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Arbovirus Africa

David S Younger
Zika virus is an arbovirus belonging to the Flaviviridae family known to cause mild clinical symptoms similar to those of dengue and chikungunya. Zika is transmitted by different species of Aedes mosquitoes. Nonhuman primates and possibly rodents play a role as reservoirs. Direct interhuman transmission has also been reported. Human cases have been reported in Africa and Asia, Easter Island, the insular Pacific region, and Brazil. Its clinical profile is that of a dengue-like febrile illness, but recently associated Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly have appeared...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
Gamou Fall, Martin Faye, Manfred Weidmann, Marco Kaiser, Anne Dupressoir, El Hadj Ndiaye, Yamar Ba, Mawlouth Diallo, Ousmane Faye, Amadou Alpha Sall
West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging arbovirus, circulating worldwide between birds and mosquitoes, which impacts human and animal health. Since the mid-1990s, WNV outbreaks have emerged in Europe and America and represent currently the primary cause of encephalitis in the United States. WNV exhibits a great genetic diversity with at least eight different lineages circulating in the world, and four (1, 2, Koutango, and putative new) are present in Africa. These different WNV lineages are not readily differentiated by serology, and thus, rapid molecular tools are required for diagnostic...
October 6, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Ute Ziegler, Christine Fast, Martin Eiden, Sabine Bock, Christoph Schulze, Dirk Hoeper, Andreas Ochs, Patricia Schlieben, Markus Keller, Dorothee E Zielke, Renke Luehken, Daniel Cadar, Doreen Walther, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Martin H Groschup
Usutu virus (USUV) is an arbovirus within the genus flavivirus, which was first introduced to Southern Europe approximately twenty years ago causing epizootics among wild and captive birds. In Germany USUV was initially discovered in wild birds, mainly Common blackbirds (Turdus merula), in the Upper Rhine valley in southwest of the country in 2011 and has not spread much northwards since. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the still ongoing USUV epidemic is caused by two different USUV strains, USUV-Germany belonging to the USUV Europe 3 lineage and USUV-Bonn belonging to the USUV Africa 3 lineage...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Ana Cristina Simões E Silva, Janaina Matos Moreira, Roberta Maia Castro Romanelli, Antonio Lucio Teixeira
Before 2007, Zika virus (ZIKV) was generally considered as an arbovirus of low clinical relevance, causing a mild self-limiting febrile illness in tropical Africa and Southeast Asia. Currently, a large, ongoing outbreak of ZIKV that started in Brazil in 2015 is spreading across the Americas. Virus infection during pregnancy has been potentially linked to congenital malformations, including microcephaly. In addition to congenital malformations, a temporal association between ZIKV infection and an increase in cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome is currently being observed in several countries...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Martyn K White, Hassen S Wollebo, J David Beckham, Kenneth L Tyler, Kamel Khalili
The emergence of Zika virus in the Americas has followed a pattern that is familiar from earlier epidemics of other viruses, where a new disease is introduced into a human population and then spreads rapidly with important public health consequences. In the case of Zika virus, an accumulating body of recent evidence implicates the virus in the etiology of serious pathologies of the human nervous system, that is, the occurrence of microcephaly in neonates and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Zika virus is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) and a member of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus...
October 2016: Annals of Neurology
Pedro F C Vasconcelos, Thomas P Monath
Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease...
August 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Aziz-un-Nisa Abbasi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to flaviviridae family that includes Dengue, West Nile, and Yellow Fever among others. Zika virus was first discovered in 1947 in Zika forest of Uganda. It is a vector borne disease, which has been sporadically reported mostly from Africa, Pacific islands and Southeast Asia since its discovery. ZIKV infection presents as a mild illness with symptoms lasting for several days to a week after the bite of an infected mosquito. Majority of the patients have low grade fever, rash, headaches, joints pain, myalgia, and flu like symptoms...
January 2016: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Nitwara Wikan, Duncan R Smith
Zika virus was originally identified in a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest of Uganda in 1947. The virus is a member of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, and is transmitted to humans by Aedes species mosquitoes. The first report of Zika virus outside Africa and Asia was in 2007 when the virus was associated with a small outbreak in Yap State, part of the Federated States of Micronesia. Since then, Zika virus infections have been reported around the world, including in southeast Asia; French Polynesia and other islands in the Pacific Ocean; and parts of South, Central, and North America...
July 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Roman Pavela, Giovanni Benelli
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a huge threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for important parasites and pathogens, including malaria, filariasis and important arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile and Zika virus. No vaccines or other specific treatments are available against the arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes, and avoidance of mosquito bites remains the best strategy. African regions are usually hit most whose inhabitants are poor, and the use of repellent plants is the only efficient protection against vectors they have...
August 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Pablo Barreiro
Zika virus is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the flavivirus genre. As with arbovirus, it is transmitted by arthropods (mosquitoes), both Aedes aegypti (urban) and albopictus (rural). Zika virus was first isolated in 1947 from monkeys in Uganda. The first human cases were reported in 1952 in East Africa. Outbreaks were reported in Micronesia (2007), Polynesia (2013), and Chile (2014). Both diagnostic procedures and therapeutics are poorly developed. Serological tests cross-react with dengue and there are neither specific antivirals nor vaccines...
