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Arbovirus Africa

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859109/mosquito-community-composition-in-south-africa-and-some-neighboring-countries
#1
Anthony J Cornel, Yoosook Lee, António Paulo Gouveia Almeida, Todd Johnson, Joel Mouatcho, Marietjie Venter, Christiaan de Jager, Leo Braack
BACKGROUND: A century of studies have described particular aspects of relatively few mosquito species in southern Africa, mostly those species involved with disease transmission, specifically malaria and arboviruses. Patterns of community composition such as mosquito abundance and species diversity are often useful measures for medical entomologists to guide broader insights and projections regarding disease dynamics and potential introduction, spread or maintenance of globally spreading pathogens...
June 1, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29845545/seroepidemiological-studies-of-arboviruses-in-africa
#2
Eduardo Samo Gudo, S Ali, V S António, I R Chelene, I Chongo, M Demanou, K Falk, O C Guiliche, N Heinrich, V Monteiro, A F Muianga, J Oludele, F Mula, F Mutuku, N Amade, P Alho, E Betsem, Z Chimbuinhe, A J Cristovam, G Galano, A Gessain, E Harris, M Heise, F Inalda, I Jala, E Jaszi, C King, U Kitron, B M Kümmerer, A D LaBeaud, N Lagerqvist, G Malai, M Mazelier, S Mendes, D Mukoko, B Ndenga, R Njouom, G Pinto, A Tivane, D M Vu, J Vulule
The literature on sero-epidemiological studies of flaviviral infections in the African continent is quite scarce. Much of the viral epidemiology studies have been focussing on diseases such as HIV/AIDS because of their sheer magnitude and impact on the lives of people in the various affected countries. Increasingly disease outbreaks caused by arboviruses such as the recent cases of chikungunya virus, dengue virus and yellow fever virus have prompted renewed interest in studying these viruses. International agencies from the US, several EU nations and China are starting to build collaborations to build capacity in many African countries together with established institutions to conduct these studies...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29845522/historical-perspective-of-arboviruses-in-mozambique-and-its-implication-for-current-and-future-epidemics
#3
Eduardo Samo Gudo, Kerstin Falk, Julie Cliff
Mozambique is a tropical country situated in the Southern part of Africa, a region where data on the burden and epidemiology of arbovirus is presently quite scarce although the frequency of outbreaks caused by arboviruses is rapidly increasing. Outbreaks of dengue fever have been reported in Mozambique, Angola and Tanzania and a recent unprecedented outbreak of Yellow fever has been recorded in Angola. These new outbreaks collectively suggest that arboviruses, and specifically flavivirus infections, are endemic in Mozambique...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776384/competence-of-mosquitoes-native-to-the-united-kingdom-to-support-replication-and-transmission-of-rift-valley-fever-virus
#4
Sarah Lumley, Luis M Hernández-Triana, Daniel L Horton, Maria Del Mar Fernández de Marco, Jolyon M Medlock, Roger Hewson, Anthony R Fooks, Nicholas Johnson
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus causing severe disease in humans and livestock. It is endemic in Africa and spread to the Arabian Peninsula in 2000 raising concerns it could emerge in Europe. The ability of temperate mosquitoes from the United Kingdom (UK) to support replication and transmission of RVFV is unknown. METHODS: In this study, two colonised lines of Culex pipiens, wild-caught Aedes detritus and Ae. rusticus from the UK were infected with pathogenic strains of RVFV to assess their vector competence...
May 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727450/rift-valley-fever-viral-load-correlates-with-the-human-inflammatory-response-and-coagulation-pathway-abnormalities-in-humans-with-hemorrhagic-manifestations
#5
Annabelle de St Maurice, Jessica Harmon, Luke Nyakarahuka, Stephen Balinandi, Alex Tumusiime, Jackson Kyondo, Sophia Mulei, Annemarion Namutebi, Barbara Knust, Trevor Shoemaker, Stuart T Nichol, Anita K McElroy, Christina F Spiropoulou
Rift Valley fever virus is an arbovirus that affects both livestock and humans throughout Africa and in the Middle East. Despite its endemicity throughout Africa, it is a rare event to identify an infected individual during the acute phase of the disease and an even rarer event to collect serial blood samples from the affected patient. Severely affected patients can present with hemorrhagic manifestations of disease. In this study we identified three Ugandan men with RVFV disease that was accompanied by hemorrhagic manifestations...
