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Arbovirus Africa

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408661/a-one-step-multiplex-real-time-rt-pcr-for-the-universal-detection-of-all-currently-known-cchfv-genotypes
#1
Miriam A Sas, Ariel Vina-Rodriguez, Marc Mertens, Martin Eiden, Petra Emmerich, Serafeim C Chaintoutis, Ali Mirazimi, Martin H Groschup
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a fatal disease in humans, which is endemic in many countries of Africa, Southern Asia and Southeastern Europe. It is caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), which is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by ixodid ticks, mainly of the genus Hyalomma. Animals like hares, hedgehogs, cattle, camels and small ruminants can become infected without developing clinical signs. Seroconversion occurs after a short viremia of up to two weeks, and thus seroprevalence studies in ruminants can be used to reveal risk areas for the human population...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404420/limited-evidence-for-infection-of-urban-and-peri-urban-nonhuman-primates-with-zika-and-chikungunya-viruses-in-brazil
#2
Andres Moreira-Soto, Ianei de Oliveira Carneiro, Carlo Fischer, Marie Feldmann, Beate M Kümmerer, Nama Santos Silva, Uilton Góes Santos, Breno Frederico de Carvalho Dominguez Souza, Fernanda de Azevedo Liborio, Mônica Mafra Valença-Montenegro, Plautino de Oliveira Laroque, Fernanda Rosa da Fontoura, Alberto Vinicius Dantas Oliveira, Christian Drosten, Xavier de Lamballerie, Carlos Roberto Franke, Jan Felix Drexler
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged in the Americas in 2013. Limited antigenic variability of CHIKV and ZIKV may restrict urban transmission cycles due to population protective immunity. In Africa, sylvatic transmission cycles involving nonhuman primates (NHP) are known for CHIKV and ZIKV, causing cyclic reemergence in humans. To evaluate whether sylvatic cycles can be expected in Latin America, we tested 207 NHP collected between 2012 and 2017 in urban and peri-urban settings in Brazil for infection with ZIKV and CHIKV...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382107/aedes-mosquitoes-and-aedes-borne-arboviruses-in-africa-current-and-future-threats
#3
REVIEW
David Weetman, Basile Kamgang, Athanase Badolo, Catherine L Moyes, Freya M Shearer, Mamadou Coulibaly, João Pinto, Louis Lambrechts, Philip J McCall
The Zika crisis drew attention to the long-overlooked problem of arboviruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes in Africa. Yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika are poorly controlled in Africa and often go unrecognized. However, to combat these diseases, both in Africa and worldwide, it is crucial that this situation changes. Here, we review available data on the distribution of each disease in Africa, their Aedes vectors, transmission potential, and challenges and opportunities for Aedes control. Data on disease and vector ranges are sparse, and consequently maps of risk are uncertain...
January 28, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370812/atrial-fibrillation-in-a-patient-with-zika-virus-infection
#4
Ligia Fernandes Abdalla, João Hugo Abdalla Santos, Renata Teodora Jales Barreto, Erick Martins E Souza, Fabrício Fonseca D'Assunção, Márcio Aurélio Borges, Valdinete Alves Nascimento, George Allan Villarouco da Silva, Victor Costa de Souza, Rajendranath Ramasawmy, Ana Carolina Campi-Azevedo, Jordana Graziela Coelho-Dos-Reis, Lis Ribeiro do Vale Antonelli, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Felipe Gomes Naveca
BACKGROUND: Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus of the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus that until 2007 was restricted to a few cases of mild illness in Africa and Asia. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of atrial fibrillation disclosed during an acute Zika virus infection in a 49-year-old man. Different biological samples were analyzed for the molecular diagnosis of Zika by real-time PCR, however only the saliva specimen was positive. The patient's wife tested positive in the serum sample, although she was an asymptomatic carrier...
January 25, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316963/mosquito-borne-arboviruses-of-african-origin-review-of-key-viruses-and-vectors
#5
REVIEW
Leo Braack, A Paulo Gouveia de Almeida, Anthony J Cornel, Robert Swanepoel, Christiaan de Jager
Key aspects of 36 mosquito-borne arboviruses indigenous to Africa are summarized, including lesser or poorly-known viruses which, like Zika, may have the potential to escape current sylvatic cycling to achieve greater geographical distribution and medical importance. Major vectors are indicated as well as reservoir hosts, where known. A series of current and future risk factors is addressed. It is apparent that Africa has been the source of most of the major mosquito-borne viruses of medical importance that currently constitute serious global public health threats, but that there are several other viruses with potential for international challenge...
