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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502333/zika-virus-epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-human-disease
#1
REVIEW
Elizabeth K Nugent, Anne K Nugent, Rebecca Nugent, Kenneth Nugent
The Zika virus is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA arbovirus in the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. This virus was initially isolated in Africa and is transmitted to nonhuman primates and humans by mosquitoes. Initial reports describe sporadic mild viral infection with fever, arthralgia, myalgia and conjunctivitis in Africa and Asia. However, its geographic distribution has significantly increased, and it has caused large outbreaks in the Yap Islands in 2007, in French Polynesia in 2013 and in Brazil in 2015...
May 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488954/isolation-of-a-novel-orthobunyavirus-from-bat-flies-eucampsipoda-africana
#2
Petrus Jansen van Vuren, Michael R Wiley, Gustavo Palacios, Nadia Storm, Wanda Markotter, Monica Birkhead, Alan Kemp, Janusz T Paweska
The Bunyaviridae family comprises viruses causing diseases of public and veterinary health importance, including viral haemorrhagic and arboviral fevers. We report the isolation, identification and genome characterization of a novel orthobunyavirus, named Wolkberg virus (WBV), from wingless bat fly ectoparasites (Eucampsipoda africana) of Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) in South Africa. Complete genome sequence data of WBV suggests it is most closely related to two bat viruses (Mojuí dos Campos and Kaeng Khoi viruses) and an arbovirus (Nyando virus) previously shown to infect humans...
May 11, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425959/the-cost-of-arbovirus-disease-prevention-in-europe-area-wide-integrated-control-of-tiger-mosquito-aedes-albopictus-in-emilia-romagna-northern-italy
#3
Massimo Canali, Stefano Rivas-Morales, Philippe Beutels, Claudio Venturelli
Aedes albopictus (tiger mosquito) has become the most invasive mosquito species worldwide, in addition to being a well-known vector of diseases, with a proven capacity for the transmission of chikungunya and dengue viruses in Europe as well as the Zika virus in Africa and in laboratory settings. This research quantifies the cost that needs to be provided by public-health systems for area-wide prevention of arboviruses in Europe. This cost has been calculated by evaluating the expenditure of the plan for Aedes albopictus control set up in the Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy) after a chikungunya outbreak occurred in 2007...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399216/emergent-and-reemergent-arboviruses-in-south-america-and-the-caribbean-why-so-many-and-why-now
#4
Carlos Brisola Marcondes, Marta Contigiani, Raquel Miranda Gleiser
Varios arbovirus han emergido y/o reemergido en el Nuevo Mundo en las últimas décadas. Los virus Zika y chikungunya, anteriormente restringidos a África y quizás Asia, invadieron el continente, causando gran preocupación; además siguen ocurriendo brotes causados por el virus dengue en casi todos los países, con millones de casos por año. El virus West Nile invadió rápidamente América del Norte, y ya se han encontrado casos en América Central y del Sur. Otros arbovirus, como Mayaro y el virus de la encefalitis equina del este han aumentado su actividad y se han encontrado en nuevas regiones...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294048/computer-aided-structure-based-drug-design-approaches-for-the-discovery-of-new-anti-chikv-agents
#5
Surender Singh Jadav, Barij Nayan Sinha, Rolf Hilgenfeld, Venkatesan Jayaprakash
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya is a viral infection caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an arbovirus transmitted through mosquito (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) bite. The virus from sylvatic cycle in Africa mutated to new vector adaptation and became one of the major emerging and re-emerging viral infections in the past decade, affecting more than 40 countries. Efforts are being made by many researches to develop means to prevent and control the infection through vaccines and vector control strategy...
March 9, 2017: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240033/seroprevalence-of-rift-valley-fever-in-cattle-along-the-akagera-nyabarongo-rivers-rwanda
#6
Thérèse Umuhoza, Dirk Berkvens, Isidore Gafarasi, Joseph Rukelibuga, Borden Mushonga, Savino Biryomumaisho
Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is caused by a zoonotic arbovirus that is endemic to eastern and southern Africa. It has also been reported in West and North Africa, Madagascar and the Arabian Peninsula. The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes, but people can also become infected while handling blood or other body fluids of animals and humans with RVF. In 2007, there was a large outbreak of RVF in Kenya, Tanzania, Sudan and Somalia. Outbreaks were also reported in South Africa in 2008-2011. The epidemiology of RVF and factors for disease occurrence in Rwanda are neither clear nor documented...