May 4, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663859/factors-contributing-to-and-strategies-to-combat-emerging-arboviruses
#6
David Michael Callender
Less than half a century ago infectious diseases appeared to be destined to be extinguished via as a culmination of medical triumphs. As focus turned towards combating non-communicable diseases, emerging and re-emerging diseases (EIDs) have bloomed from those ashes. Five epidemic mosquito-borne arboviruses (Yellow Fever virus (YFV), Dengue virus, West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus, and Zika virus) have emerged in the recent past. Arboviruses are of the utmost importance with respect to EIDs due to intensive growth of globalisation, arthropod urban fitness/adaption, and environmental changes...
April 17, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579112/maternal-invasion-history-of-aedes-aegypti-and-aedes-albopictus-into-the-isthmus-of-panama-implications-for-the-control-of-emergent-viral-disease-agents
#7
Gilberto A Eskildsen, Jose R Rovira, Octavio Smith, Matthew J Miller, Kelly L Bennett, W Owen McMillan, Jose Loaiza
Despite an increase in dengue outbreaks and the arrival of chikungunya and Zika disease in Panama, studies on the demographic history of the invasive Aedes mosquitoes that are the principle vectors of these diseases are still lacking in this region. Here, we assess the genetic diversity of these mosquitoes in order to decipher their invasion histories into the Isthmus of Panama. DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase I gene obtained from 30 localities in 10 provinces confirmed the presence of more than one mitochondrial haplogroup (i...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579040/sensitive-and-specific-detection-of-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-cchfv-specific-igm-and-igg-antibodies-in-human-sera-using-recombinant-cchfv-nucleoprotein-as-antigen-in-%C3%AE-capture-and-igg-immune-complex-ic-elisa-tests
#8
Petra Emmerich, Angela Mika, Ronald von Possel, Anne Rackow, Yang Liu, Herbert Schmitz, Stephan Günther, Kurtesh Sherifi, Barie Halili, Xhevat Jakupi, Lindita Berisha, Salih Ahmeti, Christina Deschermeier
As the most widespread tick-borne arbovirus causing infections in numerous countries in Asia, Africa and Europe, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV, family Nairoviridae) was included in the WHO priority list of emerging pathogens needing urgent Research & Development attention. To ensure preparedness for potential future outbreak scenarios, reliable diagnostic tools for identification of acute cases as well as for performance of seroprevalence studies are necessary. Here, the CCHFV ortholog of the major bunyavirus antigen, the nucleoprotein (NP), was recombinantly expressed in E...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558974/wolbachia-diversity-and-cytoplasmic-incompatibility-patterns-in-culex-pipiens-populations-in-turkey
#9
Mine Altinli, Filiz Gunay, Bulent Alten, Mylene Weill, Mathieu Sicard
BACKGROUND: Wolbachia are maternally transmitted bacteria that can manipulate their hosts' reproduction causing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). CI is a sperm-egg incompatibility resulting in embryonic death. Due to this sterilising effect on mosquitoes, Wolbachia are considered for vector control strategies. Important vectors for arboviruses, filarial nematodes and avian malaria, mosquitoes of Culex pipiens complex are suitable for Wolbachia-based vector control. They are infected with Wolbachia wPip strains belonging to five genetically distinct groups (wPip-I to V) within the Wolbachia B supergroup...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481868/an-overview-of-mosquito-vectors-of-zika-virus
#10
Sébastien Boyer, Elodie Calvez, Thais Chouin-Carneiro, Diawo Diallo, Anna-Bella Failloux
The mosquito-borne arbovirus Zika virus (ZIKV, Flavivirus, Flaviviridae), has caused an outbreak impressive by its magnitude and rapid spread. First detected in Uganda in Africa in 1947, from where it spread to Asia in the 1960s, it emerged in 2007 on the Yap Island in Micronesia and hit most islands in the Pacific region in 2013. Subsequently, ZIKV was detected in the Caribbean, and Central and South America in 2015, and reached North America in 2016. Although ZIKV infections are in general asymptomatic or causing mild self-limiting illness, severe symptoms have been described including neurological disorders and microcephaly in newborns...