January 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238544/population-genomics-of-the-asian-tiger-mosquito-aedes-albopictus-insights-into-the-recent-worldwide-invasion
#6
Panayiota Kotsakiozi, Joshua B Richardson, Verena Pichler, Guido Favia, Ademir J Martins, Sandra Urbanelli, Peter A Armbruster, Adalgisa Caccone
Aedes albopictus, the "Asian tiger mosquito," is an aggressive biting mosquito native to Asia that has colonized all continents except Antarctica during the last ~30-40 years. The species is of great public health concern as it can transmit at least 26 arboviruses, including dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. In this study, using double-digest Restriction site-Associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing, we developed a panel of ~58,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based on 20 worldwide Ae. albopictus populations representing both the invasive and the native range...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216533/assessing-the-zoonotic-potential-of-arboviruses-of-african-origin
#7
REVIEW
Marietjie Venter
Several African arboviruses have emerged over the past decade in new regions where they caused major outbreaks in humans and/or animals including West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus and Zika virus. This raise questions regarding the importance of less known zoonotic arboviruses in local epidemics in Africa and their potential to emerge internationally. Syndromic surveillance in animals may serve as an early warning system to detect zoonotic arbovirus outbreaks. Rift Valley fever and Wesselsbronvirus are for example associated with abortion storms in livestock while West Nile-virus, Shuni virus and Middelburg virus causes neurological disease outbreaks in horses and other animals...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188427/recent-progress-on-chikungunya-virus-research
#8
REVIEW
Wenxi An, Ningning Ge, Yilin Cao, Jin Sun, Xia Jin
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitos in tropical and subtropical regions across the world. After decades of sporadic outbreaks, it re-emerged in Africa, Asia, India Ocean and America suddenly, causing major regional epidemics recently and becoming a notable global health problem. Infection by CHIKV results in a spectrum of clinical diseases including an acute self-limiting febrile illness in most individuals, a chronic phase of recurrent join pain in a proportion of patients, and long-term arthralgia for months to years for the unfortunate few...
November 28, 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117195/biological-and-phylogenetic-characteristics-of-west-african-lineages-of-west-nile-virus
#9
Gamou Fall, Nicholas Di Paola, Martin Faye, Moussa Dia, Caio César de Melo Freire, Cheikh Loucoubar, Paolo Marinho de Andrade Zanotto, Ousmane Faye, Amadou Alpha Sall
The West Nile virus (WNV), isolated in 1937, is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) that infects thousands of people each year. Despite its burden on global health, little is known about the virus' biological and evolutionary dynamics. As several lineages are endemic in West Africa, we obtained the complete polyprotein sequence from three isolates from the early 1990s, each representing a different lineage. We then investigated differences in growth behavior and pathogenicity for four distinct West African lineages in arthropod (Ap61) and primate (Vero) cell lines, and in mice...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040262/serological-and-spatial-analysis-of-alphavirus-and-flavivirus-prevalence-and-risk-factors-in-a-rural-community-in-western-kenya
#10
Elysse N Grossi-Soyster, Elizabeth A J Cook, William A de Glanville, Lian F Thomas, Amy R Krystosik, Justin Lee, C Njeri Wamae, Samuel Kariuki, Eric M Fèvre, A Desiree LaBeaud
Alphaviruses, such as chikungunya virus, and flaviviruses, such as dengue virus, are (re)-emerging arboviruses that are endemic in tropical environments. In Africa, arbovirus infections are often undiagnosed and unreported, with febrile illnesses often assumed to be malaria. This cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the seroprevalence of alphaviruses and flaviviruses among children (ages 5-14, n = 250) and adults (ages 15 ≥ 75, n = 250) in western Kenya. Risk factors for seropositivity were explored using Lasso regression...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017606/temporal-distribution-and-insecticide-resistance-profile-of-two-major-arbovirus-vectors-aedes-aegypti-and-aedes-albopictus-in-yaound%C3%A3-the-capital-city-of-cameroon
#11
Basile Kamgang, Aurelie P Yougang, Micareme Tchoupo, Jacob M Riveron, Charles Wondji
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the major epidemic vectors of several arbovirus diseases such as yellow fever, dengue, Zika and chikungunya worldwide. Both Aedes vectors are presents in Cameroon; however, knowledge on the dynamic of the distribution of these species across cities and their resistance profile to insecticide are limited. Here, we assessed the current distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in Yaoundé, the Capital City, established the resistance profile to insecticides and explored the resistance mechanisms involved...