April 2016: AIDS Reviews
Brooke Harmon, Sara W Bird, Benjamin R Schudel, Anson V Hatch, Amy Rasley, Oscar A Negrete
UNLABELLED: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arbovirus within the Bunyaviridae family capable of causing serious morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock. To identify host factors involved in bunyavirus replication, we employed genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screening and identified 381 genes whose knockdown reduced infection. The Wnt pathway was the most represented pathway when gene hits were functionally clustered. With further investigation, we found that RVFV infection activated Wnt signaling, was enhanced when Wnt signaling was preactivated, was reduced with knockdown of β-catenin, and was blocked using Wnt signaling inhibitors...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
J David Beckham, Daniel M Pastula, Aaron Massey, Kenneth L Tyler
IMPORTANCE: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the genus Flavivirus that has caused a widespread outbreak of febrile illness, is associated with neurological disease, and has spread across the Pacific to the Americas in a short period. OBSERVATIONS: In this review, we discuss what is currently known about ZIKV, neuroimmunologic complications, and the impact on global human health. Zika virus spread across Africa and Asia in part owing to unique genomic evolutionary conditions and pressures resulting in specific human disease manifestations, complications, and pathogenesis...
July 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Guillaume Carissimo, Karin Eiglmeier, Julie Reveillaud, Inge Holm, Mawlouth Diallo, Diawo Diallo, Amélie Vantaux, Saorin Kim, Didier Ménard, Sovannaroth Siv, Eugeni Belda, Emmanuel Bischoff, Christophe Antoniewski, Kenneth D Vernick
Mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae complex display strong preference for human bloodmeals and are major malaria vectors in Africa. However, their interaction with viruses or role in arbovirus transmission during epidemics has been little examined, with the exception of O'nyong-nyong virus, closely related to Chikungunya virus. Deep-sequencing has revealed different RNA viruses in natural insect viromes, but none have been previously described in the Anopheles gambiae species complex. Here, we describe two novel insect RNA viruses, a Dicistrovirus and a Cypovirus, found in laboratory colonies of An...
2016: PloS One
Justin G Julander
Yellow fever virus (YFV) is an arbovirus that causes significant human morbidity and mortality. This virus has been studied intensively over the past century, although there are still no treatment options for those who become infected. Periodic and unpredictable yellow fever (YF) outbreaks in Africa and South America continue to occur and underscore the ongoing need to further understand this viral disease and to develop additional countermeasures to prevent or treat cases of illness. The use of animal models of YF is critical to accomplishing this goal...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Didier Musso, Duane J Gubler
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the genus Flavivirus and the family Flaviviridae. ZIKV was first isolated from a nonhuman primate in 1947 and from mosquitoes in 1948 in Africa, and ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic for half a century before emerging in the Pacific and the Americas. ZIKV is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The clinical presentation of Zika fever is nonspecific and can be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, especially those due to arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya...
July 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
M Dhimal, I Gautam, G Baral, B Pandey, K B Karki
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus with single stranded RNA related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes primarily by Aedes aegipti which is widely distributed in Nepal. ZIKV was first identified incidentally in Rhesus monkey in Uganda in 1947 and human infection in 1952; and by now outbreaks of ZIKV disease have been recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently declared the ZIKV an international public health emergency...
September 2015: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
Waqas Shuaib, Hashim Stanazai, Ahmad G Abazid, Ahmed A Mattar
Zika virus (ZKV) is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis virus. It is transmitted by the Aedes genus of mosquitoes. Before 2015, ZKV outbreaks occurred in areas of Africa, the Pacific Islands, and Southeast Asia. The current large outbreak, which began in Brazil, has also emerged throughout a large part of South/Central America, a number of islands in the Caribbean, including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Mexico. A sudden rise in the numbers of infants reported born with microcephaly in Brazil, and the detection of the single-stranded positive RNA virus in the amniotic fluid of affected newborns, has captured medical, mainstream media, and global political attention, causing considerable concern in a post-Ebola global community considerably more focused on the threat of internationally transmissible diseases...
August 2016: American Journal of Medicine
Evan S Sergeant, John D Grewar, Camilla T Weyer, Alan J Guthrie
African horse sickness (AHS) is a severe, often fatal, arbovirus infection of horses, transmitted by Culicoides spp. midges. AHS occurs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and is a significant impediment to export of live horses from infected countries, such as South Africa. A stochastic risk model was developed to estimate the probability of exporting an undetected AHS-infected horse through a vector protected pre-export quarantine facility, in accordance with OIE recommendations for trade from an infected country...
2016: PloS One
Abdallah M Samy, A Townsend Peterson
The geographic distribution of arboviruses has received considerable attention after several dramatic emergence events around the world. Bluetongue virus (BTV) is classified among category "A" diseases notifiable to the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE), and is transmitted among ruminants by biting midges of the genus Culicoides. Here, we developed a comprehensive occurrence data set to map the current distribution, estimate the ecological niche, and explore the future potential distribution of BTV globally using ecological niche modeling and based on diverse future climate scenarios from general circulation models (GCMs) for four representative concentration pathways (RCPs)...
2016: PloS One
Caroline Petitdemange, Nadia Wauquier, Hervé Devilliers, Hans Yssel, Illich Mombo, Mélanie Caron, Dieudonné Nkoghé, Patrice Debré, Eric Leroy, Vincent Vieillard
BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DENV) is the most prominent arbovirus worldwide, causing major epidemics in South-East Asia, South America and Africa. In 2010, a major DENV-2 outbreak occurred in Gabon with cases of patients co-infected with chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Although the innate immune response is thought to be of primordial importance in the development and outcome of arbovirus-associated pathologies, our knowledge of the role of natural killer (NK) cells during DENV-2 infection is in its infancy...
March 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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