March 2, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408661/a-one-step-multiplex-real-time-rt-pcr-for-the-universal-detection-of-all-currently-known-cchfv-genotypes
#11
Miriam A Sas, Ariel Vina-Rodriguez, Marc Mertens, Martin Eiden, Petra Emmerich, Serafeim C Chaintoutis, Ali Mirazimi, Martin H Groschup
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a fatal disease in humans, which is endemic in many countries of Africa, Southern Asia and Southeastern Europe. It is caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), which is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by ixodid ticks, mainly of the genus Hyalomma. Animals like hares, hedgehogs, cattle, camels and small ruminants can become infected without developing clinical signs. Seroconversion occurs after a short viremia of up to two weeks, and thus seroprevalence studies in ruminants can be used to reveal risk areas for the human population...
May 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404420/limited-evidence-for-infection-of-urban-and-peri-urban-nonhuman-primates-with-zika-and-chikungunya-viruses-in-brazil
#12
Andres Moreira-Soto, Ianei de Oliveira Carneiro, Carlo Fischer, Marie Feldmann, Beate M Kümmerer, Nama Santos Silva, Uilton Góes Santos, Breno Frederico de Carvalho Dominguez Souza, Fernanda de Azevedo Liborio, Mônica Mafra Valença-Montenegro, Plautino de Oliveira Laroque, Fernanda Rosa da Fontoura, Alberto Vinicius Dantas Oliveira, Christian Drosten, Xavier de Lamballerie, Carlos Roberto Franke, Jan Felix Drexler
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged in the Americas in 2013. Limited antigenic variability of CHIKV and ZIKV may restrict urban transmission cycles due to population protective immunity. In Africa, sylvatic transmission cycles involving nonhuman primates (NHP) are known for CHIKV and ZIKV, causing cyclic reemergence in humans. To evaluate whether sylvatic cycles can be expected in Latin America, we tested 207 NHP collected between 2012 and 2017 in urban and peri-urban settings in Brazil for infection with ZIKV and CHIKV...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382107/aedes-mosquitoes-and-aedes-borne-arboviruses-in-africa-current-and-future-threats
#13
REVIEW
David Weetman, Basile Kamgang, Athanase Badolo, Catherine L Moyes, Freya M Shearer, Mamadou Coulibaly, João Pinto, Louis Lambrechts, Philip J McCall
The Zika crisis drew attention to the long-overlooked problem of arboviruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes in Africa. Yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika are poorly controlled in Africa and often go unrecognized. However, to combat these diseases, both in Africa and worldwide, it is crucial that this situation changes. Here, we review available data on the distribution of each disease in Africa, their Aedes vectors, transmission potential, and challenges and opportunities for Aedes control. Data on disease and vector ranges are sparse, and consequently maps of risk are uncertain...
January 28, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370812/atrial-fibrillation-in-a-patient-with-zika-virus-infection
#14
Ligia Fernandes Abdalla, João Hugo Abdalla Santos, Renata Teodora Jales Barreto, Erick Martins E Souza, Fabrício Fonseca D'Assunção, Márcio Aurélio Borges, Valdinete Alves Nascimento, George Allan Villarouco da Silva, Victor Costa de Souza, Rajendranath Ramasawmy, Ana Carolina Campi-Azevedo, Jordana Graziela Coelho-Dos-Reis, Lis Ribeiro do Vale Antonelli, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Felipe Gomes Naveca
BACKGROUND: Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus of the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus that until 2007 was restricted to a few cases of mild illness in Africa and Asia. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of atrial fibrillation disclosed during an acute Zika virus infection in a 49-year-old man. Different biological samples were analyzed for the molecular diagnosis of Zika by real-time PCR, however only the saliva specimen was positive. The patient's wife tested positive in the serum sample, although she was an asymptomatic carrier...