January 20, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212379/distribution-and-abundance-of-key-vectors-of-rift-valley-fever-and-other-arboviruses-in-two-ecologically-distinct-counties-in-kenya
#7
Rosemary Sang, Samwel Arum, Edith Chepkorir, Gladys Mosomtai, Caroline Tigoi, Faith Sigei, Olivia Wesula Lwande, Tobias Landmann, Hippolyte Affognon, Clas Ahlm, Magnus Evander
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis of ruminants and humans that causes outbreaks in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula with significant public health and economic consequences. Humans become infected through mosquito bites and contact with infected livestock. The virus is maintained between outbreaks through vertically infected eggs of the primary vectors of Aedes species which emerge following rains with extensive flooding. Infected female mosquitoes initiate transmission among nearby animals, which amplifies virus, thereby infecting more mosquitoes and moving the virus beyond the initial point of emergence...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153792/mosquito-borne-viruses-circulating-in-kinshasa-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#8
Kennedy Makola Mbanzulu, Roger Wumba, Jean-Pierre Kambala Mukendi, Josué Kikana Zanga, Fortunate Shija, Thierry Lengu Bobanga, Michel Ntetani Aloni, Gerald Misinzo
BACKGROUND: Diseases caused by mosquito-borne viruses are among the most important emerging diseases that threaten human and animal health, particularly in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to these diseases in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The present cross-sectional study was undertaken between March and May 2014 to investigate the presence of mosquito-borne viruses in mosquitoes collected from five municipalities of Kinshasa, DRC. METHODS: Mosquitoes were collected using BG-Sentinel traps and battery-powered aspirators...
April 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141961/african-horse-sickness-virus-history-transmission-and-current-status
#9
Simon Carpenter, Philip S Mellor, Assane G Fall, Claire Garros, Gert J Venter
African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is a lethal arbovirus of equids that is transmitted between hosts primarily by biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). AHSV affects draft, thoroughbred, and companion horses and donkeys in Africa, Asia, and Europe. In this review, we examine the impact of AHSV critically and discuss entomological studies that have been conducted to improve understanding of its epidemiology and control. The transmission of AHSV remains a major research focus and we critically review studies that have implicated both Culicoides and other blood-feeding arthropods in this process...
January 31, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137229/challenges-with-mosquito-borne-viral-diseases-outbreak-of-the-monsters
#10
Renu Gautam, Sweta Mishra, Archana Milhotra, Ritika Nagpal, Mradul Mohan, Anchal Singhal, Pratibha Kumari
The viruses responsible for mosquito-borne diseases are on an exploring mode, expanding their horizon, adapting to the situation and comfortably making their presence felt globally, from South Africa to Asia, Europe and United States. The current global scenario and recent documentations indicate towards the real monsters, outbreak of Zika, dengue and chikungunya viruses. Zika, dengue and chikungunya viruses, all three are positive sense single-stranded RNA arbovirus and so their initial symptoms are almost 80% similar and all three are spread by mosquitos which bite during the day...
January 30, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092249/-zika-virus-and-their-means-of-delivery-rather-than-aedes
#11
Luis Del Carpio-Orantes, María María González-Clemente
In the present work an exposition of the most frequent vectors of the arboviruses is made highlighting the ones of the genus Aedes, of these in each geographic distribution there are specific subgeneros, in Africa emphasizes A. africanus, A. opok and A. vitatus like those in charge of The propagation of arboviruses. In Asia and Oceania, A. hensilii and A. polynesiensis stand out, and A. albopictus, in addition to A. koreicus and A. japonicus, the latter also responsible for dissemination in North America. It is mentioned in the wave that struck to South America the greater importance of other genera like Culex, emphasizing C...
January 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073909/the-detection-of-spotted-fever-group-rickettsia-dna-in-tick-samples-from-pastoral-communities-in-kenya
#12
Hellen Koka, Rosemary Sang, Helen Lydia Kutima, Lillian Musila
In this study, ticks from pastoral communities in Kenya were tested for Rickettsia spp. infections in geographical regions where the presence of tick-borne arboviruses had previously been reported. Rickettsial and arbovirus infections have similar clinical features which makes differential diagnosis challenging when both diseases occur. The tick samples were tested for Rickettsia spp. by conventional PCR using three primer sets targeting the gltA, ompA, and ompB genes followed by amplicon sequencing. Of the tick pools screened, 25% (95/380) were positive for Rickettsia spp...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035106/zika-virus-infection-past-and-present-of-another-emerging-vector-borne-disease
#13
REVIEW
Hercules Sakkas, Vangelis Economou, Chrissanthy Papadopoulou
Zika virus infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease, first identified in Uganda in 1947. It is caused by the Zika arbovirus, and transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. For almost half a century, the Zika virus was reported as the causative agent of sporadic human infections. In 2007, the Zika virus emerged outside Asia and Africa causing an epidemic on the Island of Yap in Micronesia. The manifestation of the newly acquired human infection varies from asymptomatic to self-limiting acute febrile illness with symptoms and clinical features similar to those caused by the Dengue virus ('Dengue-like syndrome')...