October 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963661/preliminary-serological-evidence-for-schmallenberg-virus-infection-in-china
#12
Shao-Lun Zhai, Dian-Hong Lv, Xiao-Hui Wen, Xue-Liang Zhu, Yan-Qiu Yang, Qin-Ling Chen, Wen-Kang Wei
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an emerging and rampant arbovirus in Europe, and even Africa and West Asia. Investigating whether SBV existed in new regions or countries, it was very helpful for the early warning and control of SBV. In this study, we collected 317 serum samples (n = 242 for dairy cattle, n = 13 for yellow cattle, n = 21 for buffalo, and n = 41 for goats) from Guangdong province of southern China, which is located in a subtropical region and is an important distribution area for arboviral diseases...
September 29, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932235/zika-virus-congenital-syndrome-experimental-models-and-clinical-aspects
#13
REVIEW
Carolina Manganeli Polonio, Carla Longo de Freitas, Nagela Ghabdan Zanluqui, Jean Pierre Schatzmann Peron
Viral infections have long been the cause of severe diseases to humans, increasing morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, either in rich or poor countries. Yellow fever virus, H1N1 virus, HIV, dengue virus, hepatitis B and C are well known threats to human health, being responsible for many million deaths annually, associated to a huge economic and social cost. In this context, a recently introduced flavivirus in South America, called Zika virus (ZIKV), led the WHO to declare in February 1st 2016 a warning on Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874015/arboviruses-isolated-from-mosquitoes-collected-in-uganda-2008-2012
#14
Eric C Mossel, Mary B Crabtree, John-Paul Mutebi, Julius J Lutwama, Erin M Borland, Ann M Powers, Barry R Miller
A large number of arthropod-borne viruses are endemic to East Africa. As a part of the process of undertaking a systematic characterization of the mosquito fauna of Uganda, we examined mosquitoes collected from 2008 through early 2012 for known and novel viruses. In all, 8,288 mosquito pools containing 157,554 mosquitoes were tested. Twenty-nine isolations of 11 different viruses were made from mosquitoes of nine distinct species and from pools identified only to genus Culex. Identified viruses were from family Togaviridae, alphaviruses Sindbis and Babanki viruses; family Rhabdoviridae, hapaviruses Mossuril and Kamese viruses; family Flaviviridae, flaviviruses West Nile and Usutu viruses; family Phenuiviridae, phlebovirus Arumowot virus; and family Peribunyaviridae, orthobunyaviruses Witwatersrand, Pongola, and Germiston viruses...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835919/carryover-effects-of-larval-exposure-to-different-environmental-bacteria-drive-adult-trait-variation-in-a-mosquito-vector
#15
Laura B Dickson, Davy Jiolle, Guillaume Minard, Isabelle Moltini-Conclois, Stevenn Volant, Amine Ghozlane, Christiane Bouchier, Diego Ayala, Christophe Paupy, Claire Valiente Moro, Louis Lambrechts
Conditions experienced during larval development of holometabolous insects can affect adult traits, but whether differences in the bacterial communities of larval development sites contribute to variation in the ability of insect vectors to transmit human pathogens is unknown. We addressed this question in the mosquito Aedes aegypti, a major arbovirus vector breeding in both sylvatic and domestic habitats in Sub-Saharan Africa. Targeted metagenomics revealed differing bacterial communities in the water of natural breeding sites in Gabon...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830714/bis-benzofuran-thiazolidinone-s-and-bis-benzofuran-thiazinanone-s-as-inhibiting-agents-for-chikungunya-virus
#16
Jih Ru Hwu, Nitesh K Gupta, Shwu-Chen Tsay, Wen-Chieh Huang, Irina C Albulescu, Kristina Kovacikova, Martijn J van Hemert
There are currently still no approved antiviral drugs to treat or prevent chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections despite the fact that this arbovirus continues to cause outbreaks in Africa, Asia, and South- and Central-America. Thus 20 new conjugated compounds in the families of bis(benzofuran-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one)s and bis(benzofuran-1,3-thiazinan-4-one)s were designed based on the structural features of suramin. These new compounds were synthesized by chemical methods and their structures were confirmed spectroscopically...