January 25, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316963/mosquito-borne-arboviruses-of-african-origin-review-of-key-viruses-and-vectors
#15
REVIEW
Leo Braack, A Paulo Gouveia de Almeida, Anthony J Cornel, Robert Swanepoel, Christiaan de Jager
Key aspects of 36 mosquito-borne arboviruses indigenous to Africa are summarized, including lesser or poorly-known viruses which, like Zika, may have the potential to escape current sylvatic cycling to achieve greater geographical distribution and medical importance. Major vectors are indicated as well as reservoir hosts, where known. A series of current and future risk factors is addressed. It is apparent that Africa has been the source of most of the major mosquito-borne viruses of medical importance that currently constitute serious global public health threats, but that there are several other viruses with potential for international challenge...
January 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238544/population-genomics-of-the-asian-tiger-mosquito-aedes-albopictus-insights-into-the-recent-worldwide-invasion
#16
Panayiota Kotsakiozi, Joshua B Richardson, Verena Pichler, Guido Favia, Ademir J Martins, Sandra Urbanelli, Peter A Armbruster, Adalgisa Caccone
Aedes albopictus , the "Asian tiger mosquito," is an aggressive biting mosquito native to Asia that has colonized all continents except Antarctica during the last ~30-40 years. The species is of great public health concern as it can transmit at least 26 arboviruses, including dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. In this study, using double-digest Restriction site-Associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing, we developed a panel of ~58,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based on 20 worldwide Ae. albopictus populations representing both the invasive and the native range...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216533/assessing-the-zoonotic-potential-of-arboviruses-of-african-origin
#17
REVIEW
Marietjie Venter
Several African arboviruses have emerged over the past decade in new regions where they caused major outbreaks in humans and/or animals including West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus and Zika virus. This raise questions regarding the importance of less known zoonotic arboviruses in local epidemics in Africa and their potential to emerge internationally. Syndromic surveillance in animals may serve as an early warning system to detect zoonotic arbovirus outbreaks. Rift Valley fever and Wesselsbronvirus are for example associated with abortion storms in livestock while West Nile-virus, Shuni virus and Middelburg virus causes neurological disease outbreaks in horses and other animals...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188427/recent-progress-on-chikungunya-virus-research
#18
REVIEW
Wenxi An, Ningning Ge, Yilin Cao, Jin Sun, Xia Jin
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitos in tropical and subtropical regions across the world. After decades of sporadic outbreaks, it re-emerged in Africa, Asia, India Ocean and America suddenly, causing major regional epidemics recently and becoming a notable global health problem. Infection by CHIKV results in a spectrum of clinical diseases including an acute self-limiting febrile illness in most individuals, a chronic phase of recurrent join pain in a proportion of patients, and long-term arthralgia for months to years for the unfortunate few...
December 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117195/biological-and-phylogenetic-characteristics-of-west-african-lineages-of-west-nile-virus
#19
Gamou Fall, Nicholas Di Paola, Martin Faye, Moussa Dia, Caio César de Melo Freire, Cheikh Loucoubar, Paolo Marinho de Andrade Zanotto, Ousmane Faye, Amadou Alpha Sall
The West Nile virus (WNV), isolated in 1937, is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) that infects thousands of people each year. Despite its burden on global health, little is known about the virus' biological and evolutionary dynamics. As several lineages are endemic in West Africa, we obtained the complete polyprotein sequence from three isolates from the early 1990s, each representing a different lineage. We then investigated differences in growth behavior and pathogenicity for four distinct West African lineages in arthropod (Ap61) and primate (Vero) cell lines, and in mice...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040262/serological-and-spatial-analysis-of-alphavirus-and-flavivirus-prevalence-and-risk-factors-in-a-rural-community-in-western-kenya
#20
Elysse N Grossi-Soyster, Elizabeth A J Cook, William A de Glanville, Lian F Thomas, Amy R Krystosik, Justin Lee, C Njeri Wamae, Samuel Kariuki, Eric M Fèvre, A Desiree LaBeaud
Alphaviruses, such as chikungunya virus, and flaviviruses, such as dengue virus, are (re)-emerging arboviruses that are endemic in tropical environments. In Africa, arbovirus infections are often undiagnosed and unreported, with febrile illnesses often assumed to be malaria. This cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the seroprevalence of alphaviruses and flaviviruses among children (ages 5-14, n = 250) and adults (ages 15 ≥ 75, n = 250) in western Kenya. Risk factors for seropositivity were explored using Lasso regression...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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