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Arbovirus Africa

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881148/susceptibility-profile-and-metabolic-mechanisms-involved-in-aedes-aegypti-and-aedes-albopictus-resistant-to-ddt-and-deltamethrin-in-the-central-african-republic
#1
Carine Ngoagouni, Basile Kamgang, Cécile Brengues, Gildas Yahouedo, Christophe Paupy, Emmanuel Nakouné, Mirdad Kazanji, Fabrice Chandre
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the main epidemic vectors of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses worldwide. Their control during epidemics relies mainly on control of larvae and adults with insecticides. Unfortunately, loss of susceptibility of both species to several insecticide classes limits the efficacy of interventions. In Africa, where Aedes-borne viruses are of growing concern, few data are available on resistance to insecticides. To fill this gap, we assessed the susceptibility to insecticides of Ae...
November 24, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860021/detection-of-leishmania-amazonensis-and-leishmania-braziliensis-in-culicoides-diptera-ceratopogonidae-in-an-endemic-area-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-the-brazilian-amazonia
#2
José Manuel Macário Rebêlo, Bruno Leite Rodrigues, Maria da Conceição Abreu Bandeira, Jorge Luiz Pinto Moraes, Raquel Silva Fonteles, Silma Regina Ferreira Pereira
Biting midges in the genus Culicoides act as vectors of arboviruses throughout the world and as vectors of filariasis in Latin America, the Caribbean, and parts of Africa. Although Culicoides spp. are currently not considered to be vectors of Leishmania protozoa, the high abundance of biting midges in areas with active cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission points to the possibility of Culicoides infection by these pathogens. We used PCR to test captured Culicoides species for natural infection with Leishmania spp...
December 2016: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821697/dengue-and-west-nile-virus-transmission-in-children-and-adults-in-coastal-kenya
#3
David M Vu, Tamara Banda, Crystal Y Teng, Chelsea Heimbaugh, Eric M Muchiri, Peter L Mungai, Francis M Mutuku, Julie Brichard, Ginny Gildengorin, Erin M Borland, Ann M Powers, Uriel Kitron, Charles H King, A Desiree LaBeaud
Dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are important reemerging arboviruses that are under-recognized in many parts of Africa due to lack of surveillance. As a part of a study on flavivirus, alphavirus, and parasite exposure in coastal Kenya, we measured neutralizing antibody against DENV and, to evaluate assay specificity, WNV in serum samples that tested positive for serum anti-DENV IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 830 anti-DENV IgG-positive samples that were tested for neutralizing activity, 488 (58...
November 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775162/first-record-of-stegomyia-albopicta-%C3%A2-aedes-albopictus-in-morocco-a-major-threat-to-public-health-in-north%C3%A2-africa
#4
A Bennouna, T Balenghien, H El Rhaffouli, F Schaffner, C Garros, L Gardès, Y Lhor, S Hammoumi, G Chlyeh, O Fassi Fihri
The Asian tiger mosquito Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) (Diptera: Culicidae), native to Asian forests, is a nuisance mosquito and is responsible for the transmission of arboviruses of public health importance, such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. It has colonized parts of all continents, except Antarctica, over the past 30-40 years. However, to date, the only records of S. albopicta in North Africa refer to occasional collections in 2010 and 2014 in Algeria. In early September 2015, S...
October 24, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719988/epidemiology-of-zika-virus
#5
David S Younger
Zika virus is an arbovirus belonging to the Flaviviridae family known to cause mild clinical symptoms similar to those of dengue and chikungunya. Zika is transmitted by different species of Aedes mosquitoes. Nonhuman primates and possibly rodents play a role as reservoirs. Direct interhuman transmission has also been reported. Human cases have been reported in Africa and Asia, Easter Island, the insular Pacific region, and Brazil. Its clinical profile is that of a dengue-like febrile illness, but recently associated Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly have appeared...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710313/real-time-rt-pcr-assays-for-detection-and-genotyping-of-west-nile-virus-lineages-circulating-in-africa
#6
Gamou Fall, Martin Faye, Manfred Weidmann, Marco Kaiser, Anne Dupressoir, El Hadj Ndiaye, Yamar Ba, Mawlouth Diallo, Ousmane Faye, Amadou Alpha Sall
West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging arbovirus, circulating worldwide between birds and mosquitoes, which impacts human and animal health. Since the mid-1990s, WNV outbreaks have emerged in Europe and America and represent currently the primary cause of encephalitis in the United States. WNV exhibits a great genetic diversity with at least eight different lineages circulating in the world, and four (1, 2, Koutango, and putative new) are present in Africa. These different WNV lineages are not readily differentiated by serology, and thus, rapid molecular tools are required for diagnostic...
