common treatment for total brachial plexus avulsion injury. After nerve transfer, the movement of the injured limb may be activated by certain movements of the healthy limb at the early stage of recovery, i.e., trans-hemispheric reorganization. Previous studies have focused on functional magnetic resonance imaging and changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and growth associated protein 43, but there have been no proteomics studies. In this study, we designed a rat model of total brachial plexus avulsion injury involving contralateral C7 nerve transfer...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Xue Deng, Lai-Heung Phoebe Chau, Suk-Yee Chiu, Kwok-Pui Leung, Sheung-Wai Li, Wing-Yuk Ip
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) accompanied by secondary axonal degeneration cannot be clearly discriminated using the current cross-validated ultrasound severity classification system. This study aimed at exploring cut-off values of ultrasound parameters, including wrist cross-sectional area (W-CSA), wrist perimeter (W-P), ratio of cross-sectional area (R-CSA) and perimeter (R-P), changes of CSA and P from wrist to one third distal forearm (ΔCSA&ΔP) for differentiation. Seventy-three patients (13 male and 60 female) were assigned into group A (demyelination only, n = 40) and group B (demyelination with secondary axonal degeneration, n = 33) based on the outcomes of nerve conduction studies (NCS)...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Steven Visser, Henk F van der Molen, Judith K Sluiter, Monique Hw Frings-Dresen
To gain insight in the process of applying two guidance strategies -face-to-face (F2F) or e-guidance strategy (EC) - of a Participatory Ergonomics (PE) intervention and whether differences between these guidance strategies occur, 12 construction companies were randomly assigned to a strategy. The process evaluation contained reach, dose delivered, dose received, precision, competence, satisfaction and behavioural change of individual workers. Data were assessed by logbooks, and questionnaires and interviews at baseline and/or after six months...
March 20, 2018: Ergonomics
De-An Qin, Jie-Fu Song, Li-Ping Song, Gui-Sheng Feng
Background Pain management for multiple bone metastases is complex and often requires multidisciplinary treatment. We herein describe patient-centered multidisciplinary pain management for metastatic cancer. CASE PRESENTATION: A 61-year-old woman with multiple bone metastases of uterine cervical cancer developed intractable low back pain. After external beam radiotherapy failed, we performed lumbar spinal intralesional curettage, pedicle screw fixation, and nerve decompression. However, the neuralgia persisted...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Juan Pablo Sade, Carlos Alberto Vargas Báez, Martin Greco, Carlos Humberto Martínez, Miguel Ángel Álvarez Avitia, Carlos Palazzo, Narciso Hernández Toriz, Patricia Isabel Bernal Trujillo, Diogo Assed Bastos, Fabio Augusto Schutz, Santiago Bella, Lucas Nogueira, Neal D Shore
Prostate cancer is a significant burden and cause of mortality in Latin America. This article reviews the treatment options for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and provides consensus recommendations to assist Latin American prostate cancer specialists with clinical decision making. A multidisciplinary expert panel from Latin America reviewed the available data and their individual experience to develop clinical consensus opinions for the use of life-prolonging agents in mCRPC, with consideration given to factors influencing patient selection and treatment monitoring...
March 19, 2018: Medical Oncology
Gui-Yun Hang, Wen-Li Yu, Tao Wang, Zhen Li
In this work, a CL-20/DNB cocrystal explosive model was established and six different kinds of fluoropolymers, i.e., PVDF, PCTFE, F2311 , F2312 , F2313 and F2314 were added into the (1 0 0), (0 1 0), (0 0 1) crystal orientations to obtain the corresponding polymer bonded explosives (PBXs). The influence of fluoropolymers on PBX properties (energetic property, stability and mechanical properties) was investigated and evaluated using molecular dynamics (MD) methods. The results reveal a decrease in engineering moduli, an increase in Cauchy pressure (i...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Mohamed Shehata Draz, Hadi Shafiee
Viruses are the smallest known microbes, yet they cause the most significant losses in human health. Most of the time, the best-known cure for viruses is the innate immunological defense system of the host; otherwise, the initial prevention of viral infection is the only alternative. Therefore, diagnosis is the primary strategy toward the overarching goal of virus control and elimination. The introduction of a new class of nanoscale materials with multiple unique properties and functions has sparked a series of breakthrough applications...
2018: Theranostics
Yujia You, Xiaolong Liang, Tinghui Yin, Min Chen, Chen Qiu, Chuang Gao, Xiaoyou Wang, Yongjiang Mao, Enze Qu, Zhifei Dai, Rongqin Zheng
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) holds promise for focal therapy of prostate cancer (PCa). However, the therapeutic efficacy needs improvement, and further development of PDT for PCa has challenges, including uncertainty of photosensitizers (PSs) accumulation at the tumor site and difficulty in visualizing lesions using conventional ultrasound (US) imaging. We have developed novel porphyrin-grafted lipid (PGL) microbubbles (MBs; PGL-MBs) and propose a strategy to integrate PGL-MBs with US imaging to address these limitations and enhance PDT efficacy...
2018: Theranostics
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