October 2016: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011732/effects-of-irrigation-and-rainfall-on-the-population-dynamics-of-rift-valley-fever-and-other-arbovirus-mosquito-vectors-in-the-epidemic-prone-tana-river-county-kenya
#14
R Sang, J Lutomiah, M Said, A Makio, H Koka, E Koskei, A Nyunja, S Owaka, D Matoke-Muhia, S Bukachi, J Lindahl, D Grace, B Bett
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis that is found in most regions of sub-Saharan Africa, and it affects humans, livestock, and some wild ungulates. Outbreaks are precipitated by an abundance of mosquito vectors associated with heavy persistent rainfall with flooding. We determined the impact of flood-irrigation farming and the effect of environmental parameters on the ecology and densities of primary and secondary vectors of the RVF virus (RVFV) in an RVF-epidemic hotspot in the Tana River Basin, Kenya...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007834/exon-enriched-libraries-reveal-large-genic-differences-between-aedes-aegypti-from-senegal-west-africa-and-populations-outside-africa
#15
Laura B Dickson, Corey L Campbell, Punita Juneja, Francis M Jiggins, Massamba Sylla, William C Black
Aedes aegypti is one of the most studied mosquito species, and the principal vector of several arboviruses pathogenic to humans. Recently failure to oviposit, low fecundity, and poor egg-to-adult survival were observed when Ae. aegypti from Senegal (SenAae) West Africa were crossed with Ae. aegypti (Aaa) from outside of Africa, and in SenAae intercrosses. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses indicated rearrangements on chromosome 1, and pericentric inversions on chromosomes 2 and 3. Herein, high throughput sequencing (HTS) of exon-enriched libraries was used to compare chromosome-wide genetic diversity among Aaa collections from rural Thailand and Mexico, a sylvatic collection from southeastern Senegal (PK10), and an urban collection from western Senegal (Kaolack)...
February 9, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881148/susceptibility-profile-and-metabolic-mechanisms-involved-in-aedes-aegypti-and-aedes-albopictus-resistant-to-ddt-and-deltamethrin-in-the-central-african-republic
#16
Carine Ngoagouni, Basile Kamgang, Cécile Brengues, Gildas Yahouedo, Christophe Paupy, Emmanuel Nakouné, Mirdad Kazanji, Fabrice Chandre
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the main epidemic vectors of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses worldwide. Their control during epidemics relies mainly on control of larvae and adults with insecticides. Unfortunately, loss of susceptibility of both species to several insecticide classes limits the efficacy of interventions. In Africa, where Aedes-borne viruses are of growing concern, few data are available on resistance to insecticides. To fill this gap, we assessed the susceptibility to insecticides of Ae...
November 24, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860021/detection-of-leishmania-amazonensis-and-leishmania-braziliensis-in-culicoides-diptera-ceratopogonidae-in-an-endemic-area-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-the-brazilian-amazonia
#17
José Manuel Macário Rebêlo, Bruno Leite Rodrigues, Maria da Conceição Abreu Bandeira, Jorge Luiz Pinto Moraes, Raquel Silva Fonteles, Silma Regina Ferreira Pereira
Biting midges in the genus Culicoides act as vectors of arboviruses throughout the world and as vectors of filariasis in Latin America, the Caribbean, and parts of Africa. Although Culicoides spp. are currently not considered to be vectors of Leishmania protozoa, the high abundance of biting midges in areas with active cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission points to the possibility of Culicoides infection by these pathogens. We used PCR to test captured Culicoides species for natural infection with Leishmania spp...
December 2016: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821697/dengue-and-west-nile-virus-transmission-in-children-and-adults-in-coastal-kenya
#18
David M Vu, Tamara Banda, Crystal Y Teng, Chelsea Heimbaugh, Eric M Muchiri, Peter L Mungai, Francis M Mutuku, Julie Brichard, Ginny Gildengorin, Erin M Borland, Ann M Powers, Uriel Kitron, Charles H King, A Desiree LaBeaud
Dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are important reemerging arboviruses that are under-recognized in many parts of Africa due to lack of surveillance. As a part of a study on flavivirus, alphavirus, and parasite exposure in coastal Kenya, we measured neutralizing antibody against DENV and, to evaluate assay specificity, WNV in serum samples that tested positive for serum anti-DENV IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 830 anti-DENV IgG-positive samples that were tested for neutralizing activity, 488 (58...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775162/first-record-of-stegomyia-albopicta-%C3%A2-aedes-albopictus-in-morocco-a-major-threat-to-public-health-in-north%C3%A2-africa
#19
A Bennouna, T Balenghien, H El Rhaffouli, F Schaffner, C Garros, L Gardès, Y Lhor, S Hammoumi, G Chlyeh, O Fassi Fihri
The Asian tiger mosquito Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) (Diptera: Culicidae), native to Asian forests, is a nuisance mosquito and is responsible for the transmission of arboviruses of public health importance, such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. It has colonized parts of all continents, except Antarctica, over the past 30-40 years. However, to date, the only records of S. albopicta in North Africa refer to occasional collections in 2010 and 2014 in Algeria. In early September 2015, S...
October 24, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719988/epidemiology-of-zika-virus
#20
REVIEW
David S Younger
Zika virus is an arbovirus belonging to the Flaviviridae family known to cause mild clinical symptoms similar to those of dengue and chikungunya. Zika is transmitted by different species of Aedes mosquitoes. Nonhuman primates and possibly rodents play a role as reservoirs. Direct interhuman transmission has also been reported. Human cases have been reported in Africa and Asia, Easter Island, the insular Pacific region, and Brazil. Its clinical profile is that of a dengue-like febrile illness, but recently associated Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly have appeared...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
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