December 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527765/evidence-for-an-independent-third-usutu-virus-introduction-into-germany
#7
Ute Ziegler, Christine Fast, Martin Eiden, Sabine Bock, Christoph Schulze, Dirk Hoeper, Andreas Ochs, Patricia Schlieben, Markus Keller, Dorothee E Zielke, Renke Luehken, Daniel Cadar, Doreen Walther, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Martin H Groschup
Usutu virus (USUV) is an arbovirus within the genus flavivirus, which was first introduced to Southern Europe approximately twenty years ago causing epizootics among wild and captive birds. In Germany USUV was initially discovered in wild birds, mainly Common blackbirds (Turdus merula), in the Upper Rhine valley in southwest of the country in 2011 and has not spread much northwards since. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the still ongoing USUV epidemic is caused by two different USUV strains, USUV-Germany belonging to the USUV Europe 3 lineage and USUV-Bonn belonging to the USUV Africa 3 lineage...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478378/zika-virus-challenges-for-neuropsychiatry
#8
REVIEW
Ana Cristina Simões E Silva, Janaina Matos Moreira, Roberta Maia Castro Romanelli, Antonio Lucio Teixeira
Before 2007, Zika virus (ZIKV) was generally considered as an arbovirus of low clinical relevance, causing a mild self-limiting febrile illness in tropical Africa and Southeast Asia. Currently, a large, ongoing outbreak of ZIKV that started in Brazil in 2015 is spreading across the Americas. Virus infection during pregnancy has been potentially linked to congenital malformations, including microcephaly. In addition to congenital malformations, a temporal association between ZIKV infection and an increase in cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome is currently being observed in several countries...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464346/zika-virus-an-emergent-neuropathological-agent
#9
REVIEW
Martyn K White, Hassen S Wollebo, J David Beckham, Kenneth L Tyler, Kamel Khalili
The emergence of Zika virus in the Americas has followed a pattern that is familiar from earlier epidemics of other viruses, where a new disease is introduced into a human population and then spreads rapidly with important public health consequences. In the case of Zika virus, an accumulating body of recent evidence implicates the virus in the etiology of serious pathologies of the human nervous system, that is, the occurrence of microcephaly in neonates and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Zika virus is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) and a member of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus...
October 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400066/yellow-fever-remains-a-potential-threat-to-public-health
#10
Pedro F C Vasconcelos, Thomas P Monath
Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease...
August 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323550/zika-virus-infection-vertical-transmission-and-foetal-congenital-anomalies
#11
EDITORIAL
Aziz-un-Nisa Abbasi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to flaviviridae family that includes Dengue, West Nile, and Yellow Fever among others. Zika virus was first discovered in 1947 in Zika forest of Uganda. It is a vector borne disease, which has been sporadically reported mostly from Africa, Pacific islands and Southeast Asia since its discovery. ZIKV infection presents as a mild illness with symptoms lasting for several days to a week after the bite of an infected mosquito. Majority of the patients have low grade fever, rash, headaches, joints pain, myalgia, and flu like symptoms...
January 2016: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27282424/zika-virus-history-of-a-newly-emerging-arbovirus
#12
REVIEW
Nitwara Wikan, Duncan R Smith
Zika virus was originally identified in a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest of Uganda in 1947. The virus is a member of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, and is transmitted to humans by Aedes species mosquitoes. The first report of Zika virus outside Africa and Asia was in 2007 when the virus was associated with a small outbreak in Yap State, part of the Federated States of Micronesia. Since then, Zika virus infections have been reported around the world, including in southeast Asia; French Polynesia and other islands in the Pacific Ocean; and parts of South, Central, and North America...
July 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260568/ethnobotanical-knowledge-on-botanical-repellents-employed-in-the-african-region-against-mosquito-vectors-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Roman Pavela, Giovanni Benelli
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a huge threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for important parasites and pathogens, including malaria, filariasis and important arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile and Zika virus. No vaccines or other specific treatments are available against the arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes, and avoidance of mosquito bites remains the best strategy. African regions are usually hit most whose inhabitants are poor, and the use of repellent plants is the only efficient protection against vectors they have...