August 19, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816628/outbreak-and-cocirculation-of-three-different-usutu-virus-strains-in-eastern-germany
#17
Michael Sieg, Volker Schmidt, Ute Ziegler, Markus Keller, Dirk Höper, Kristin Heenemann, Antje Rückner, Hermann Nieper, Aemero Muluneh, Martin H Groschup, Thomas W Vahlenkamp
Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus accounting for large-scale deaths in resident bird populations. In this study, we show the introduction of USUV to Eastern Germany resulting in massive death of birds, particularly blackbirds (Turdus merula). We found that three diverse USUV lineages ("Europe 3," "Africa 2," and "Africa 3-like") circulated simultaneously. Moreover, we detected USUV in Culex pipiens in a region where no dead birds were reported, strengthening the need for mosquito monitoring to uncover the spread of arboviruses...
September 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727779/contemporary-status-of-insecticide-resistance-in-the-major-aedes-vectors-of-arboviruses-infecting-humans
#18
REVIEW
Catherine L Moyes, John Vontas, Ademir J Martins, Lee Ching Ng, Sin Ying Koou, Isabelle Dusfour, Kamaraju Raghavendra, João Pinto, Vincent Corbel, Jean-Philippe David, David Weetman
Both Aedes aegytpi and Ae. albopictus are major vectors of 5 important arboviruses (namely chikungunya virus, dengue virus, Rift Valley fever virus, yellow fever virus, and Zika virus), making these mosquitoes an important factor in the worldwide burden of infectious disease. Vector control using insecticides coupled with larval source reduction is critical to control the transmission of these viruses to humans but is threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance. Here, we review the available evidence for the geographical distribution of insecticide resistance in these 2 major vectors worldwide and map the data collated for the 4 main classes of neurotoxic insecticide (carbamates, organochlorines, organophosphates, and pyrethroids)...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719259/serosurvey-of-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-in-cattle-mali-west-africa
#19
Ousmane Maiga, Miriam Andrada Sas, Kyle Rosenke, Badian Kamissoko, Marc Mertens, Nafomon Sogoba, Abdallah Traore, Modibo Sangare, Mamadou Niang, Tom G Schwan, Hamidou Moussa Maiga, Sekou F Traore, Heinz Feldmann, David Safronetz, Martin H Groschup
AbstractCrimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a tick-borne disease caused by the arbovirus Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV, family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus). CCHFV can cause a severe hemorrhagic fever with high-case fatality rates in humans. CCHFV has a wide geographic range and has been described in around 30 countries in the Middle East, Asia, Europe, and Africa including Mali and neighboring countries. To date, little is known about the prevalence rates of CCHFV in Mali. Here, using banked bovine serum samples from across the country, we describe the results of a seroepidemiological study for CCHFV aimed at identifying regions of circulation in Mali...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704434/urbanization-is-a-main-driver-for-the-larval-ecology-of-aedes-mosquitoes-in-arbovirus-endemic-settings-in-south-eastern-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#20
Julien B Z Zahouli, Benjamin G Koudou, Pie Müller, David Malone, Yao Tano, Jürg Utzinger
BACKGROUND: Failure in detecting naturally occurring breeding sites of Aedes mosquitoes can bias the conclusions drawn from field studies, and hence, negatively affect intervention outcomes. We characterized the habitats of immature Aedes mosquitoes and explored species dynamics along a rural-to-urban gradient in a West Africa setting where yellow fever and dengue co-exist. METHODOLOGY: Between January 2013 and October 2014, we collected immature Aedes mosquitoes in water containers in rural, suburban, and urban areas of south-eastern Côte d'Ivoire, using standardized sampling procedures...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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