August 2016: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27232506/first-case-of-zika-virus-infection-in-a-hiv-patient
#14
Pablo Barreiro
Zika virus is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the flavivirus genre. As with arbovirus, it is transmitted by arthropods (mosquitoes), both Aedes aegypti (urban) and albopictus (rural). Zika virus was first isolated in 1947 from monkeys in Uganda. The first human cases were reported in 1952 in East Africa. Outbreaks were reported in Micronesia (2007), Polynesia (2013), and Chile (2014). Both diagnostic procedures and therapeutics are poorly developed. Serological tests cross-react with dengue and there are neither specific antivirals nor vaccines...
April 2016: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27226375/a-genome-wide-rna-interference-screen-identifies-a-role-for-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-during-rift-valley-fever-virus-infection
#15
Brooke Harmon, Sara W Bird, Benjamin R Schudel, Anson V Hatch, Amy Rasley, Oscar A Negrete
UNLABELLED: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arbovirus within the Bunyaviridae family capable of causing serious morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock. To identify host factors involved in bunyavirus replication, we employed genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screening and identified 381 genes whose knockdown reduced infection. The Wnt pathway was the most represented pathway when gene hits were functionally clustered. With further investigation, we found that RVFV infection activated Wnt signaling, was enhanced when Wnt signaling was preactivated, was reduced with knockdown of β-catenin, and was blocked using Wnt signaling inhibitors...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27183312/zika-virus-as-an-emerging-global-pathogen-neurological-complications-of-zika-virus
#16
J David Beckham, Daniel M Pastula, Aaron Massey, Kenneth L Tyler
IMPORTANCE: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the genus Flavivirus that has caused a widespread outbreak of febrile illness, is associated with neurological disease, and has spread across the Pacific to the Americas in a short period. OBSERVATIONS: In this review, we discuss what is currently known about ZIKV, neuroimmunologic complications, and the impact on global human health. Zika virus spread across Africa and Asia in part owing to unique genomic evolutionary conditions and pressures resulting in specific human disease manifestations, complications, and pathogenesis...
July 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27138938/identification-and-characterization-of-two-novel-rna-viruses-from-anopheles-gambiae-species-complex-mosquitoes
#17
Guillaume Carissimo, Karin Eiglmeier, Julie Reveillaud, Inge Holm, Mawlouth Diallo, Diawo Diallo, Amélie Vantaux, Saorin Kim, Didier Ménard, Sovannaroth Siv, Eugeni Belda, Emmanuel Bischoff, Christophe Antoniewski, Kenneth D Vernick
Mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae complex display strong preference for human bloodmeals and are major malaria vectors in Africa. However, their interaction with viruses or role in arbovirus transmission during epidemics has been little examined, with the exception of O'nyong-nyong virus, closely related to Chikungunya virus. Deep-sequencing has revealed different RNA viruses in natural insect viromes, but none have been previously described in the Anopheles gambiae species complex. Here, we describe two novel insect RNA viruses, a Dicistrovirus and a Cypovirus, found in laboratory colonies of An...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27093699/animal-models-of-yellow-fever-and-their-application-in-clinical-research
#18
REVIEW
Justin G Julander
Yellow fever virus (YFV) is an arbovirus that causes significant human morbidity and mortality. This virus has been studied intensively over the past century, although there are still no treatment options for those who become infected. Periodic and unpredictable yellow fever (YF) outbreaks in Africa and South America continue to occur and underscore the ongoing need to further understand this viral disease and to develop additional countermeasures to prevent or treat cases of illness. The use of animal models of YF is critical to accomplishing this goal...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27029595/zika-virus
#19
REVIEW
Didier Musso, Duane J Gubler
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the genus Flavivirus and the family Flaviviridae. ZIKV was first isolated from a nonhuman primate in 1947 and from mosquitoes in 1948 in Africa, and ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic for half a century before emerging in the Pacific and the Americas. ZIKV is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The clinical presentation of Zika fever is nonspecific and can be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, especially those due to arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya...
July 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27005721/zika-virus-yet-another-emerging-threat-to-nepal
#20
M Dhimal, I Gautam, G Baral, B Pandey, K B Karki
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus with single stranded RNA related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes primarily by Aedes aegipti which is widely distributed in Nepal. ZIKV was first identified incidentally in Rhesus monkey in Uganda in 1947 and human infection in 1952; and by now outbreaks of ZIKV disease have been recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently declared the ZIKV an international public health emergency...
September 2015: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
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